Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Evolution Related Abstracts

21 A Geometrical Perspective on the Insulin Evolution

Authors: Sorin V. Sabau, Yuhei Kunihiro, Kazuhiro Shibuya

Abstract:

We study the molecular evolution of insulin from the metric geometry point of view. In mathematics, and particularly in geometry, distances and metrics between objects are of fundamental importance. Using a weaker notion than the classical distance, namely the weighted quasi-metrics, one can study the geometry of biological sequences (DNA, mRNA, or proteins) space. We analyze from the geometrical point of view a family of 60 insulin homologous sequences ranging on a large variety of living organisms from human to the nematode C. elegans. We show that the distances between sequences provide important information about the evolution and function of insulin.

Keywords: Evolution, insulin, metric geometry, C. elegans

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20 The Environmental Damages Related to Urban Sites

Authors: Kherbache Radhwane

Abstract:

We currently live in the world pressed by technological developments necessary for the construction, where the concept of sustainable development is truly rooted in recent years. Construction or demolitions of buildings necessarily generate environmental pollution, both inside and outside the site. Depending on the size and nature of work and the context surrounding these problems can be more or less important as is the case here in Algeria. They may affect the smooth running of the site. Moreover, there are regulations exist or are under development and should be taken into account by the various players in the act of building. This is, for example, the case of new obligations in terms of sorting and recycling of construction waste. Given this situation, it appears increasingly necessary to integrate the building sites in an effort to better respect the environment and its regulation. Several operations were performed according to this principle. The success of a project is that respects its environment through the involvement of each actor of the operation of the site with a low nuisance. As such, the client assisted by his driver and its operating contractor and the company plays a central role as an initiator of the process. It must ensure the establishment of appropriate means of organizational plans and contract.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Construction, Building, Evolution, Environmental, Regulations, demolition, nuisance, tailings

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19 Phylogenetic Analysis Based On the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS2) Sequences of Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Populations Reveals Significant Adaptive Evolution

Authors: Ebraheem Al-Jouri, Youssef Abu-Ahmad, Ramasamy Srinivasan

Abstract:

The parasitoid, Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is one of the most effective exotic parasitoids of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella in the lowland areas of Homs, Syria. Molecular evolution studies are useful tools to shed light on the molecular bases of insect geographical spread and adaptation to new hosts and environment and for designing better control strategies. In this study, molecular evolution analysis was performed based on the 42 nuclear internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) sequences representing the D. semiclausum and eight other Diadegma spp. from Syria and worldwide. Possible recombination events were identified by RDP4 program. Four potential recombinants of the American D. insulare and D. fenestrale (Jeju) were detected. After detecting and removing recombinant sequences, the ratio of non-synonymous (dN) to synonymous (dS) substitutions per site (dN/dS=ɷ) has been used to identify codon positions involved in adaptive processes. Bayesian techniques were applied to detect selective pressures at a codon level by using five different approaches including: fixed effects likelihood (FEL), internal fixed effects likelihood (IFEL), random effects method (REL), mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) and Program analysis of maximum liklehood (PAML). Among the 40 positively selected amino acids (aa) that differed significantly between clades of Diadegma species, three aa under positive selection were only identified in D. semiclausum. Additionally, all D. semiclausum branches tree were highly found under episodic diversifying selection (EDS) at p≤0.05. Our study provide evidence that both recombination and positive selection have contributed to the molecular diversity of Diadegma spp. and highlights the significant contribution of D. semiclausum in adaptive evolution and influence the fitness in the DBM parasitoid.

Keywords: Evolution, phylogeny, Recombination, diadegma sp, DBM, ITS2, dN/dS, positive selection

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18 The Prediction of Evolutionary Process of Coloured Vision in Mammals: A System Biology Approach

Authors: Inamul Hasan Madar, Shivani Sharma, Prashant Saxena

Abstract:

Since the time of Darwin, it has been considered that genetic change is the direct indicator of variation in phenotype. But a few studies in system biology in the past years have proposed that epigenetic developmental processes also affect the phenotype thus shifting the focus from a linear genotype-phenotype map to a non-linear G-P map. In this paper, we attempt at explaining the evolution of colour vision in mammals by taking LWS/ Long-wave sensitive gene under consideration.

Keywords: Evolution, Epigenetics, phenotypes, LWS gene, G-P map

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17 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Vapour

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Evolution, plasma, steam, irradiation, cluster formation, liquid droplets

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16 Contribution in Fatigue Life Prediction of Composite Material

Authors: Mostefa Bendouba, Djebli Abdelkader, Abdelkrim Aid, Mohamed Benguediab

Abstract:

The damage evolution mechanism is one of the important focuses of fatigue behaviour investigation of composite materials and also is the foundation to predict fatigue life of composite structures for engineering application. This paper is dedicated to a damage investigation under two block loading cycle fatigue conditions submitted to composite material. The loading sequence effect and the influence of the cycle ratio of the first stage on the cumulative fatigue life were studied herein. Two loading sequences, i.e., high-to-low and low-to-high cases are considered in this paper. The proposed damage indicator is connected cycle by cycle to the S-N curve and the experimental results are in agreement with model expectations. Some experimental researches are used to validate this proposition.

Keywords: Evolution, Composite, Fatigue, damage acumulation

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15 Evolutionary Genomic Analysis of Adaptation Genomics

Authors: Agostinho Antunes

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

Keywords: Genomics, Evolution, Animals, Adaptation

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14 Evolution of Minangkabau ‘Induk’ House and its influence on the Architecture

Authors: Noor Hayati Binti Ismail, Mastor Bin Surat, Raja Nafida Binti Raja Shahminan, Shahrul Kamil Bin Yunus

Abstract:

This study is to look the changes, development and evolution taking place in the Minangkabau house. Minangkabau traditional house is a part of the assets of Indonesia's culture and history. In addition to custom house, traditional Minangkabau building also serves as a place to live within the context of human habitats but has slowly through the changes. Luhak Nan Tigo of Luhak Tanah Datar, Agam And Luhak 50 Kota are holding the Minangkabau. ‘Induk’ house is the sole home, Main house or an older home for a gathering place doing activities together. The 'Genius Loci' refers to the unique aspects of the history, the value of a place, culturally and socially. Main house has the aspect of Minangkabau is a house occupied by custom rules that practice matrilineal kinship system and tendency to move out from the community. The study involves several villages and traditional houses at Padang, Bukit Tinggi, Kampar Kiri in Indonesia and Rembau, kuala Pilah, tampin in Negeri Sembilan has been selected to serve as a research field. These factors were the occurrence of evolution Minangkabau house from the ‘induk’, kampar and Negeri Sembilan. In this regard, the identity and uniqueness of the house increasingly difficult to sustain as well as lack of clarity can be understood by the people of the present generation.

Keywords: Evolution, Genius loci, ‘Induk’ house, matrilineal kinship

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13 Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation

Authors: Piotr Podlipniak

Abstract:

Social consolidation has often been indicated as an adaptive function of music which led to the evolution of music faculty. According to many scholars this function is possible thanks to musical rhythm that enables sensorimotor synchronization to a musical beat. The ability to synchronize to music allows performing music collectively which enhances social cohesion. However, the collective performance of music consists also in spectral synchronization that depends on musical pitch structure. Similarly to rhythmic synchronization, spectral synchronization is a result of ‘brain states alignment’ between people who collectively listen to or perform music. In order to successfully synchronize pitches performers have to adequately expect the pitch structure. The most common form of music which predominates among all human societies is tonal music. In fact tonality understood in the broadest sense as such an organization of musical pitches in which some pitch is more important than others is the only kind of musical pitch structure that has been observed in all currently known musical cultures. The perception of such a musical pitch structure elicits specific emotional reactions which are often described as tensions and relaxations. These facts provoke some important questions. What is the evolutionary reason that people use pitch structure as a form of vocal communication? Why different pitch structures elicit different emotional states independent of extra-musical context? It is proposed in the current presentation that in the course of evolution pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially before it became an evolutionary innovation of Homo sapiens. It means that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. The hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of tonal pitch structure will be proposed. In this scenario social forces such as a need for closer cooperation play the crucial role.

Keywords: Evolution, emotion, tonality, social consolidation

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12 The Need for Interdisciplinary Approach in Studying Archaeology: An Evolving Cultural Science

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

Archaeology being the study of mans past using the materials he left behind has been argued to be classified under sciences while some scholars are of the opinion that it does not deserve the status of being referred to as ‘science’. However divergent the opinions of scholars may be on the classification of Archaeology as a science or in the humanities, the discipline has no doubt, greatly aided in shaping the history of man’s past. Through the different stages that the discipline has transgressed, it has encountered some challenges. This paper therefore, attempts to highlight the need for the inclusion of branches of other disciplines when using Archaeology in reconstructing man’s history. The objective of course, is to add to the existing body of knowledge but specifically to expose the incomparable importance of archaeology as a discipline and to place it on such a high scale that it will not be regulated to the background as is done in some Nigerian Universities. The paper attempts a clarification of some conceptual terms and discusses the developmental stages of archaeology. It further describes the present state of the discipline and concludes with the disciplines that need to be imbibed in the use of Archaeology which is an evolving cultural science to obtain the aforementioned interdisciplinary approach.

Keywords: Archaeology, Evolution, Interdisciplinary, Cultural, Science

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11 Establishing Multi-Leveled Computability as a Living-System Evolutionary Context

Authors: Ron Cottam, Nils Langloh, Willy Ranson, Roger Vounckx

Abstract:

We start by formally describing the requirements for environmental-reaction survival computation in a natural temporally-demanding medium, and develop this into a more general model of the evolutionary context as a computational machine. The effect of this development is to replace deterministic logic by a modified form which exhibits a continuous range of dimensional fractal diffuseness between the isolation of perfectly ordered localization and the extended communication associated with nonlocality as represented by pure causal chaos. We investigate the appearance of life and consciousness in the derived general model, and propose a representation of Nature within which all localizations have the character of quasi-quantal entities. We compare our conclusions with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and nonlocal teleportation, and maintain that computability is the principal influence on evolution in the model we propose.

Keywords: Modeling, Evolution, Life, Localization, Nonlocality, computability

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10 Prospection of Technology Production in Physiotherapy in Brazil

Authors: C. M. Priesnitz, G. Zanandrea, J. P. Fabris, S. L. Russo, M. E. Camargo

Abstract:

This study aimed to the prospection the physiotherapy area technological production registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) in Brazil, for understand the evolution of the technological production in the country over time and visualize the distribution this production request in Brazil. There was an evolution in the technology landscape, where the average annual deposits had an increase of 102%, from 3.14 before the year 2004 to 6,33 after this date. It was found differences in the distribution of the number the deposits requested to each Brazilian region, being that of the 132 request, 68,9% were from the southeast region. The international patent classification evaluated the request deposits, and the more found numbers were A61H and A63B. So even with an improved panorama of technology production, this should still have incentives since it is an important tool for the development of the country.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Evolution, Distribution, patent, technological prospecting

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9 Unicellular to Multicellular: Some Empirically Parsimoniously Plausible Hypotheses

Authors: Catherine K. Derow

Abstract:

Possibly a slime mold somehow mutated or already was mutated at progeniture and so stayed as a metazoan when it developed into the fruiting stage and so the slime mold(s) we are evolved and similar to are genetically differ from the slime molds in existence now. This may be why there are genetic links between humans and other metazoa now alive and slime molds now alive but we are now divergent branches of the evolutionary tree compared to the original slime mold, or perhaps slime mold-like organisms, that gave rise to metazoan animalia and perhaps algae and plantae as slime molds were undifferentiated enough in many ways that could allow their descendants to evolve into these three separate phylogenetic categories. Or it may be a slime mold was born or somehow progenated as multicellular, as the particular organism was mutated enough to have say divided in a a 'pseudo-embryonic' stage, and this could have happened for algae, plantae as well as animalia or all the branches may be from the same line but the missing link might be covered in 'phylogenetic sequence comparison noise'.

Keywords: Evolution, metazoan evolution, unicellular bridge to metazoans, slime mold

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8 The Evolution of Domestic Terrorism: Global Contemporary Models

Authors: Bret Brooks

Abstract:

As the international community has focused their attention in recent times on international and transnational terrorism, many nations have ignored their own domestic terrorist groups. Domestic terrorism has significantly evolved over the last 15 years and as such nation states must adequately understand their own individual issues as well as the broader worldwide perspective. Contemporary models show that obtaining peace with domestic groups is not only the end goal, but also very obtainable. By evaluating modern examples and incorporating successful strategies, countries around the world have the ability to bring about a diplomatic resolution to domestic extremism and domestic terrorism.

Keywords: Evolution, Terrorism, Peace, domestic

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7 Application of the Standard Deviation in Regulating Design Variation of Urban Solutions Generated through Evolutionary Computation

Authors: Mohammed Makki, Milad Showkatbakhsh, Aiman Tabony

Abstract:

Computational applications of natural evolutionary processes as problem-solving tools have been well established since the mid-20th century. However, their application within architecture and design has only gained ground in recent years, with an increasing number of academics and professionals in the field electing to utilize evolutionary computation to address problems comprised from multiple conflicting objectives with no clear optimal solution. Recent advances in computer science and its consequent constructive influence on the architectural discourse has led to the emergence of multiple algorithmic processes capable of simulating the evolutionary process in nature within an efficient timescale. Many of the developed processes of generating a population of candidate solutions to a design problem through an evolutionary based stochastic search process are often driven through the application of both environmental and architectural parameters. These methods allow for conflicting objectives to be simultaneously, independently, and objectively optimized. This is an essential approach in design problems with a final product that must address the demand of a multitude of individuals with various requirements. However, one of the main challenges encountered through the application of an evolutionary process as a design tool is the ability for the simulation to maintain variation amongst design solutions in the population while simultaneously increasing in fitness. This is most commonly known as the ‘golden rule’ of balancing exploration and exploitation over time; the difficulty of achieving this balance in the simulation is due to the tendency of either variation or optimization being favored as the simulation progresses. In such cases, the generated population of candidate solutions has either optimized very early in the simulation, or has continued to maintain high levels of variation to which an optimal set could not be discerned; thus, providing the user with a solution set that has not evolved efficiently to the objectives outlined in the problem at hand. As such, the experiments presented in this paper seek to achieve the ‘golden rule’ by incorporating a mathematical fitness criterion for the development of an urban tissue comprised from the superblock as its primary architectural element. The mathematical value investigated in the experiments is the standard deviation factor. Traditionally, the standard deviation factor has been used as an analytical value rather than a generative one, conventionally used to measure the distribution of variation within a population by calculating the degree by which the majority of the population deviates from the mean. A higher standard deviation value delineates a higher number of the population is clustered around the mean and thus limited variation within the population, while a lower standard deviation value is due to greater variation within the population and a lack of convergence towards an optimal solution. The results presented will aim to clarify the extent to which the utilization of the standard deviation factor as a fitness criterion can be advantageous to generating fitter individuals in a more efficient timeframe when compared to conventional simulations that only incorporate architectural and environmental parameters.

Keywords: Evolution, Architecture, Computation, Urban, standard deviation

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6 Expounding the Evolution of the Proto-Femme Fatale and Its Correlation with the New Woman: A Close Study of David Mamet's Oleanna

Authors: Silvia Elias

Abstract:

The 'Femme Fatale' figure has become synonymous with a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms captivate her lovers into bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them to compromise or downfall. Originally, a Femme Fatale typically uses her beauty to lead men to their destruction but in modern literature, she represents a direct attack on traditional womanhood and the nuclear family as she refuses to abide by the pillars of mainstream society creating an image of a strong independent woman who defies the control of men and rejects the institution of the family. This research aims at discussing the differences and similarities between the femme fatale and the New Woman and how they are perceived by the audience. There is often confusion between the characteristics that define a New Woman and a Femme Fatale since both women desire independence, challenge typical gender role casting, push against the limits of the patriarchal society and take control of their sexuality. The study of the femme fatale remains appealing in modern times because the fear of gender equality gives life to modern femme fatale versions and post-modern literary works introduce their readers to new versions of the deadly seductress. One that does not fully depend on her looks to destroy men. The idea behind writing this paper was born from reading David Mamet's two-character play Oleanna (1992) and tracing the main female protagonist/antagonist's transformation from a helpless inarticulate girl into a powerful controlling negotiator who knows how to lead a bargain and maintain the upper hand.

Keywords: Power, Gender, Evolution, Feminist, schema, woman, mamet, oleanna, femme fatale, Circe, David, Eve, new, Odysseus, Salome, seduction, temptress

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5 The Evolution of Man through Cranial and Dental Remains: A Literature Review

Authors: Rishana Bilimoria

Abstract:

Darwin’s insightful anthropological theory on the evolution drove mankind’s understanding of our existence in the natural world. Scientists consider analysis of dental and craniofacial remains to be pivotal in uncovering facts about our evolutionary journey. The resilient mineral content of enamel and dentine allow cranial and dental remains to be preserved for millions of years, making it an excellent resource not only in anthropology but other fields of research including forensic dentistry. This literature review aims to chronologically approach each ancestral species, reviewing Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Homo Habilis, Homo Rudolfensis, Homo Erectus, Homo Neanderthalis, and finally Homo Sapiens. Studies included in the review assess the features of cranio-dental remains that are of evolutionary importance, such as microstructure, microwear, morphology, and jaw biomechanics. The article discusses the plethora of analysis techniques employed to study dental remains including carbon dating, dental topography, confocal imaging, DPI scanning and light microscopy, in addition to microwear study and analysis of features such as coronal and root morphology, mandibular corpus shape, craniofacial anatomy and microstructure. Furthermore, results from these studies provide insight into the diet, lifestyle and consequently, ecological surroundings of each species. We can correlate dental fossil evidence with wider theories on pivotal global events, to help us contextualize each species in space and time. Examples include dietary adaptation during the period of global cooling converting the landscape of Africa from forest to grassland. Global migration ‘out of Africa’ can be demonstrated by enamel thickness variation, cranial vault variation over time demonstrates accommodation to larger brain sizes, and dental wear patterns can place the commencement of lithic technology in history. Conclusions from this literature review show that dental evidence plays a major role in painting a phenotypic and all rounded picture of species of the Homo genus, in particular, analysis of coronal morphology through carbon dating and dental wear analysis. With regards to analysis technique, whilst studies require larger sample sizes, this could be unrealistic since there are limitations in ability to retrieve fossil data. We cannot deny the reliability of carbon dating; however, there is certainly scope for the use of more recent techniques, and further evidence of their success is required.

Keywords: Evolution, cranio-facial, dental remains, hominids

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4 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: Evolution, History, Textiles, origin

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3 Historical Metaphors in Insurance: A Journey

Authors: Neha Saini, Anjuman Antil, Anuj Kapoor

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of insurance in India and the world. The paper also traced the historical basis of life insurance in the world and how it emerged as a major sector in India’s economy. The promotional strategies and distribution channel of top three companies in the Indian insurance sector are also discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examined the secondary data which includes the reports issued by Insurance Regulatory Authority of India, websites of companies, books, and journals relevant to the study. Findings: The paper argued the role and importance of insurance in an emerging economy. The challenges and opportunities of the insurance sector are briefed out. The emerging areas in the insurance sector in terms of promotional strategies and distribution channel are also listed. Implications: The historical evolution can be studied by companies while formulating their strategies. It will help them analyse the insurance sector, how things have changed and how to change with the changing times. Originality/value: This paper gives comprehensive data regarding the background of the insurance sector. Along with historical perspective, marketing and distribution, current and future trends have been discussed.

Keywords: Marketing, Evolution, Insurance, Life Insurance, distribution channels

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2 A Study of the Interactions between the Inter-City Traffic System and the Spatial Structure Evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from Time and Space Dimensions

Authors: Zhang Cong, Cai Runlin, Jia Fengjiao

Abstract:

The evolution of the urban agglomeration spatial structure requires strong support of the inter-city traffic system. And the inter-city traffic system can not only meet the demand of the urban agglomeration transportation but also guide the economic development. To correctly understand the relationship between inter-city traffic planning and urban agglomeration can help the urban agglomeration coordinated developing with the inter-city traffic system. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most representative urban agglomerations in China with strong economic vitality, high city levels, diversified urban space form, and improved transport infrastructure. With the promotion of industrial division in the Yangtze River Delta and the regional travel facilitation brought by inter-city traffic, the urban agglomeration is characterized by highly increasing of inter-city transportation demand, the urbanization of regional traffic, adjacent regional transportation links breaking administrative boundaries, the networked channels and so on. Therefore, the development of inter-city traffic system presents new trends and challenges. This paper studies the interactions between inter-city traffic system and regional economic growth, regional factor flow, and regional spatial structure evolution in the Yangtze River Delta from two dimensions of time and space. On this basis, the adaptability of inter-city traffic development mode and urban agglomeration space structure is analyzed. First of all, the coordination between urban agglomeration planning and inter-city traffic planning is judged from the planning level. Secondly, the coordination between inter-city traffic elements and industries and population distributions is judged from the perspective of space. Finally, the coordination of the cross-regional planning and construction of inter-city traffic system is judged. The conclusions can provide an empirical reference for intercity traffic planning in Yangtze River Delta region and other urban agglomerations, and it is also of great significance to optimize the allocation of urban agglomerations and the overall operational efficiency.

Keywords: Evolution, Interaction, Spatial Structure, inter-city traffic system

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1 The Effect of Gender Differences on Mate Selection in Private University

Authors: Hui Min Kong, Rajalakshmi A/P Ganesan

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gender differences in mate selection in a private university. Mate selection is an important process and decision to the people around the world, especially for single people. The future partner we have chosen could be our lifetime friend, supporter, and lover. Mate selection is important to us, but we have never fully understood the evolution of gender differences in mate selection. Besides, there was an insufficient empirical finding of gender differences in mate selection in Malaysia. Hence, the research would allow us to understand our feelings and thoughts about our future partners. The research null hypotheses have stated that there was no significant difference on 18 mate selections characteristics between males and females. A quantitative method was performed to test the hypotheses through independent t-test. There was a total of 373 heterosexual participants with the age range of 18 to 35 in the study. The instrument used was Factors in choosing a mate developed by Buss and Barnes (1986). Results indicated that females (M= 26.69) were found to be highly valued on refinement and neatness, good financial prospect, dependable character, emotional stability and maturity, desire for home and children, favorable social status or rating, similar religious background, ambition and industriousness, mutual attraction, good health and education and intelligence than males (M= 23.25). These results demonstrated that there were 61.11% significant gender differences in mate selections characteristics. Findings of this research have highlighted the importance of human mate selections in Malaysia. Further research is needed to identify the factors that could have a possible moderating effect of gender differences in mate selection.

Keywords: Evolution, Gender Differences, mate selections, future partner

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