Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

evidence Related Abstracts

9 The Impacts of the Sit-Stand Workplace Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk

Authors: Rebecca M. Dagger, Katy Hadgraft, Matthew Teggart, Peter Angell


Background: There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the association between sedentary behaviour, cardiometabolic risk and all-cause mortality. Since full time working adults spend approximately 8 hours per day in the workplace, interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour at work may alleviate some of the negative health outcomes associated with sedentary behaviour. The aims of this pilot study were to assess the impacts of using a Sit-Stand workstation on markers of cardiometabolic health in a cohort of desk workers. Methods: Twenty eight participants were recruited and randomly assigned to a control (n=5 males, 9 females, mean age 37 years ± 9.4 years) or intervention group (n= 5 males, 9 females, mean age 42 years ± 12.7 years). All participants attended the labs on 2 occasion’s pre and post intervention, following baseline measurements the intervention participants had the Sit Stand Workstations (Ergotron, USA) installed for a 10 week intervention period. The Sit Stand workstations allow participants to stand or sit at their usual workstation and participants were encouraged to the use the desk in a standing position at regular intervals throughout the working day. Cardiometabolic risk markers assessed were body mass, body composition (using bio impedance analysis; Tanita, Tokyo), fasting blood Total Cholesterol (TC), lipid profiles (HDL-C, LDL-C, TC: HDL-C ratio), triglycerides and fasting glucose (Cholestech LDX), resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and resting heart rate. ANCOVA controlling for baseline values was used to assess the group difference in changes in risk markers between pre and post intervention. Results: The 10 week intervention was associated with significant reductions in some cardiometabolic risk factors. There were significant group effects on change in body mass (F (1,25)=5.915, p<0.05), total body fat percentage (F(1,25)=12.615, p<0.01), total fat mass (F (1,25)=6.954, p<0.05), and systolic blood pressure (F (1,25)=5.012, p<0.05). There were no other significant group effects on changes in other cardiometabolic risk markers. Conclusion: This pilot study highlights the importance of reducing sedentary behaviour in the workplace for reduction in cardiometabolic risk markers. Further research is required to support these findings.

Keywords: evidence, sedentary behaviour, caridometabolic risk, risk makers

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8 Trusting the Eyes: The Changing Landscape of Eyewitness Testimony

Authors: Manveen Singh


Since the very advent of law enforcement, eyewitness testimony has played a pivotal role in identifying, arresting and convicting suspects. Reliant heavily on the accuracy of human memory, nothing seems to carry more weight with the judiciary than the testimony of an actual witness. The acceptance of eyewitness testimony as a substantive piece of evidence lies embedded in the assumption that the human mind is adept at recording and storing events. Research though, has proven otherwise. Having carried out extensive study in the field of eyewitness testimony for the past 40 years, psychologists have concluded that human memory is fragile and needs to be treated carefully. The question that arises then, is how reliable is eyewitness testimony? The credibility of eyewitness testimony, simply put, depends on several factors leaving it reliable at times while not so much at others. This is further substantiated by the fact that as per scientific research, over 75 percent of all eyewitness testimonies may stand in error; quite a few of these cases resulting in life sentences. Although the advancement of scientific techniques, especially DNA testing, helped overturn many of these eyewitness testimony-based convictions, yet eyewitness identifications continue to form the backbone of most police investigations and courtroom decisions till date. What then is the solution to this long standing concern regarding the accuracy of eyewitness accounts? The present paper shall analyze the linkage between human memory and eyewitness identification as well as look at the various factors governing the credibility of eyewitness testimonies. Furthermore, it shall elaborate upon some best practices developed over the years to help reduce mistaken identifications. Thus, in the process, trace out the changing landscape of eyewitness testimony amidst the evolution of DNA and trace evidence.

Keywords: Identification, Dna, evidence, eyewitness, testimony

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7 Reduction of Process of Evidence in Specific Forms of Criminal Proceeding: Problems and Risks

Authors: Filip Ščerba, Veronika Pochylá


Performing of the acts within criminal proceedings usually takes too long and thus this phenomenon can be regarded as one of the most burning problems which have plagued the criminal justice not only in the Czech Republic but at least all over Europe for the last few decades. This problem obviously has to be dealt with and thus the need to tackle this issue has resulted in the trend which is sometimes called Criminal Justice Rationalization, i.e. introducing and enforcing methods supporting the increase in efficiency of the criminal justice in order to make the criminal proceedings shorter and administrative procedure easier. This resulted in the introduction of institutes such as e.g. diversions in criminal proceedings or other forms of shortened pre-trial proceedings, which may be used primarily for dealing with less serious crimes. But also the institute, which was originally mentioned in connection with the system of criminal law in the countries belonging to the Anglo-Saxon legal order where it is frequently called of plea bargaining, has been introduced into the criminal law of many European countries, and it may be applied also in cases of serious crimes. All these special and shortened forms of criminal proceedings are connected with limited extent of process of evidence; in fact, some of these specific forms of criminal proceedings are designed for the purpose to simplify the process of evidence. That is also the reason, why some of these procedures are conditioned with the defendant’s confession. Main hypothesis: Limited process of evidence represents also a potential conflict with certain fundamental principles upon which the criminal proceeding in the Continental legal system is based. (A conflict with principle of material truth may be considered as the most important problem. This principle states that the bodies in criminal proceedings must clarify the facts of the case beyond reasonable doubt to such extent that a decision can be made; the defendant’s confession does not mean that these bodies are freed from the duty to review all the circumstances and facts of the case. Such principle is typical for criminal law in Central European region.) Basic methodologies: The paper is going to analyze such a problem of weakening of the principle of material truth in modern criminal law. Such analysis will be provided primarily on the base of the Czech criminal law, but also other legal regulations will be taken into consideration, and its result may have some relevance for all legal regulations belonging to the Continental legal system, so the paper offers also a comparison with legal systems of other Central European countries.

Keywords: evidence, Czech Republic, burden of proof, central European countries, criminal justice rationalization, criminal proceeding, Czech legislation, defendant, diversions, fundamental principles, plea bargaining, pre-trial proceedings, principle of material truth, process of evidence

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6 Controversies Connected with the Admission of Illegally Gained Evidences in Polish Civil Proceedings

Authors: Aleksandra Czubak


The need to present evidence in civil proceedings is essential for getting the right result. It is for this reason that it is particularly important for the parties to present the most relevant and convincing evidence to the Court. Therefore, parties often try to gain evidence, even when the acquisition of such evidence is in breach of the law. Firstly, there will be discussed how evidence is applied in the Polish civil process and the Polish regulations of the evidence proceedings; with specific reference to evidence of major importance in the developing world. Further, it will be discussed the controversies connected with the admission of illegally gained evidence in civil proceedings. The credibility of the various measures is circumstantial and can only be determined by factors related to the recognized problem. For that reason, it is not the amount of evidence, but the value and relevance of this evidence that should be considered in determining the right result. This paper will also consider whether the end justifies the means? How far should parties go in order to achieve a favorable sentence or to create stronger evidence? Methods of persuasion of the court, as well as the acquisition of evidence, are not always fair and moral. It is on this area of controversy that this essay will focus. This paper concludes by considering the value of evidence and the possibility of using it to achieve a just sentence. Examples are based on Polish law; nevertheless, they encompass ideas common to most civil jurisdictions.

Keywords: Law, evidence, civil proceedings, Europe (Poland)

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5 The Role of DNA Evidence in Determining Paternity in India: A Study of Cases from the Legal and Scientific Perspective

Authors: Pratyusha Das


A paradigm shift has been noticed in the interpretation of DNA evidence for determining paternity. Sometimes DNA evidence has been accepted while sometimes it was rejected by the Indian Courts. Courts have forwarded various justifications for acceptance and rejection of such evidence through legal and scientific means. Laws have also been changed to accommodate the necessities of society. Balances between both the legal and scientific approaches are required, to make the best possible use of DNA evidence for the well-being of the society. Specifications are to be framed as to when such evidence can be used in the future by pointing out the pros and cons. Judicial trend is to be formulated to find out the present situation. The study of cases of superior courts of India using an analytical and theoretical approach is driving the questions regarding the shared identity of the legal and scientific approaches. To assimilate the differences between the two approaches, the basic differences between them have to be formulated. Revelations are required to access the favorable decisions using the DNA evidence. Reasons are to be forwarded for the unfavorable decisions and the approach preferred in such cases. The outcome of the two methods has to be assessed in relation to the parties to the dispute, the society at large, the researcher and from the judicial point of view. The dependability of the two methods is to be studied in relation to the justice delivery system. A highlight of the chronological study of cases along with the changes in the laws with the aid of presumptions will address the questions of necessity of a method according to the facts and situations. Address is required in this respect whether the legal and scientific forces converge somewhere pushing the traditional identification of paternity towards a fundamental change.

Keywords: Legal, Scientific, evidence, cases

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4 E-Governance: A Key for Improved Public Service Delivery

Authors: Ayesha Akbar


Public service delivery has witnessed a significant improvement with the integration of information communication technology (ICT). It not only improves management structure with advanced technology for surveillance of service delivery but also provides evidence for informed decisions and policy. Pakistan’s public sector organizations have not been able to produce some good results to ensure service delivery. Notwithstanding, some of the public sector organizations in Pakistan has diffused modern technology and proved their credence by providing better service delivery standards. These good indicators provide sound basis to integrate technology in public sector organizations and shift of policy towards evidence based policy making. Rescue-1122 is a public sector organization which provides emergency services and proved to be a successful model for the provision of service delivery to save human lives and to ensure human development in Pakistan. The information about the organization has been received by employing qualitative research methodology. The information is broadly based on primary and secondary sources which includes Rescue-1122 website, official reports of organizations; UNDP (United Nation Development Program), WHO (World Health Organization) and by conducting 10 in-depth interviews with the high administrative staff of organizations who work in the Lahore offices. The information received has been incorporated with the study for the better understanding of the organization and their management procedures. Rescue-1122 represents a successful model in delivering the services in an efficient way to deal with the disaster management. The management of Rescue has strategized the policies and procedures in such a way to develop a comprehensive model with the integration of technology. This model provides efficient service delivery as well as maintains the standards of the organization. The service delivery model of rescue-1122 works on two fronts; front-office interface and the back-office interface. Back-office defines the procedures of operations and assures the compliance of the staff whereas, front-office equipped with the latest technology and good infrastructure handles the emergency calls. Both ends are integrated with satellite based vehicle tracking, wireless system, fleet monitoring system and IP camera which monitors every move of the staff to provide better services and to pinpoint the distortions in the services. The standard time of reaching to the emergency spot is 7 minutes, and during entertaining the case; driver‘s behavior, traffic volume and the technical assistance being provided to the emergency case is being monitored by front-office. Then the whole information get uploaded to the main dashboard of Lahore headquarter from the provincial offices. The latest technology is being materialized by Rescue-1122 for delivering the efficient services, investigating the flaws; if found, and to develop data to make informed decision making. The other public sector organizations of Pakistan can also develop such models to integrate technology for improving service delivery and to develop evidence for informed decisions and policy making.

Keywords: Data, Policy, e-Governance, evidence

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3 Communities as a Source of Evidence: A Case of Advocating for Improved Human Resources for Health in Uganda

Authors: Asinguza P. Allan


The Advocacy for Better Health aims to equip citizens with enabling environment and systems to effectively advocate for strong action plans to improve health services. This is because the 2020 Government target for Uganda to transform into a middle income country will be achieved if investment is made in keeping the population healthy and productive. Citizen participation as an important foundation for change has been emphasized to gather data through participatory rural appraisal and inform evidence-based advocacy for recruitment and motivation of human resources. Citizens conduct problem ranking during advocacy forums on staffing levels and health worker absenteeism. Citizens prioritised inadequate number of midwives and absenteeism. On triangulation, health worker to population ratio in Uganda remains at 0.25/1,000 which is far below the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold of 2.3/1,000. Working with IntraHealth, the project advocated for recruitment of critical skilled staff (doctors and midwives) and scale up health workers motivation strategy to reduce Uganda’s Neonatal Mortality Rate of 22/1,000 and Maternal Mortality Ratio of 320/100,000. Government has committed to increase staffing to 80% by 2018 (10 districts have passed ordinances and revived use of duty rosters to address health worker absenteeism. On the other hand, the better health advocacy debate has been elevated with need to increase health sector budget allocations from 8% to 10%. The project has learnt that building a body of evidence from citizens enhances the advocacy agenda. Communities will further monitor government commitments to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate and Maternal Mortality Ratio. The project has learnt that interface meeting between duty bearers and the community allows for immediate feedback and the process is a strong instrument for empowerment. It facilitates monitoring and performance evaluation of services, projects and government administrative units (like district assemblies) by the community members themselves. This, in turn, makes the human resources in health to be accountable, transparent and responsive to communities where they work. This, in turn, promotes human resource performance.

Keywords: Human Resources, Advocacy, evidence, Empowerment

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2 Understanding Evidence Dispersal Caused by the Effects of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Active Indoor Crime Scenes

Authors: Elizabeth Parrott, Harry Pointon, Frederic Bezombes, Heather Panter


Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) are making a profound effect within policing, forensic and fire service procedures worldwide. These intelligent devices have already proven useful in photographing and recording large-scale outdoor and indoor sites using orthomosaic and three-dimensional (3D) modelling techniques, for the purpose of capturing and recording sites during and post-incident. UAV’s are becoming an established tool as they are extending the reach of the photographer and offering new perspectives without the expense and restrictions of deploying full-scale aircraft. 3D reconstruction quality is directly linked to the resolution of captured images; therefore, close proximity flights are required for more detailed models. As technology advances deployment of UAVs in confined spaces is becoming more common. With this in mind, this study investigates the effects of UAV operation within active crimes scenes with regard to the dispersal of particulate evidence. To date, there has been little consideration given to the potential effects of using UAV’s within active crime scenes aside from a legislation point of view. Although potentially the technology can reduce the likelihood of contamination by replacing some of the roles of investigating practitioners. There is the risk of evidence dispersal caused by the effect of the strong airflow beneath the UAV, from the downwash of the propellers. The initial results of this study are therefore presented to determine the height of least effect at which to fly, and the commercial propeller type to choose to generate the smallest amount of disturbance from the dataset tested. In this study, a range of commercially available 4-inch propellers were chosen as a starting point due to the common availability and their small size makes them well suited for operation within confined spaces. To perform the testing, a rig was configured to support a single motor and propeller powered with a standalone mains power supply and controlled via a microcontroller. This was to mimic a complete throttle cycle and control the device to ensure repeatability. By removing the variances of battery packs and complex UAV structures to allow for a more robust setup. Therefore, the only changing factors were the propeller and operating height. The results were calculated via computer vision analysis of the recorded dispersal of the sample particles placed below the arm-mounted propeller. The aim of this initial study is to give practitioners an insight into the technology to use when operating within confined spaces as well as recognizing some of the issues caused by UAV’s within active crime scenes.

Keywords: UAV, evidence, Dispersal, propeller

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1 Polish Adversarial Trial: Analysing the Fairness of New Model of Appeal Proceedings in the Context of Delivered Research

Authors: Cezary Kulesza, Katarzyna Lapinska


Regarding the nature of the notion of fair trial, one must see the source of the fair trial principle in the following acts of international law: art. 6 of the ECHR of 1950 and art.14 the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966, as well as in art. 45 of the Polish Constitution. However, the problem is that the above-mentioned acts essentially apply the principle of a fair trial to the main hearing and not to appeal proceedings. Therefore, the main thesis of the work is to answer the question whether the Polish model of appeal proceedings is fair. The paper presents the problem of fair appeal proceedings in Poland in comparative perspective. Thus, the authors discuss the basic features of English, German and Russian appeal systems. The matter is also analysed in the context of the last reforms of Polish criminal procedure, because since 2013 Polish parliament has significantly changed criminal procedure almost three times: by the Act of 27th September, 2013, the Act of 20th February, 2015 which came into effect on 1st July, 2015 and the Act of 11th March, 2016. The most astonishing is that these three amendments have been varying from each other – changing Polish criminal procedure to more adversarial one and then rejecting all measures just involved in previous acts. Additional intent of the Polish legislator was amending the forms of plea bargaining: conviction of the defendant without trial or voluntary submission to a penalty, which were supposed to become tools allowing accelerating the criminal process and, at the same time, implementing the principle of speedy procedure. The next part of the paper will discuss the matter, how the changes of plea bargaining and the main trial influenced the appellate procedure in Poland. The authors deal with the right to appeal against judgments issued in negotiated case-ending settlements in the light of Art. 2 of Protocol No. 7 to the ECHR and the Polish Constitution. The last part of the presentation will focus on the basic changes in the appeals against judgments issued after the main trial. This part of the paper also presents the results of examination of court files held in the Polish Appeal Courts in Białystok, Łódź and Warsaw. From these considerations it is concluded that the Polish CCP of 1997 in ordinary proceedings basically meets both standards: the standard adopted in Protocol No. 7 of the Convention and the Polish constitutional standard. But the examination of case files shows in particular the following phenomena: low effectiveness of appeals and growing stability of the challenged judgments of district courts, extensive duration of appeal proceedings and narrow scope of evidence proceedings before the appellate courts. On the other hand, limitations of the right to appeal against the judgments issued in consensual modes of criminal proceedings justify the fear that such final judgments may violate the principle of criminal accurate response or the principle of material truth.

Keywords: Reform, evidence, Russia, England, Germany, fair trial, appeal, adversarial trial, ECHR, Polish criminal procedure

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