Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

event-related potentials Related Abstracts

3 Neural Correlates of Arabic Digits Naming

Authors: Fernando Ojedo, Alejandro Alvarez, Pedro Macizo

Abstract:

In the present study, we explored electrophysiological correlates of Arabic digits naming to determine semantic processing of numbers. Participants named Arabic digits grouped by category or intermixed with exemplars of other semantic categories while the N400 event-related potential was examined. Around 350-450 ms after the presentation of Arabic digits, brain waves were more positive in anterior regions and more negative in posterior regions when stimuli were grouped by category relative to the mixed condition. Contrary to what was found in other studies, electrophysiological results suggested that the production of numerals involved semantic mediation.

Keywords: semantic processing, Arabic digit naming, event-related potentials, number production

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2 The Perception and Integration of Lexical Tone and Vowel in Mandarin-speaking Children with Autism: An Event-Related Potential Study

Authors: Yang Zhang, Rui Wang, Dan Huang, Suiping Wang, Luodi Yu, Hsuan-Chih Chen

Abstract:

Enhanced discrimination of pure tones but diminished discrimination of speech pitch (i.e., lexical tone) were found in children with autism who speak a tonal language (Mandarin), suggesting a speech-specific impairment of pitch perception in these children. However, in tonal languages, both lexical tone and vowel are phonemic cues and integrally dependent on each other. Therefore, it is unclear whether the presence of phonemic vowel dimension contributes to the observed lexical tone deficits in Mandarin-speaking children with autism. The current study employed a multi-feature oddball paradigm to examine how vowel and tone dimensions contribute to the neural responses for syllable change detection and involuntary attentional orienting in school-age Mandarin-speaking children with autism. In the oddball sequence, syllable /da1/ served as the standard stimulus. There were three deviant stimulus conditions, representing tone-only change (TO, /da4/), vowel-only change (VO, /du1/), and change of tone and vowel simultaneously (TV, /du4/). EEG data were collected from 25 children with autism and 20 age-matched normal controls during passive listening to the stimulation. For each deviant condition, difference waveform measuring mismatch negativity (MMN) was derived from subtracting the ERP waveform to the standard sound from that to the deviant sound for each participant. Additionally, the linear summation of TO and VO difference waveforms was compared to the TV difference waveform, to examine whether neural sensitivity for TV change detection reflects simple summation or nonlinear integration of the two individual dimensions. The MMN results showed that the autism group had smaller amplitude compared with the control group in the TO and VO conditions, suggesting impaired discriminative sensitivity for both dimensions. In the control group, amplitude of the TV difference waveform approximated the linear summation of the TO and VO waveforms only in the early time window but not in the late window, suggesting a time course from dimensional summation to nonlinear integration. In the autism group, however, the nonlinear TV integration was already present in the early window. These findings suggest that speech perception atypicality in children with autism rests not only in the processing of single phonemic dimensions, but also in the dimensional integration process.

Keywords: autism, Speech Perception, mismatch negativity, event-related potentials

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1 The Patterns of Cross-Sentence: An Event-Related Potential Study of Mathematical Word Problem

Authors: Tien-Ching Yao, Ching-Ching Lu

Abstract:

Understanding human language processing is one of the main challenges of current cognitive neuroscience. The aims of the present study were to use a sentence decision task combined with event-related potentials to investigate the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." Therefore, we take the math word problems the experimental materials and use the ERPs' P600 component to verify. In this study, the experimental material consisted of 200 math word problems with three different conditions were used ( multiplication word problems、division word problems type 1、division word problems type 2 ). Eighteen Mandarin native speakers participated in the ERPs study (14 of whom were female). The result of the grand average waveforms suggests a later posterior positivity at around 500ms - 900ms. These findings were tested statistically using repeated measures ANOVAs at the component caused by the stimulus type of different questions. Results suggest that three conditions present significant (P < 0.05) on the Mean Amplitude, Latency, and Peak Amplitude. The result showed the characteristic timing and posterior scalp distribution of a P600 effect. We interpreted these characteristic responses as the psychological reality of "cross-sentence patterns." These results provide insights into the sentence processing issues in linguistic theory and psycholinguistic models of language processing and advance our understanding of how people make sense of information during language comprehension.

Keywords: Language Processing, event-related potentials, sentence comprehension, cross-sentence patterns

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