Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Ethics Related Abstracts

48 Behavior of Engineering Students in Kuwait University

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Ajmi, Reem S. Al-Kandari

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the behavior of engineering students in Kuwait University which became a concern due to the global issues of education in all levels. A survey has been conducted to identify academic and societal issues that affect the engineering student performance through. The study is drawing major conclusions with regard to private tutoring and the online availability of textbooks’ solution manuals.

Keywords: Engineering, Ethics, solution manual, textbook

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47 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Roshan Jelal

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Ethics, internal fraud, reserve bank, the King Code

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46 Guidance for Strengthening Ethics of Entrepreneurs in Information and Communication Technology Professional

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

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The objectives of this paper were to study current problem of ethics of entrepreneurs in information and communication technology professional, and to build their awareness of ethics, which would be useful as guidance for strengthening professional ethics among them. The study employed quantitative research method in order to analyze relationships or differences found in each ethics factor and report in statistics. The sample of this paper was 300 information technology users of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok. The findings revealed that the ethics factors which gained the highest and high level of opinion included possessing principles of righteousness, having trust in themselves and others, and respecting different opinions of others and accepting the fact that people of different opinions.

Keywords: Communication, Information, Ethics, Entrepreneurs

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45 Islamic Transaction: An Alternative for Customer Satisfaction in the Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Maiik

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Islamic marketing ethics combines the principle of value maximization with the principles of equity and justice for the welfare of the society. Adherence to the Islamic ethics in the Islamic banking industry can help elevate the standards of both behavior and living of bankers and customers alike. In a rapidly changing marketing environment, the need to be customer-focused has never been as important as it is today. At present where customers are becoming more demanding and increasingly mobile between competing financial providers, being customer-focused is not enough. Islamic banks and more specifically their customer-contact employees (customer relation advisers or officers) need to be perceived by their customers as being Islamic. This study represents an initial step in analyzing the role of Islamic ethical sales behavior as it may be perceived by the customers of Islamic Banks.

Keywords: Marketing, Islam, Ethics, Islamic banks

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44 Business Ethics in Islamic and Economic Perspective

Authors: Mohammad Iqbal Malik

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Economic development of a country depends on its business ethics and values. Islamic teachings provide obvious guidelines in this regard. Mutual understanding, honesty and ethics possess central place in Islamic teachings. These teachings not only prohibit from amalgamation, black-marketing, hoarding and deception but also force to treat a customer amiably. Business ethics are broad spectrum in Islamic society due to these high moral values. One can estimate the importance of business ethics in Islam for economic development in Islamic society is evident by the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in which He excluded a trader from Muslim community who did not behave in good manners with his clients. In this study we present impact of business ethics on economic development of a Muslim society. This study is based on basic teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Fiqh, Economics and other books. This study explores the behavior of Muslim traders and reveals useful inferences. Policy makers, traders, academia, scholars, and general public may learn lessons from this study with respect to business ethics in Islamic perspective.

Keywords: Business, Islam, Ethics, Economic Perspective

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43 Social Media and Counseling: Opportunities, Risks and Ethical Considerations

Authors: Kyriaki G. Giota, George Kleftaras

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The purpose of this article is to briefly review the opportunities that social media presents to counselors and psychologists. Particular attention was given to understanding some of the more important common risks inherent in social media and the potential ethical dilemmas which may arise for counselors and psychologists who embrace them in their practice. Key considerations of issues pertinent to an online presence such as multiple relationships, visibility and privacy, maintaining ethical principles and professional boundaries are being discussed.

Keywords: Social Media, Counseling, Ethics, risks

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42 Can We Develop a Practical and Applicable Ethic in Veterinary Health Care with a Universal Application and without Dogma?

Authors: Theodorus Holtzhausen

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With a growing number of professionals in healthcare moving freely between countries and also in general a more mobile global workforce, awareness of cultural differences have become more urgent for health care workers to apply proper care. There is a slowly emerging trend in health care due to globalisation that may create a more uniform cultural base for administering healthcare, but it is still very vulnerable to being hijacked and misdirected by major commercial interests. Veterinary clinics and medical clinics promoting alternative remedies lacking evidence based support and simultaneously practicing medicine as a science have become more common. Such ‘holistic’ clinics see these remedies more as a belief system causing no harm with minimal impact but with added financial benefit to the facility. With the inarguable acceptance and realisation of the interconnection between evolutionary aspects of cognition, knowledge and culture as a global but vulnerable cognition-gaining process affecting us all, we can see the enormous responsibility we carry. Such a responsibility for creating global well-being calling for an universally applicable ethic. Such an ethic with the potential of having significant impact on our cognition gaining process.

Keywords: Ethics, Wellbeing, veterinary health care, veterinary clinics

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41 Ethical Enhancement Strategies for Development of Mass Media Profession Conducted for the Ethical Promotion of Undergraduate Students in Communication Science

Authors: Supranee Wattanasin

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This research study was a qualitative documentary research by using an in-depth interview with many experts in the field who has both knowledge and experience to provide information to create a strategic plan to enhance the students’ ethics. The findings revealed that there were five areas that require an attention. The five areas included honesty, accurate fact, human right, speed, and responsibility. The development of the strategic plan to enhance the ethics for students who major in communication arts can be concluded as follows. First, the government, private, and religion sectors need to come up together and set up the activities to promote the ethical standard in schools, universities, and organizations. Second, it is important to cultivate the knowledge that ethics is important of the professional jobs, especially in the mass communication and media. Third, the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy should be brought to explain to students in order for them to have some immunity to the negative attitude such as drinking alcohol, gambling, cut classes, and cheating at exams. Fourth, experts in the field of ethics should be found to provide more knowledge to students and allow students to participate in activities that will increase their experience and knowledge of the real world problem.

Keywords: Media, Strategy, Communication Arts, Mass Communication, Ethics

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40 Conceptualizing Clashing Values in the Field of Media Ethics

Authors: Saadia Izzeldin Malik

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Lack of ethics is the crisis of the 21-century. Today’s global world is filled with economic, political, environmental, media/communication, and social crises that all generated by the eroding fabric of ethics and moral values that guide human’s decisions in all aspects of live. Our global world is guided by liberal western democratic principles and liberal capitalist economic principles that define and reinforce each other. In economic terms, capitalism has turned world economic systems into one market place of ideas and products controlled by big multinational corporations that not only determine the conditions and terms of commodity production and commodity exchange between countries, but also transform the political economy of media systems around the globe. The citizen (read the consumer) today is the target of persuasion by all types of media at a time when her/his interests should be, ethically and in principle, the basic significant factor in the selection of media content. It is very important in this juncture of clashing media values –professional and commercial- and wide spread ethical lapses of media organizations and media professionals to think of a perspective to theorize these conflicting values within a broader framework of media ethics. Thus, the aim of this paper is to, epistemologically, bring to the center a perspective on media ethics as a basis for reconciliation of clashing values of the media. The paper focuses on conflicting ethical values in current media debate; namely ownership of media vs. press freedom, individual right for privacy vs. public right to know, and global western consumerism values vs. media values. The paper concludes that a framework to reconcile conflicting values of media ethics should focus on the “individual” journalist and his/her moral development as well as focus on maintaining ethical principles of the media as an institution with a primary social responsibility for the “public” it serves.

Keywords: Media, Ethics, Social Responsibility, Journalism, Global, conflicting values

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39 Gender Bias and the Role It Plays in Student Evaluation of Instructors

Authors: B. Garfolo, L. Kelpsh, R. Roak, R. Kuck

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Often, student ratings of instructors play a significant role in the career path of an instructor in higher education. So then, how does a student view the effectiveness of instructor teaching? This question has been address by literally thousands of studies found in the literature. Yet, why does this question still persist? A literature review reveals that while it is true that student evaluations of instructors can be biased, there is still a considerable amount of work that needs to be done in understanding why. As student evaluations of instructors can be used in a variety of settings (formative or summative) it is critical to understand the nature of the bias. The authors believe that not only is some bias possible in student evaluations, it should be expected for the simple reason that a student evaluation is a human activity and as such, relies upon perception and interpersonal judgment. As such, student ratings are affected by the same factors that can potentially affect any rater’s judgment, such as stereotypes based on gender, culture, race, etc. Previous study findings suggest that student evaluations of teacher effectiveness differ between male and female raters. However, even though studies have shown that instructor gender does play an important role in influencing student ratings, the exact nature and extent of that role remains the subject of debate. Researchers, in their attempt to define good teaching, have looked for differences in student evaluations based on a variety of characteristics such as course type, class size, ability level of the student and grading practices in addition to instructor and student characteristics (gender, age, etc.) with inconsistent results. If a student evaluation represents more than an instructor’s teaching ability, for example, a physical characteristic such as gender, then this information must be taken into account if the evaluation is to have meaning with respect to instructor assessment. While the authors concede that it is difficult or nearly impossible to separate gender from student perception of teaching practices in person, it is, however, possible to shield an instructor’s gender identity with respect to an online teaching experience. The online teaching modality presents itself as a unique opportunity to experiment directly with gender identity. The analysis of the differences of online behavior of individuals when they perceive that they are interacting with a male or female could provide a wealth of data on how gender influences student perceptions of teaching effectiveness. Given the importance of the role student ratings play in hiring, retention, promotion, tenure, and salary deliberations in academic careers, this question warrants further attention as it is important to be aware of possible bias in student evaluations if they are to be used at all with respect to any academic considerations. For experimental purposes, the author’s constructed and online class where each instructors operate under two different gender identities. In this study, each instructor taught multiple sections of the same class using both a male identity and a female identity. The study examined student evaluations of teaching based on certain student and instructor characteristics in order to determine if and where male and female students might differ in their ratings of instructors based on instructor gender. Additionally, the authors examined if there are differences between undergraduate and graduate students' ratings with respect to the experimental criteria.

Keywords: Ethics, gender bias, student evaluations, student perceptions, online instruction

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38 Creation of a Care Robot Impact Assessment

Authors: Eduard Fosch-Villaronga

Abstract:

This paper pioneers Care Robot Impact Assessment (CRIA), a methodology used to identify, analyze, mitigate and eliminate the risks posed by the insertion of non-medical personal care robots (PCR) in medical care facilities. Its precedent instruments (Privacy and Surveillance Impact Assessment (PIA and SIA)) fall behind in coping with robots. Indeed, personal care robots change dramatically how care is delivered. The paper presents a specific risk-sector methodology, identifies which robots are under its scope and presents some of the challenges introduced by these robots.

Keywords: Law, Ethics, Impact Assessment, personal care robots

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37 Business Ethics in Islam: Making Islamic Banking Attractive for the Customers Round the Globe

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

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Is it essential for a Muslim businessperson and employees of Islamic financial institutions not only in Islamic Banks to perform his/her actions ethically in a universally, competing habitat? The answer is an emphatic NO! in Islam, ethics conduct all departments of life. The orders for eternal success or falah in Islam are the same for all Muslims–whether in managing their business activities or in carrying out their routine affairs. Without designating any circumstantial ambience, Allah specify people who achieve success as those who are “inviting to all that is good (Khayr), enjoining what is right (Ma'ruf) and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar).” Within a business context, however, what sole axioms of regimen should a company follow? What is a Muslim businessperson’s encumbrance to internal and external stakeholders? Although an organization’s top executives may display sterling ethical behavior, how can middle- and lower-level managers be enthusiastic to perform in a correspondingly ethical manner? What are some protocols that would clinch persistent ethical behavior in a Muslim business?

Keywords: Business, Finance, Islam, Ethics

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36 Understanding Consumer Behavior Towards Business Ethics: Is it Really Important for Consumers

Authors: Omer Akkaya, Muammer Zerenler

Abstract:

Ethics is important for all shareholders and stakeholders that a firm has in its environment. Whether a firm behaves ethically or unethically has a significant influence on consumers’ decision making and buying process. This research tries to explain business ethics from consumers’ perspective. The survey includes several questions to explain how consumers react if they know a firm behave unethically or ethically. What are consumers’ expectations regarding the ethical behavior of firm? Do consumer reward or punish the firms considering the ethics? Does it really important for consumers firms behaving ethical?

Keywords: Ethics, Social Responsibility, Business Ethics, Consumer behavior

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35 [Keynote Talk]: Let Us Move to Ethical Finance: A Case Study of Takaful

Authors: Syed Ahmed Salman

Abstract:

Ethicality is essential in our daily activities, including personal and commercial activities. This is evidenced by referring to the historical development of the corporate governance and ethical guidelines. The first corporate governance guideline, i.e. Cadbury Report from U.K. focuses the responsibility of board members towards the shareholders only. Gradually, realising the need to take care of the society and community, stakeholders are now concerns of business entities. Consequently, later codes of corporate governance started extending the responsibility to the other stakeholders in addition to the shareholders. One prevailing corporate governance theory, i.e. stakeholder theory, has been widely used in the research to explore the effects of business entities on society. In addition, the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is the leading organisation which promotes social care from businesses for sustainable development. Conventionally, history shows that ethics is key to the long term success of businesses. Many organisations, societies, and regulators give full attention and consideration to ethics. Several countries have introduced ethical codes of conduct to direct trade activities. Similarly, Islam and other religions prohibit the practice of interest, uncertainty, and gambling because of its unethical nature. These prohibited practices are not at all good for the society, business, and any organisation especially as it is detrimental to the well-being of society. In order to avoid unethicality in the finance industry, Shari’ah scholars come out with the idea of Islamic finance which is free from the prohibited elements from the Islamic perspective. It can also be termed ethical finance. This paper highlights how Takaful as one of the Islamic finance products offers fair and just products to the contracting parties and the society. Takaful is framed based on ethical guidelines which are extracted from Shari’ah principles and divine sources such as the Quran and Sunnah. Takaful products have been widely offered all over the world, including in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. It seems that it is gaining acceptance regardless of religion. This is evidence that Takaful is being accepted as an ethical financial product.

Keywords: Ethics, Insurance, Islamic Finance, religion and takaful

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34 Ethical Issues around Online Marketing to Children

Authors: Chris Preston

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As we devise ever more sophisticated methods of on-line marketing, devising systems that are able to reach into the everyday lives of consumers, we are confronted by a generation of children who face unprecedented intervention by commercial organisations into young minds, via electronic devices, and whether by computer, tablet or phone, such children have been somehow reduced to the status of their devices, with little regard for their well being as individuals. This discussion paper seeks to draw attention to such practice and questions the ethics of digital marketing methods.

Keywords: Ethics, online marketing to children, online research of children, online targeting of children, consumer rights

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33 Corporate Social Responsibility: An Ethical or a Legal Framework?

Authors: Pouira Askary

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Indeed, in our globalized world which is facing with various international crises, the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have the capacity to foster economic well-being, development, technological improvement and wealth, as well as causing adverse impacts on human rights. The UN Human Rights Council declared that although the primary responsibility to protect human rights lie with the State but the transnational corporations and other business enterprises have also a responsibility to respect and protect human rights in the framework of corporate social responsibility. In 2011, the Human Rights Council endorsed the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, a set of guidelines that define the key duties and responsibilities of States and business enterprises with regard to business-related human rights abuses. In UN’s view, the Guiding Principles do not create new legal obligations but constitute a clarification of the implications of existing standards, including under international human rights law. In 2014 the UN Human Rights Council decided to establish a working group on transnational corporations and other business enterprises whose mandate shall be to elaborate an international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises. Extremely difficult task for the working group to codify a legally binding document to regulate the behavior of corporations on the basis of the norms of international law! Concentration of this paper is on the origins of those human rights applicable on business enterprises. The research will discuss that the social and ethical roots of the CSR are much more institutionalized and elaborated than the legal roots. Therefore, the first step is to determine whether and to what extent corporations, do have an ethical responsibility to respect human rights and if so, by which means this ethical and social responsibility is convertible to legal commitments.

Keywords: Development, Human Rights, Ethics, International Law, CSR, Sustainable Business

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32 Counseling Ethics in Turkish Counseling Programs

Authors: Umut Arslan, John Sommers Flanagan

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The purpose of this study was to investigate qualifications of ethics training in counselor education programs in Turkey. The survey data were collected from 251 Turkish counseling students to examine differences in ethical judgments between freshmen and seniors. Chi-square analysis was used to analyze the data from an ethical practice and belief survey. This survey was used to assess counselor candidates’ ethical judgments regarding Turkish counseling ethical codes and sources of ethics information. Statistically significant differences were found between university seniors and freshmen on items that are related to confidentiality, dual relationships, and professional relationships. Furthermore, patterns based on demographic information showed significant differences as a result of gender, economic status, and parents’ educational level. Participants gave the highest rating of information sources to Turkish counseling ethical codes.

Keywords: Education, Turkey, Ethics, training, counselor

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31 Saadi: The Matter of Reality and Imagination

Authors: Mozhde Shafie, Nahid Naderi, Mandana Mangeli

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Is it true to say that Saadi was an idealized embodiment of his moral teachings in Gulistan and Boustan? The body of criticism on Saadi’s works suggests that his biography provides no clear and valid information to judge about the extent to which Saadi acted what he preached. His moral teachings depict a sort of individual and social morality which is defined in relation to power and falls in the category of political ethics. Political ethics appear as for the noble and the subordinate in Gulistan and Boustan. Ethics for the noble include all his teachings for governors and rulers in eulogies. On the other hand, ethics for the subordinate include all his suggestions for the public in relation to power position. Here, Saadi puts forward some conservative recommendations that trigger some contemporary critical commentaries. However, there are some cases where he takes up a third person narrative position to narrate the story of a king and a mendicant. In these stories, the mendicant is a witty man with bitter criticism on society, implying that one should relinquish earthly pleasures and advantages if he wants his criticism to be acceptable. First person narratives fall in two categories determinate and indeterminate narratives. Indirect speeches reflecting biographical facts are indeterminate narratives which give no information about the poet’s personality. Other narratives are more of an autobiography that report probable observations. These latter narratives demonstrate Saadi as a man quick at repartee that feels free to disclose his poverty and some cases of impiety. Therefore, they provide no idealized picture of the poet in terms of ethical principles.

Keywords: Ethics, Saadi, Boustan, Gulistan, first-person narrative

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30 Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli

Authors: Kelechi Ezeji

Abstract:

The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an important part of the training module in the curriculum for Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed. The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical implementation.

Keywords: Education, Ethics, Curriculum, Computer Aided Design

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29 Performance, Need and Discriminatory Allegiance of Employees as Awarding Criteria of Distributive Justice

Authors: B. Gangloff, L. Mayoral, A. Rezrazi

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Three types of salary distribution are usually proposed by the theorists of distributive justice: Equality, equity and need. Their influence has been studied, taking into consideration (in terms of equity) the performance of the employees and their degree of allegiance/rebellion in what regards discriminatory hierarchical orders, by taking into account the reasons of such allegiance/rebellion (allegiance out of conviction, legalism or opportunism/ethical rebellion). Conducted in Argentina, the study has confronted 480 students (240 male and 240 female) with a practical case in which they had to advise a manager of a real estate agency on the allocation of a bonus amongst his employees. The latter were characterized according to their respective performance, one of them being further defined as being (or not) in a financial need and as having complied (or not) with a discriminatory hierarchical order regarding foreigners. The results show that the distribution of the bonus only follows the rules of equity and need: The employees more efficient, allegiant or in need, are rewarded more than the others. It is also noteworthy that the allegiant employees are rewarded in the same way, regardless of the reason for their allegiance, and that the employee who refuses to adopt a discriminatory conduct is penalized.

Keywords: Ethics, Performance, Distributive Justice, Equity, allegiance

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28 Psychological and Ethical Factors in African American Custody Litigation

Authors: Brian Carey Sims

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The current study examines psychological factors relevant to child custody litigation among African American fathers. Thirty-seven fathers engaged in various stages of custody litigation involving their children were surveyed about their perceptions of racial stereotypes, parental motivations, and racialized dynamics of the court/ legal process. Data were analyzed using a Critical Race Theory model designed to statistically isolate fathers’ perceptions of the existence and maintenance of structural racism through the legal process. Results indicate significant correlations between fathers’ psychological measures and structural outcomes of their cases. Findings are discussed in terms of ethical implications for family court judicial systems and attorney practice.

Keywords: Ethics, Policy, Race, Family, Legal Psychology

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27 Bringing Ethics to a Violent System

Authors: Zeynep Selin Acar

Abstract:

In international system, there has always been a cycle of violence, war and peace. As there travels the time, after Christianity and later Just War theorists, international relations theorists have been tried to limit violence and war. As pieces of international law, Peace of Augsburg, Kellog-Briand Pact, League of Nations Covenant and UN Charter were and are still not effective to prevent war. Moreover, in order to find a way around these rules, it is believed that a new excuse started to be used instead of violence or war, humanitarian intervention. However, it has neither a legal nor a universally accepted framework. As a result, it is open to be manipulated by states. In order to prevent this, Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) which gives a state the responsibility to protect its citizens against violence, is created. Additionally, RtoP transfers this responsibility to regional or international group of states at the time when a state is the origin of violence. In the lights of these, this paper analyzes RtoP as an ethical approach to war and peace studies because it provides other states as guardians and care-takers of people who do not belong to them or do not share any togetherness.

Keywords: Ethics, Humanitarian Intervention, responsibility to protect, un charter

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26 The Current Crisis of Refugees and Contemporary Ethics

Authors: Thiago R. Pereira, Leila Angélica de O. Castro

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The number of refugees currently is alarming, having overcome the numbers of World War II. The objective of this research will be to examine this refugee crisis the light of the main contemporary ethical theories, mainly by analyzing whether there is an ethical obligation to assist these refugees. Among the many existing theories like virtue ethics, Kantian ethics, utilitarian ethics, ethical egoism and psychological egoism, will be the ethical theories used to analyze the current refugee crisis. The ethics of virtue is the oldest of theories, an action can be considered correct if we are acting virtuously if we predisposition to act that virtuously, where the goal is always the eudaimonia, a good life, a happy life. The Kantian ethics of the works of the philosopher Immanuel Kant, where we apply the hypothetical and categorical imperatives to find universal truths, actions that we consider to be universally correct. Utilitarian ethics believes that action will be considered as correct to bring happiness to the greatest possible number of people, even if they somehow have to bring unhappiness to any number of people. Ethical egoism should be concerned first with our individual happiness, and then we can worry about the happiness of others, so long as it causes us some happiness. Thus, action is correct since it is causing us a greater degree of happiness than unhappiness. Finally, the psychological egoism does not seek to determine whether an action is right or not, but claims that all our actions, even if they seem altruistic, actually has another motivation, which will always be a selfish motivation, that is, concerned with the our well-being. From these initial concepts, the issue of refugees, especially the question of whether states and their citizens have or not any ethical obligation to help them and receive them in their territories will be analyzed .

Keywords: Ethics, Refugees, obligation to help, contemporary theories

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25 Euthanasia with Reference to Defective Newborns: An Analysis

Authors: Nibedita Priyadarsini

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It is said that Ethics has a wide range of application which mainly deals with human life and human behavior. All ethical decisions are ultimately concerned with life and death. Both life and death must be considered dignified. Medical ethics with its different topics mostly deals with life and death concepts among which euthanasia is one. Various types of debates continue over Euthanasia long since. The question of putting an end to someone’s life has aroused controversial in legal sphere as well as in moral sphere. To permit or not to permit has remained an enigma the world over. Modern medicine is in the stage of transcending limits that cannot be set aside. The morality of allowing people to die without treatment has become more important as methods of treatment have become more sophisticated. Allowing someone to die states an essential recognition that there is some point in any terminal illness when further curative treatment has no purpose and the patient in such situation should allow dying a natural death in comfort, peace, and dignity, without any interference from medical science and technology. But taking a human life is in general sense is illogical in itself. It can be said that when we kill someone, we cause the death; whereas if we merely let someone die, then we will not be responsible for anyone’s death. This point is often made in connection with the euthanasia cases and which is often debatable. Euthanasia in the pediatric age group involves some important issues that are different from those of adult issues. The main distinction that occurs is that the infants and newborns and young children are not able to decide about their future as the adult does. In certain cases, where the child born with some serious deformities with no hope of recovery, in that cases doctor decide not to perform surgery in order to remove the blockage, and let the baby die. Our aim in this paper is to examine, whether it is ethically justified to withhold or to apply euthanasia on the part of the defective infant. What to do with severely defective infants from earliest time if got to know that they are not going to survive at all? Here, it will deal mostly with the ethics in deciding the relevant ethical concerns in the practice of euthanasia with the defective newborns issues. Some cases in relation to disabled infants and newborn baby will be taken in order to show what to do in a critical condition, that the patient and family members undergoes and under which condition those could be eradicated, if not all but some. The final choice must be with the benefit of the patient.

Keywords: Ethics, Medical Ethics, Euthanasia, defective newborns

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24 The Double Standard: Ethical Issues and Gender Discrimination in Traditional Western Ethics

Authors: Merina Islam

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The feminists have identified the traditional western ethical theories as basically male centered. Feminists are committed to develop a critique showing how the traditional western ethics together with traditional philosophy, irrespective of the claim for gender neutrality, all throughout remained gender-biased. This exclusion of women’s experiences from the moral discourse is justified on the ground that women cannot be moral agents, since they are not rational. By way of entailment, we are thus led to the position that virtues of traditional ethics, so viewed, can nothing but rational and hence male. The ears of traditional Western ethicists have been attuned to male rather than female ethical voices. Right from the Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel and even philosophers like Freud, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and many others the dualism between reason-passion or mind and body started gaining prominence. These, according to them, have either intentionally excluded women or else have used certain male moral experience as the standard for all moral experiences, thereby resulting once again in exclusion of women’s experiences. Men are identified with rationality and hence contrasted with women whose sphere is believed to be that of emotion and feeling. This act of exclusion of women’s experience from moral discourse has given birth to a tradition that emphasizes reason over emotion, universal over the particular, and justice over caring. That patriarchy’s use of gender distinctions in the realm of Ethics has resulted in gender discriminations is an undeniable fact. Hence women’s moral agency is said to have often been denied, not simply by the act of exclusion of women from moral debate or sheer ignorance of their contributions, but through philosophical claims to the effect that women lack moral reason. Traditional or mainstream ethics cannot justify its claim for universality, objectivity and gender neutrality the standards from which were drawn the legitimacy of the various moral maxims or principles of it. Right from the Platonic and Aristotelian period the dualism between reason-passion or mind and body started gaining prominence. Men are identified with rationality and hence contrasted with women whose sphere is believed to be that of emotion and feeling. Through the Association of the masculine values with reason (the feminine with irrational), was created the standard prototype of moral virtues The feminists’ critique of the traditional mainstream Ethics is based on this charge that because of its inherent gender bias, in the name of gender distinctions, Ethics has so far been justifying discriminations. In this paper, attempt would make upon the gender biased-ness of traditional ethics. But Feminists are committed to develop a critique showing how the traditional ethics together with traditional philosophy, irrespective of the claim for gender neutrality, all throughout remained gender-biased. We would try to show to what extent traditional ethics is male centered and consequentially fails to justify its claims for universality and gender neutrality.

Keywords: Gender, Ethics, traditional, male-centered

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23 Status and Image of the Nurse as Perceived by the Public

Authors: Salam Hadid, Mohammad Khatib

Abstract:

The International Council of Nurses-ICN defined nursing as a sphere integrating autonomous and collaborative care intended for the individual, family and community within and outside of the care setting. Nursing as a care profession has developed broadly over recent decades in terms of its essentials, expertise and primarily academically. Despite the impressive growth of the profession, there is still extreme diversity in the public’s perceptions and opinions of the profession and its professionals and in the knowledge on the fundamentals of its true function and spheres of engagement. The current study examines the existing knowledge among the general population regarding the nursing profession. The population consisted of 498 respondents, 236 women and 262 men, age 18-81. The respondents noted that nursing focuses on the technical, and the emotional aspects and promotion of health for the patient are not the nurse’s responsibility. Most of the respondents saw nurses working mainly in hospital and community-based clinic settings. They considered nursing to be a high prestige profession in general, but less prestigious among respondents exposed to healthcare provision. Most of the respondents considered nursing to be a humane profession but without independence and with no need for academic studies. The findings are incompatible with the definition of nursing and its spheres of action as defined in the ICN Code of Ethics. Two suggestions are to work through nursing schools addressing the student nurses, as ambassadors for the profession. The second is using the healthcare encounter between the nursing staff and the public to improve the image of nurses.

Keywords: Nursing, Ethics, Public, nurse image

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22 Capital Punishment: A Paradoxical Wrinkle to the Principles of Ethics and Morality

Authors: Pranav Vaidya

Abstract:

The recent upheaval of a ballot initiative taken place in California & Los Angeles‘s newspapers shows how the concept of giving Death Penalty obliterates the very soul basis of community and society which rests upon the tripod of values, ethics, and morality. This paper goes on with examining how, by giving death penalties we are, on one hand trying to wipe out those heinous offenders committing such unspeakable crimes against the public; while on the other hand it comes with a devastating effect of corroding and eluding the existence of ethics and morality which is in the very nature of “protecting the life of humankind”. As it can be stated that, by giving capital punishment, we are trying to legitimize an irreversible act of violence by the authority of state and target innocent victims because as long as the human justice is fallible, the risk of executing an innocent can never be eliminated. However, scholars in the legalization of Capital Punishment have argued that the courts should impose punishment befitting the crime so that they could reflect public abhorrence of the crime, create deterrent or rehabilitating effects & deliver the truest form of justice.

Keywords: Ethics, morality‎, heinous offenders, unspeakable crimes

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21 Ethics Can Enable Open Source Data Research

Authors: Dragana Calic

Abstract:

The openness, availability and the sheer volume of big data have provided, what some regard as, an invaluable and rich dataset. Researchers, businesses, advertising agencies, medical institutions, to name only a few, collect, share, and analyze this data to enable their processes and decision making. However, there are important ethical considerations associated with the use of big data. The rapidly evolving nature of online technologies has overtaken the many legislative, privacy, and ethical frameworks and principles that exist. For example, should we obtain consent to use people’s online data, and under what circumstances can privacy considerations be overridden? Current guidance on how to appropriately and ethically handle big data is inconsistent. Consequently, this paper focuses on two quite distinct but related ethical considerations that are at the core of the use of big data for research purposes. They include empowering the producers of data and empowering researchers who want to study big data. The first consideration focuses on informed consent which is at the core of empowering producers of data. In this paper, we discuss some of the complexities associated with informed consent and consider studies of producers’ perceptions to inform research ethics guidelines and practice. The second consideration focuses on the researcher. Similarly, we explore studies that focus on researchers’ perceptions and experiences.

Keywords: Ethics, Big Data, producers’ perceptions, researchers’ perceptions

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20 Representations of Childcare Robots as a Controversial Issue

Authors: Raya A. Jones

Abstract:

This paper interrogates online representations of robot companions for children, including promotional material by manufacturers, media articles and technology blogs. The significance of the study lies in its contribution to understanding attitudes to robots. The prospect of childcare robots is particularly controversial ethically, and is associated with emotive arguments. The sampled material is restricted to relatively recent posts (the past three years) though the analysis identifies both continuous and changing themes across the past decade. The method extrapolates social representations theory towards examining the ways in which information about robotic products is provided for the general public. Implications for social acceptance of robot companions for the home and robot ethics are considered.

Keywords: Ethics, Social Representations, acceptance of robots, childcare robots

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19 Bestination: A Sustainable Approach to Conflict Management for Buddhist Entrepreneurs

Authors: Navarat Sachayansrisakul, Nattawat Ponnara

Abstract:

Human beings are driving forces for any unit of societies, whether it would be in a family, communities, industries or even organizations. However, as our humanity progresses, the reliance has shifted from human to machineries and technologies. One main challenge when dealing with more than one person is conflict often resulted. If the conflict is properly managed, then economic development also follows. In order to achieve positive outcome of conflict, it is believed that the management comes from within individual entrepreneurs. As such, this is a unique study as it looks into the spiritual side of humans as business people and applies to the business environment with the focus on moral and ethical framework in order for sustainable development. This study aims to provide a model of how to positively manage conflict without compromising the ethical and moral standards of the businesses. Sustainability in this study is achieved through the Buddhists’ aim for liberation in which it works on the balanced approach to solving conflict. Buddhists’ livelihood is established on simplicity and non-violence while contributing not to only one’s self but those around them such as the stake holders of the businesses and the communities. According to Buddhist principles and some findings, a model called ‘The Bestination Conflict Management’ was developed. Bestination model offers an alternative approach for entrepreneurs to achieve sustainability along with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that benefit the well-beings of the owners, the stakeholders and the communities involved. This research study identifies ‘Conflict Management’ model as having goodwill and wisdom as a base, then moral motivation as the next level up to have a disciplines in order to keep a unit well cooperated.

Keywords: Sustainable, Ethics, Conflict, Entrepreneurs, moral, Buddhist

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