Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

ethanolic extract Related Abstracts

8 Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Monascus purpureus

Authors: F. Yazdian, M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Medicinal fungi are the new potential source of drugs to improve the treatment of diseases with association to oxidative agents such as cancers. Monascus purpureus contains functional components potentially effective in improving human health. In the present work, ethanolic extract of Monascus purpureus (EEM) was evaluated for health improving potential mainly focusing on antioxidant and anticancer activities. Ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), scavenging of DPPH radicals and determining viability of breast carcinoma MCF-7 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with MTT assay were evaluated. Our data showed a significant antioxidant activity of EEM with 142.45 µg/ml inhibition concentration of 50% DPPH radicals and 2112.33 µg eq.Fe2+/mg extract of FRAP assay. These results might be caused by antioxidant components such as pigments and phenolic compounds. Further, the results demonstrated that EEM caused significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7 with IC50 of 7 µg/ml but not have good effect against viability of HeLa cells. Accordingly, Monascus purpureus is presented as a strong potential of breast cancer treatment. In further study, the mechanistic studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of anticancer activity of EEM.

Keywords: Cancer, Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, ethanolic extract

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7 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: A. Abdulhamid, I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, phytochemical screening, Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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6 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: A. Abdulhamid, I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai

Abstract:

Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, phytochemical screening, Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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5 Aphrodisiac Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ionidium Suffruticosum in Male Rats

Authors: D. Satheesh Kumar, K. S. Lakshmi, V. J. Vishnu Varthan

Abstract:

Background: Aphrodisiacs are the substances which are used to increase sexual activity and help in fertility. Infertility is a worldwide medical and social problem. Ionidium suffruticosum has an extensive ethnomedical history of use as a traditional remedy for reproductive impairments. Hence, this study was conducted to study the aphrodisiac properties of Ionidium suffruticosum by observing the sexual behavior of male rats. Methods: The ethanolic extract of whole plant of Ionidium suffruticosum (EEIS) at the dose of 200 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate at the dose of 5 mg/kg were administered to the male rats. Mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF) and post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) were the parameters observed before and during the sexual behaviour study at days 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40. Results: The ethanolic extract of roots of Ionidium suffruticosum reduced significantly ML, IL, EL and PEI (p<0.05). There was statistically increase in MF, IF and EF (p<0.05) compared to control following treatment with ethanolic extract of Ionidium suffruticosum. These effects were observed in sexually active and inactive male rats. Conclusion: Present findings provide experimental evidence that the crude extract of Ionidium suffruticosum, used as a traditional remedy, possesses aphrodisiac properties.

Keywords: Sexual Behavior, ethanolic extract, Ionidium suffruticosum, aphrodisiac

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4 Mechanism of in Vitro Inhibition of Alpha-Amylase, Alpha-Glucosidase by Ethanolic Extracts of Polyalthia Longifolia, Its in Vitro Cytotoxicity on L6, Vero Cell-Lines and Influence of Glucose Uptake by Rat Hemi-Diaphragm

Authors: P. Gayathri, G. P. Jeyanthi

Abstract:

The bark of Polyalthia longifolia is used in ayurvedic system of medicine for the manangement of various ailments including diabetes mellitus. The bark of P. longifolia extracts was extracted using various polar and non-polar solvents and tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase among which the ethanolic extracts were found to be more potent. The ethanolic extracts of the bark were tested for the in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase using starch as substrate and alpha-glucosidase using p-nitro phenyl alpha-D-gluco pyranoside as substrate to establish its in vitro antidiabetic effect. The mechanism of inhibition was determined by Dixon plot and Cornish-Bowden plot. The cytotoxic effect of the extract was tested on L6 and Vero cell-lines. The extract was partially purified by TLC. The individual effect of the ethanolic extract, TLC fractions and its combinatorial effect with insulin and glibenclamide on glucose uptake by rat hemi-diaphragm were studied.Results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of Polyalthia longifolia bark exhibited competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. The extracts were also found not to be cytotoxic at the highest dose of 1 mg/mL. Glucose uptake study revealed that the extract alone and when combined with insulin, decreased the glucose uptake when compared to insulin control, however the purified TLC fractions exhibited significantly higher (p<0.05) glucose uptake by the rat hemi-diaphragm when compared to insulin. The study shows various possible mechanism of in vitro antidiabetic effect of the P. longifolia bark.

Keywords: ethanolic extract, glucose uptake, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, dixon, cornish-bowden, Vero cell-lines, polyalthia longifolia bark, TLC fractions

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3 Increasing Redness and Microbial Stability of Low Nitrite Chicken Sausage by Encapsulated Tomato Pomace Extract

Authors: Bung-Orn Hemung, Nachayut Chanshotigul, Koo Bok Chin

Abstract:

Tomato pomace (TP) is the waste from tomato processing plants and its utilization as food ingredient may provide sustainable industry by reducing waste. TP was extracted by ethanol using microwave-assisted method at 180W for 90s. The ethanol was evaporated out, and an extract was encapsulated with maltodextrin (1:10) by spray drying to obtain an encapsulated TP extract (ETPE). The redness (a value) of ETPE powder was 6.5±0.05, and it was used as natural ingredient in the low-nitrite chicken sausage. Chicken emulsion sausage was prepared at 25 mg/kg of nitrite for being control. Effect of ETPE (1.0%) was evaluated along with the reference (150 mg/kg of nitrite without ETPE). The redness (a value) of sausage with ETPE was found at 6.8±0.03, which was higher than those of reference and control, which were at 4.8±.022 and 5.1±0.15, respectively. However, hardness, expressible moisture content and cooking yield values were reduced slightly. During storage at 10 °C in the air packed condition for 1 week, changes in color, pH, redness, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value were not significantly different. However, total microbial count of sausage samples with ETPE was lower than control for a 1 log cycle, suggesting microbial stability. Therefore, the addition of ETPE could be an alternative strategy to utilize TP as a natural colorant and antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of low-nitrite chicken sausage.

Keywords: ethanolic extract, antimicrobial ingredient, chicken sausage, low-nitrite sausage, tomato pomace

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2 Potential Use of Thymus mastichina L. Extract as a Natural Agent against Cheese Spoilage Microorganisms

Authors: Fernanda M. Ferreira, Susana P. Dias, Andrea Gomes, Marta F. Henriques

Abstract:

Thymus mastichina L. is an endogenous medicinal and aromatic plant of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used empirically over the years as a natural preservative in food. Nowadays, the antimicrobial activity of its bioactive compounds, such as essential oils and extracts, has been well recognized. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymus mastichina ethanolic and aqueous extracts on pathogens and spoilage microorganisms present in cheese during ripening. The effect that the extract type and its concentration has on the development of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Yarrowia lipolytica populations during 24 hours, was studied 'in vitro' using appropriate culture media. The results achieved evidenced the antimicrobial activity of T. mastichina extracts against the studied strains, and the concentration of 2 mg/mL (w/v) was selected and used directly on the cheese surface during ripening. In addition to the microbiological evaluation in terms of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts (particularly Y. lipolytica) and molds, the treated cheeses physicochemical evaluation (humidity, aw, pH, colour, and texture) was also performed. The results were compared with cheeses with natamicyn (positive control) and without any treatment (negative control). The physicochemical evaluation showed that the cheeses treated with ethanolic extract of Thymus mastichina, except the fact that they lead to a faster water loss during ripening, did not present considerable differences when compared to controls. The study revealed an evident antimicrobial power of the extracts, although less effective than the one shown by the use of natamycin. For this reason, the improvement of the extraction methods and the adjustment of the extract concentrations will contribute to the use of T. mastichina as a healthier and eco-friendly alternative to natamycin, that is also more attractive from an economic point of view.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, cheese, ethanolic extract, Thymus mastichina

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1 Antimycobacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia absinthium

Authors: T. Hojageldiyev, Y. Bolmammedov, S. Gurbanaliyev

Abstract:

It is known that drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis show toxic effect to organism especially to liver besides its therapeutic effect. Because of ineffectiveness of drugs used in the treatment regimen of tuberculosis against multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensively drug-resistance (XDR) tuberculosis requires the development of new treatment methods and new, novel drugs. Considering the usage of Artemisia absinthium in traditional medicine in treatment of wounds which suggests its antibacterial activity it seems that, also it may have significant antimycobacterial activity. The objective of present study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium against M. tuberculosis. In this study, the effect of ethanolic extract of A. absinthium was tested against tuberculosis and pharmaco-toxicological properties evaluated on laboratory animals. The 20%, 40%, 70% and 96% ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium prepared then its bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were evaluated by validated methods. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 7.0 at the level P < 0.05. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of A. absinthium show no toxicological properties with having high LD50. All concentrations of extract show high bacteriostatic activity on M. tuberculosis. 96% ethanolic extract has highest bactericidal effect among other concentrations. By conducting further studies, as a result of our study, antimycobacterial drug can be prepared from A. absinthium.

Keywords: ethanolic extract, Artemisia absinthium, antimycobacterial, Mycobacteria tuberculosis

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