Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Estrogen Related Abstracts

7 Effect of Synchronization Protocols on Serum Concentrations of Estrogen and Progesterone in Holstein Dairy Heifers

Authors: A. Pirestani, S. Safavipour, K. Shafiei, G. Ghalamkari

Abstract:

Use of GnRH or its agonists to increase conception rates should be based on an understanding of GnRH-induced biological effects on the reproductive-endocrine system. This effect may occur through GnRH-stimulated LH surge stimulating production of progesterone by corpus luteum.the aim of this study was to compare the effects on reproductive efficiency of a luteolytic dose of a synthetic prostaglandin Cloprostenol Sodium versus ainjectable progesterone and Luliberin- A on Follicle estrogen and progesterone levels.In this study, we used45 head of holstein dairy heifersin the three treatments, with 15 replicates per treatment were performed in random groups. all the heifers before the projects is began in two steps injection 3 mL CloprostenolSodium with an interval of 11 days been synchronized and 10 days later, second injection of prostaglandin was conducted after that we started below protocol:Control group (daily sodium chloride serum injection 1 cc), Group B: Day Zero, intramuscular injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A + every other day injection of 3 cc progesterone + day 7, injection of Cloprostenol Sodium+ day 9, injection of 15 mg Luliberin- A.Group C: similar to Grop B + daily injection of progesterone after that blood samples was collected and centrifuged.plasma were analysed by ELISA.the analysis of this study uses SPSS data software package and compared between the mean and LS Means LSD test at 5% significance level was used.The results of this study shows that maximum of progesterone plasma levels were in the control gruop (P ≥ 0.05).Therefore, daily injection of progesterone inhibit the growth CL. the most estrogen levels in plasma were in Group C (P ≥ 0.05) thus it can be concluded, rise in endogenous estrogen concentrations normally stimulates the preovulatory LH release in heifers.

Keywords: Estrogen, progesterone, Luliberin- A, Cloprostenol Sodium, dairy heifers

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6 Estrogen Controls Hepatitis C Virus Entry and Spread through the GPR30 Pathway

Authors: Laura Ulitzky, Dougbeh-Chris Nyan, Manuel M. Lafer, Erica Silberstein, Nicoleta Cehan, Deborah R. Taylor

Abstract:

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrosis and cirrhosis are more frequent in men and postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women and women receiving hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that β-estradiol (estrogen) plays an innate role in preventing viral infection and liver disease. Estrogen classically acts through nuclear estrogen receptors or, alternatively, through the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER). We observed a marked decrease in detectable virus when HCV-infected human hepatoma cells were treated with estrogen. The effect was mimicked by both Tamoxifen (Tam) and G1, a GPR30-specific agonist, and was reversed by the GPR30-specific antagonist, G15. Through GPR30, estrogen-mediated the down-regulation of occludin; a tight junction protein and HCV receptor, by promoting activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Activated MMP-9 was secreted in response to estrogen, cleaving occludin in the extracellular Domain D, the motif required for HCV entry and spread. This pathway gives new insight into a novel innate immune pathway and the disparate host-virus responses to HCV demonstrated by the two sexes. Moreover, these data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may have beneficial antiviral properties for HCV-infected postmenopausal women and show promise for new antiviral treatments for both men and women.

Keywords: Estrogen, MMPs, HCV, occludin

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5 Assessment of Estrogenic Contamination and Potential Risk in Taihu Lake, China

Authors: Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan

Abstract:

To investigate the estrogenic contamination and potential risk of Taihu Lake, eight active biomonitoring points in the northern section of Taihu Lake were set up and located in Wangyuhe River outlet (P1), Gonghu Bay (P2 and P3), Meiliang Bay (P4 and P5), Zhushan Bay (P6 and P7) and Lake Centre (P8). A suite of biomarkers in caged fish after in situ exposure for 28 days, coupled with six selected exogenous estrogens in water, were determined in May and December 2011. Six target estrogens, namely estrone (E1), 17b-estradiol (E2), ethinylestradiol (EE2), estriol (E3), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol A (BPA), were quantified using UPLC/MS/MS. The concentrations of E1, E2, E3, EE2, DES and BPA ranged from ND to 3.61 ng/L, ND to 17.3 ng/L, ND to 1.65 ng/L, ND to 10.2 ng/L, ND to 34.6 ng/L, and 3.95 to 207 ng/L, respectively. BPA was detected at all sampling points at all test periods, E2 was detected at 95% of samples, E1 and EE2 was detected at 75% of samples, and E3 was detected only in December 2011 with quite low concentrations. Each individual estrogen concentration measured at each sampling point was multiplied by its relative potency to gain the estradiol equivalent (EEQ). The total EEQ values in all the monitoring points ranged from 5.69 to 17.8 ng/L in May 2011, and from 4.46 to 21.1 ng/L in December 2011. E2 and EE2 were thought to be the major causal agents responsible for the estrogenic activities. Serum vitellogenin and E2 levels, gonadal DNA damage, and gonadosomatic index were measured in the in situ exposed fish. An enhanced integrated biomarker response (EIBR) was calculated and used to evaluate potential feminization risk of fish in the polluted area of Taihu Lake. EIBR index showed good agreement with the observed total EEQ levels in water. Our results indicated that Gong bay and the lake center had a low estrogenic risk, whereas Wangyuhe River, Meiliang Bay, and Zhushan Bay might present a higher risk to fish.

Keywords: Estrogen, active biomonitoring, feminization risk, Taihu Lake

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4 Puereria mirifica Replacement Improves Skeletal Muscle Performance Associated with Increasing Parvalbumin Levels in Ovariectomized Rat

Authors: Uraporn Vongvatcharanon, Kochakorn Sukjan, Wandee Udomuksorn, Ekkasit Kumarnsit, Surapong Vongvatcharanon

Abstract:

Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle mass, and strength frequently found in menopause. Estrogen replacement has been shown to improve such a loss of muscle functions. However, there is an increased risk of cancer that has to be considered because of the estrogen replacement therapy. Thus, phytoestrogen supplementation has been suggested as an alternative therapy. Pueraria mirifica (PM) is a plant in the family Leguminosae, that is known to be phytoestrogen-rich and has been traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It contains isoflavones and other compounds such as miroestrol and its derivatives. Parvalbumin (PV) is a calcium binding protein and functions as a relaxing factor in fast twitch muscle fibers. A decrease of the PV level results in a reduction of the speed of the twitch relaxation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract from Pueraria mirifica on the estrogen levels, skeletal muscle functions and PV levels in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and gastrocnemius of ovariectomized rats. Twelve-week old female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 6 groups: SHAM (un-ovariectomized rats, that received double distilled water), PM-0 (ovariectomized rats, OVX, receiving double distilled water), E (OVX, receiving an estradiol benzoate dose of 0.04 mg/kg), PM-50 (OVX receiving PM 50 mg/kg), PM-500 (OVX receiving PM 500 mg/kg), PM-1000 (OVX receiving PM 1000 mg/kg) all for 90 days. The PM-0 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation and parvalbumin levels of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly reduced compared to those of the SHAM group (p<0.05). Also the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and the parvalbumin immunoreactivities of both EDL and gastrocnemius were decreased in the PM-0 group. In contrast the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group had estrogen levels, uterus weights, muscle mass, myofiber cross-section areas, peak tension, fatigue resistance, speed of relaxation of both EDL and gastrocnemius that were significantly increased compared with PM-0 group (p<0.05). In addition, the α and β estrogen receptor immunoreactivities and parvalbumin immunoreactivity of both the EDL and gastrocnemius were increased in the E, PM-50, PM-500 and PM-1000 group. In addition the extract of Pueraria mirifica replacement group at 50 and 500 mg/kg had significantly increased parvalbumin levels in the EDL muscle but in the gastrocnemius, only the dose of 500 mg/kg increased the parvalbumin levels (p<0.05). These results have demonstrated that the use of the Pueraria mirifica extract as a replacement therapy for estrogen produced estrogenic activity that was similar to that produced by the estradiol benzoate replacement. It seems that the phytoestrogens could bind with the estrogen receptors and stimulate the transcriptional activity to synthesise muscle protein that caused an increase in muscle mass and parvalbumin levels. Thus, muscle synthesis may restore parvalbumin levels resulting in an enhanced relaxation efficiency that would lead to a shortened latent period before the next contraction.

Keywords: Estrogen, Puereria mirifica, Parvalbumin, ovariectomized rats

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3 Modulation of Alternative Respiration Pathyway under Salt Stress in Exogenous Estrogen-Treated Maize Seedlings

Authors: Mucip Genisel, Serkan Erdal, Farideh K. Khosroushahi

Abstract:

Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors that restricts arable land and reduces crop productivity worldwide. High salt concentration adversely affects plant growth and development inducing water deficit, ionic toxicity, nutrient imbalance, and lead to oxidative stress. Although the stimulating role of mammalian sex hormones on various biological and biochemical processes under normal and stress condition have been proven, there is no study regarding with these hormone's effect on modulation of the alternative respiration pathway and AOX gene expression. In this study, changes in alternative respiration pathway in leaves of maize seedlings under salinity and the possible modulating effect of estrogen on these changes were investigated. Maize seedlings were grown in a hydroponic media for 11 days and then were exposed to salt stress for 3 days after being sprayed estrogen. The data obtained from oxygen consumption revealed that salt stress elevated cellular respiration value in the leaves. In addition, a marked increase was observed at alternative respiration level in salt-stressed seedlings. Compared to salt application alone, supplementation with estrogen resulted in a significant rise in alternative oxidase (AOX) activities. Similarly, while salt stress caused to rise in expressions of AOX gene compared to control seedlings, estrogen application resulted in further activation of these genes’ expression compared to stressed-seedlings alone. These data revealed that mitigating role of estrogen against the detrimental effects of salt stress is linked to modulation of alternative respiration pathway.

Keywords: Estrogen, maize, alternative oxidase, Ssalt stress, AOX

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2 Influence of Menstrual Cycle on the Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics

Authors: Sandhyarani Guggilla

Abstract:

For several reasons no two individuals can be considered identical and hence individualization of therapy is the current trend in treating the patients. Influence of menstrual cycle on the pharmacokinetics of Doxycycline. Twelve healthy female volunteers have been included in the study after obtaining written informed consent. The age ranged from 16 to 25 years. Experimental design: The volunteer selection and recruitment will be carried out after obtaining informed consent from each volunteer. The drug administration will be done to each volunteer at 7 a.m along with a glass of water after an overnight fasting on 3rd, 13th and 23rd day of menstrual cycle. These saliva samples will be stored under frozen conditions until HPLC analysis. Results: In the present study the changes in estrogen levels during ovulatory phase have not shown any influence onAUCo-t of Doxycycline. Only AUCo-t of doxycycline showed an increasing trend with increasing levels of estrogen in ovulatory phase, but not in other phases. Even though the FSH levels differed significantly among volunteers during different phases FSH does not seem to influence the overall pharmacokinetic behavior of Doxycycline during different phases. The present study indicated only the trend that the hormone levels may influence the pharmacokinetic behavior of the Doxycycline. Conclusion: In the present study the changes in hormones have shown an increasing C-max, increasing AUCo-t of Doxycycline pharmacokinetics significantly in follicular phase than ovulatory and luteal phases among volunteers during different phases. In other pharmacokinetic properties like clearance, biological half-life, volume of distribution, mean residence time the change was not significant.

Keywords: Estrogen, doxycycline, FSH, menstrual cycle, ovulatory phase

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1 A Ferutinin Analogue with Enhanced Potency and Selectivity against Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Remi Safi, Aline Hamade, Najat Bteich, Jamal El Saghir, Mona Diab Assaf, Marwan El-Sabban, Fadia Najjar

Abstract:

Estrogen is considered a risk factor for breast cancer since it promotes breast-cell proliferation. The jaesckeanadiol-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoate, a hemi-synthetic analogue of the natural phytoestrogen ferutinin (jaesckeanadiol-p-hydroxybenzoate), is designed to be devoid of estrogenic activity. This analogue induces a cytotoxic effect 30 times higher than that of ferutinin towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. We compared these two compounds with respect to their effect on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cancer stem-like cells in the MCF-7 cell line. Treatment with ferutinin (30 μM) and its analogue (1 μM) produced a significant accumulation of cells at the pre G0/G1 cell cycle phase and triggered apoptosis. Importantly, this compound retains its anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer stem/progenitor cells that are naturally insensitive to ferutinin at the same dose. These results position ferutinin analogue as an effective compound inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells and consistently targeting their stem-like cells.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Estrogen, ferutinin, hemi-synthetic analogue, stem/progenitor cells

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