Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

essential oils Related Abstracts

30 Composition and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Three Eryngium L. Species

Authors: R. Mickiene, A. Friese, U. Rosler, A. Maruska, O. Ragazinskiene

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This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from three species of Eryngium. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Eryngiumplanum L., Eryngium maritimum L., Eryngium campestre L. grown in Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances, originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activity of extracts was described by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Preliminary results show that the minimal inhibitory concentration range between 8.0 % and 17.0 % for the different Eryngium extracts and bacterial species.The total amounts ofphenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. Identification and evaluation of the phenolic compounds were performed by liquid chromatography. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

Keywords: essential oils, antimicrobial activities, Eryngium L. species, gas chromatography mass spectrometry

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29 Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Vegetal Extracts of Six Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of Algerian Flora and Their Uses in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Authors: Ziani Borhane Eddine Cherif, Hazzi Mohamed, Mouhouche Fazia

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The vegetal extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants start to have much of interest like potential sources of natural bioactive molecules. Many features are conferred by the nature of the chemical function of their major constituents (phenol, alcohol, aldehyde, cetone). This biopotential lets us to focalize on the study of three main biological activities, the antioxidant, antibiotic and insecticidal activities of six Algerian aromatic plants in the aim of making in evidence by the chromatographic analysis (CPG and CG/SM) the phytochemical compounds implicating in this effects. The contents of Oxygenated monoterpenes represented the most prominent group of constituents in the majority of plants. However, the α-Terpineol (28,3%), Carvacrol (47,3%), pulégone (39,5%), Chrysanthenone (27,4%), Thymol 23,9%, γ-Terpinene 23,9% and 2-Undecanone(94%) were the main components. The antioxyding activity of the Essential oils and no-volatils extracts was evaluated in vitro using four tests: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical-scavenging activity (ABTS•+), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays and the reducing power. The measures of the IC50 of these natural compounds revealed potent activity (between 254.64-462.76mg.l-1), almost similar to that of BHT, BHA, Tocopherol and Ascorbic acid (126,4-369,1 mg.l-1) and so far than the Trolox one (IC50= 2,82mg.l-1). Furthermore, three ethanol extracts were found to be remarkably effective toward DPPH and ABTS inhibition, compared to chemical antioxidant BHA and BHT (IC = 9.8±0.1 and 28±0.7 mg.l-1, respectively); for reducing power test it has also exhibited high activity. The study on the insecticidal activity effect by contact, inhalation, fecundity and fertility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Tribolium confusum showed a strong potential biocide reaching 95-100% mortality only after 24 hours. The antibiotic activity of our essential oils were evaluated by a qualitative study (aromatogramme) and quantitative (MIC, MBC and CML) on four bacteria (Gram+ and Gram-) and one strain of pathogenic yeast, the results of these tests showed very interesting action than that induced by the same reference antibiotics (Gentamycin, and Nystatin Ceftatidine) such that the inhibition diameters and MIC values for tested microorganisms were in the range of 23–58 mm and 0.015–0.25%(v/v) respectively.

Keywords: Aromatic Plants, essential oils, Bioactive Molecules, antioxidant activity, no-volatils extracts, insecticidal activity, antibiotic activity

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28 Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria (Djelfa)

Authors: Samah Lakehal, A. Meliani, F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia

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In the last few years, due to the misuse of antibiotics and an increasing incidence of immunodeficiency-related diseases, the development of microbial drug resistance has become more and more of a pressing problem. Recently, natural products from medicinal plants represent a fertile ground for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. The present study describes antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil known medicinally for its powerful antibacterial properties. The essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (Djelfa city of south Algeria) was investigated by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 1.4 %. The major components were found to be camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole. The essential oil has been tested for antimicrobial activity against eight bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive), and three fungi including Candida albicans. Inhibition of growth was tested by the agar diffusion method based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity and therefore can be used as a natural antimicrobial agent for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by those germs, which have developed resistance to antibiotics.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oils, GC/MS, Rosmarinus officinalis L, camphor

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27 Essential Oil Analysis of the Aerial Parts of Sideritis incana and Calamitha hispidula

Authors: Smain Amiraa, Hocine Laouerb, Fatima Benchikh-Amiraa, Guido Flaminic

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The aerial parts of Sideritis incana and Calamintha hispidula at the flowering stage were submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger–type apparatus for 3 hours and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC coupled to GC-MS. The essential oil contained a total of 99 constituents for S. incana and 31 for C. hispidula representing 95.7% and 99.6 of the total oils, rerspectively. The mains components of S. incana oil were linalool (25.2), cedrol (13.7%), geraniol (7%) and α-terpineol (5.4%). The chemical constituents of the oil from C. hispidula were predominated by pulegone (43.2%), isomenthone (36%), piperitone (3.2%), limonene (2.6%) and 4-terpineol (2.5%). The results revealed that the oil of the plants is characterized by the presence of many important components which could be applied in food, pharmaceutical and perfume industry.

Keywords: essential oils, Chemical and Molecular Engineering, Calamintha hispidula, Sideritis incana

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26 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Lavandula stoechas and Lavandula multifida Growing Wild in Algeria

Authors: Smain Amiraa, Hocine Laouerb, Fatima Benchikh-Amiraa, Guido Flaminic

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The essential oils of the aerial parts of Lavandula multifida and L. stoechas were extracted at the full bloom stage by hydrodistillation and theirs chemical compositions were estimated by means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 46 and 67 constituents were identified representing 95.5% and 98.2% of the total oils, respectively. The main components of L. multifida oil were carvacrol (63.8%), beta-bisabolene (8.7%), spathulenol (6.2%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%) and linalool (2.9%). The oil of L. stoechas was dominated by fenchone (63.9%), camphor (7.8%), 1,8-cineole (5.3%) and myrtenyl acetate (4.2).

Keywords: essential oils, Chemical and Molecular Engineering, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula stoechas

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25 GC-MS Identification of Two Major Essential Oils and their Anti-Oxidative Effect Using DPPH Assay

Authors: Mohammed Falalu Hamza

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A phytochemical investigation conducted on the leaves extract of Cryptocarya latifolia (Lauraceae) revealed the presence of two major essential oils; Nerolidol (1) and Copaene (2) with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compounds exhibited good anti-oxidant capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. The result shows that the anti-oxidant capacity of the compounds is dependent on concentration similar to the standard (ascorbic acid). This study shows that the leaves extract of C. latifolia is a good source of important natural antioxidants.

Keywords: essential oils, phytochemical, broad-leaved quince, anti-oxidant

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24 Extracting Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils from the Lamiaceae Plant Family in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Highlights on Great Possibilities and Sever Difficulties

Authors: Suzan M. Shahin, Mohammed A. Salem

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Essential oils are expensive phytochemicals produced and extracted from specific species belonging to particular families in the plant kingdom. In the United Arab Emirates country (UAE), which is located in the arid region of the world, nine species, from the Lamiaceae family, having the capability to produce therapeutic grade essential oils. These species include; Mentha spicata, Ocimum forskolei, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia aegyptiaca, Salvia macilenta, Salvia spinosa, Teucrium polium, Teucrium stocksianum, and Zataria multiflora. Although, such potential species are indigenous to the UAE, however, there are almost no studies available to investigate the chemical composition and the quality of the extracted essential oils under the UAE climatological conditions. Therefore, great attention has to be given to such valuable natural resources, through conducting highly supported research projects, tailored to the UAE conditions, and investigating different extraction techniques, including the application of the latest available technologies, such as superficial fluid CO2. This is crucially needed; in order to accomplish the greatest possibilities in the medicinal field, specifically in the discovery of new therapeutic chemotypes, as well as, to achieve the sustainability of this natural resource in the country.

Keywords: Traditional Medicine, essential oils, extraction techniques, Lamiaceae, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

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23 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira

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Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Antibiotics, essential oils, Staphylococcus aureus, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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22 Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks in Pharmacological Screening of Schinus Essential Oils

Authors: Henrique Vicente, José Neves, M. Rosário Martins, Fátima Candeias, Diana Ferreira, Sílvia Arantes, Júlio Cruz-Morais, Guida Gomes, Joaquim Macedo, António Abelha

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Some plants of genus Schinus have been used in the folk medicine as topical antiseptic, digestive, purgative, diuretic, analgesic or antidepressant, and also for respiratory and urinary infections. Chemical composition of essential oils of S. molle and S. terebinthifolius had been evaluated and presented high variability according with the part of the plant studied and with the geographic and climatic regions. The pharmacological properties, namely antimicrobial, anti-tumoural and anti-inflammatory activities are conditioned by chemical composition of essential oils. Taking into account the difficulty to infer the pharmacological properties of Schinus essential oils without hard experimental approach, this work will focus on the development of a decision support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures, under a formal framework based on Logic Programming, complemented with an approach to computing centered on Artificial Neural Networks and the respective Degree-of-Confidence that one has on such an occurrence.

Keywords: essential oils, logic programming, artificial neuronal networks, knowledge representation and reasoning, Schinus molle L, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

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21 Essential Oils of Polygonum L. Plants Growing in Kazakhstan and Their Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin

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Bioactive substances of plant origin can be one of the advanced means of solution to the issue of combined therapy to inflammation. The main advantages of medical plants are softness and width of their therapeutic effect on an organism, the absence of side effects and complications even if the used continuously, high tolerability by patients. Moreover, medial plants are often the only and (or) cost-effective sources of natural biologically active substances and medicines. Along with other biologically active groups of chemical compounds, essential oils with wide range of pharmacological effects became very ingrained in medical practice. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Polygonum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Qualitative composition of essential oils was analyzed by chromatography-mass-spectrometry method using Agilent 6890N apparatus. The qualitative analysis is based on the comparison of retention time and full mass-spectra with respective data on components of reference oils and pure compounds, if there were any, and with the data of libraries of mass-spectra Wiley 7th edition and NIST 02. The main components of essential oil are for: Polygonum amphibium L. - γ-terpinene, borneol, piperitol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, linalool, terpinolene and sabinene; Polygonum minus Huds. Fl. Angl. – linalool, terpinolene, camphene, borneol, 1,8-cyneole, α-pinene, 4-terpineol and 1-octen-3-ol; Polygonum alpinum All. – camphene, sabinene, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-carene, p- and o-cymol, γ-terpinene, borneol, -terpineol; Polygonum persicaria L. - α-pinene, sabinene, -terpinene, 4-carene, 1,8-cyneole, borneol, 4-terpineol. Antibacterial activity was researched relating to strains of gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus agalacticae, relating to gram-negative strain Escherichia coli and to yeast fungus Сandida albicans using agar diffusion method. The medicines of comparison were gentamicin for bacteria and nystatin for yeast fungus Сandida albicans. It has been shown that Polygonum L. essential oils has moderate antibacterial effect to gram-positive microorganisms and weak antifungal activity to Candida albicans yeast fungus. At the second stage of our researches wound healing properties of ointment form of 3% essential oil was researched on the model of flat dermal wounds. To assess the influence of essential oil on healing processes the model of flat dermal wound. The speed of wound healing on rats of different groups was judged based on assessment the area of a wound from time to time. During research of wound healing properties disturbance of integral in neither group: general condition and behavior of animals, food intake, and excretion. Wound healing action of 3% ointment on base of Polygonum L. essential oil and polyethyleneglycol is comparable with the action of reference substances. As more favorable healing dynamics was observed in the experimental group than in control group, the tested ointment can be deemed more promising for further detailed study as wound healing means.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Isolation, essential oils, Antifungal, Bioactive Substances, Polygonum L

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20 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin

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The last decade the growth of severe and disseminated forms of inflammatory diseases is observed in Kazakhstan, in particular, septic shock, which progresses on 3-15% of patients with infectious complications of postnatal period. In terms of the rate of occurrence septic shock takes third place after hemorrhagic and cardiovascular shock, in terms of lethality it takes first place. The structure of obstetric sepsis has significantly changed. Currently the first place is taken by postabortive sepsis (40%) that is connected with usage of imperfect methods of artificial termination of pregnancy in late periods (intraamnial injection of sodium chloride, glucose). The second place is taken by postnatal sepsis (32%); the last place is taken by septic complications of caesarean section (28%). In this connection, search for and assessment of effectiveness of new medicines for treatment of postoperative infectious complications, having biostimulating effect and speeding up regeneration processes, is very promising and topical. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Sedum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Pilot batch of plant medicinal product based on Sedum essential oils was produced by Chimpharm JSC, Santo Member of Polpharma Group (Kazakhstan). During clinical test of the plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils 37 female patients at the age from 35 to 57 with clinical signs of complicated postoperative processes and 12 new mothers with clinical signs of inflammatory process on sutures on anterior abdominal wall after caesarean section and partial disruption of surgical suture line on perineum were examined. Medicine usage methods - surgical wound treatment 2 times a day, treatment with other medicines of local action was not performed. Before and after treatment general clinical test, determination of immune status, bacterioscopic test of wound fluid was performed to all women, medical history data was taken into account, wound cleansing and healing time, full granulations, side effects and complications, satisfaction with the used medicine was assessed. On female patients with inflammatory infiltration and partial disruption of surgical suture line anesthetic wound healing effect of plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils was observed as early as on the second day after beginning of using it, wound cleansing took place, as a rule, within the first row days. Hyperemia in the area of suture line also was not observed for 2-3-d day of usage of medicine, good constant course was observed. The absence of clinical effect on this group of patients was not registered. The represented data give evidence of that clinical effect was accompanied with normalization of changed laboratory findings. No allergic responses or side effects were observed during usage of the plant medicinal products based on Sedum L. essential oils.

Keywords: Isolation, essential oils, Wound Healing, Bioactive Substances, antiinflammatory, sedum L

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19 Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Salvia nemorosa L.

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah

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In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil and ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. nemorosa were examined against some species of bacteria and fungi. The essential oil of the aerial part of S. nemorosa was examined by GC and GC-MS. In the essential oil of S. nemorosa 26 Compounds have been identified. 2-Nonanone (44.09 %), 2-Undecanone (33.79 %), E-Caryophyllene (3.74 %) and 2-Decanone (2.89 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). In conclusion, we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. nemorosa may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

Keywords: Biological Activity, essential oils, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, Salvia nemorosa L

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18 Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium Isolated by Solvent Free Microwave Assisted Extraction and Hydrodistillation Extraction

Authors: Masume Rezaie, Mohammad H. Farjam

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Chemical composition of Citrus aurantium was studied by solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods. Limonene (76.06% SFME and 67.04% HD), Linalool (4.91% SFME and 10.08% HD) and Linalyl Acetate (8.52% SFME and 5.10% HD) were the major compounds that obtained by SFME and hydrodistillation, respectively.

Keywords: essential oils, GC-MS, hydrodistillation, microwave-assisted, citrus aurantium

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17 Seasonal Variation of the Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L. Cultivated in Algerian Sahara

Authors: N. Belboukhari, A. Cheriti, K. Fyad, Y. Bourmita

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Many industries are involved by using essential oils such as food, flavour, and beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance. Apiaceae species are usually herbs, rarely schrubs characterized particularly by its inflorescence typical umbel. Many species of this family have been widely used in folk medicine throughout the world. The most characteristic natural compounds in this family are the essential oils secreted in schizogenous canals in all organs with remarkable variability chemical composition. As a part of our investigation into medicinal plants growing in Algerian Sahara. In this study, we investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from two Apiaceae species: Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in the Sahara. The plants were selected on the basis of their use by local people to treat infectious diseases as determined in our previous ethnopharmacological study. Wild samples of Foeniculum vulgare Miller and Carum carvi L cultivated in an experimental field at the university. The harvest was made during the year 2011 according to the growth cycle stage of the plants. The essential oils of different fresh aerial parts, obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC. The results showed that the essential oils yields are not uniform among the different cycle stage. The percentage of components is significantly affected by the harvesting period of the plant material.

Keywords: essential oils, apiaceae, Sahara, growth cycle

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16 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel

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Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Water, Drying, essential oils, content, Eucalyptus camendulensis

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15 Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition of Two Ecotypes of Achillea wilhelmsii in Iran

Authors: L. Amjad, M. Torki, F. Yazdani

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The genus Achillea belongs to Asteraceae family. This plant is widely found in different regions of Iran and used for treatment of different diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Achillea wilhelmsii in Iran. The aerial parts of A. wilhelmsii collected from Shahrekord and Mazandaran Province, Iran and they were analyzed by using GC/MS. The 23, 13 compounds were identified in dried aerial parts of A. wilhelmsii from Shahrekord and Mazandaran, respectively. The major components in Shahrekord were: 1,8-Cineole (35.532%), α-pinene (22.885%), Camphor (12.238%), Camphene (8.691%), Piperitol (3.748%), Ethanone (2.274%) and The major components in Mazandaran were: 1,8-Cineole (52.951%), α-pinene (13.985%), Camphor (11.824%), Camphene (8.531%), Terpineol (2.533%), α-Thujone (2.330%). According to the results, difference in essential oil components of Achillea species in different regions may be due to the several factors that leads to change in compositions of plant.

Keywords: essential oils, GC/MS, achillea wilhelmsii

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14 Paramecuim as a Model for the Evaluation of Toxicity (Growth, Total Proteins, Respiratory and GSH Bio Marker Changes) Observed after Treatment with Essential Oils Isolated from Artemisia herba-alba Plant of Algeria

Authors: Djebar Mohamed Reda, Bouchiha Hanene, Rouabhi Rachid, Bouchama Khaled, Djebar Berrebbah Houraya

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Recently, some natural products such as essentials oils (EOs) have been used in the fields as alternative to synthetic compounds, to minimize the negative impacts to the environment. This fact has led to questions about the possible impact of EOs on ecosystems. Currently in toxicology, the use of alternative models can help to understand the mechanisms of toxic action, at different levels of organization of ecosystems. Algae, protozoa and bacteria form the base of the food chain and protozoan cells are used as bioindicators often of pollution in environment. Unicellular organisms offer the possibility of direct study of independent cells with specific characteristics of individual cells and whole organisms at the same time. This unicellular facilitates the study of physiological processes, and effects of pollutants at the cellular level, which makes it widely used to assess the toxic effects of various xenobiotics. This study aimed to verify the effects of EOs of one famous plant used tremendously in our folk medicine, namely Artemisia herba alba in causing acute toxicity (24 hours) and chronic (15 days) toxicity for model cellular (Paramecium sp). To this end, cellular’s of paramecium were exposed to various concentrations (Three doses were chosen) of EOs extracted from plant (Artemisia herba alba). In the first experiment, the cellular s cultures were exposed for 48 hours to different concentrations to determine the median lethal concentration (DL50). We followed the evolution of physiological parameters (growth), biochemical (total proteins, respiratory metabolism), as well as the variations of a bio marker the GSH. Our results highlighted a light inhibition of the growth of the protozoa as well as a disturbance of the contents of total proteins and a reduction in the reduced rate of glutathione. The polarographic study revealed a stimulation of the consumption of O2 and this at the treated cells.

Keywords: Toxicity, Growth, Proteins, essential oils, protozoa, bio indicators, bio marker, polarographic

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13 The Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Effects of the Essential Oil and the Methanolic Extract of Carum montanum (Coss. et Dur.) Benth. Et Hook. Aerial Parts from Algeria

Authors: Salah Akkal, Hayet El Kolli, Hocine Laouer, Meriem El Kolli

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The methanolic extract (ME) of C. montanum obtained by a hydo-alcoholic maceration and its polyphenol content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu method. This extract and C. montanum essential oil were screened for antimicrobial activity against 21 microbial strains by agar diffusion method. MICs of the EO were determined by the broth micro dilution method. The mechanism of action of the EO was determined on the susceptible strains by the time kill assay and the lysis experience. Antioxidant properties were studied by both free DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power techniques. The TPC in the ME showed a high level of 101.50 ± 5.33 mg GAE /mg. B. cereus was the most sensitive strain with MIC of 55.5 µg/ml , then K. pneumoniae (111 µg/ml). A remarkable decrease in a survival rate as well as in the absorbance at 260 nm were recorded, which suggest that the cytoplasm membrane is one of the targets of the EO. Antioxidant effects were concentration dependent and IC50 values were 1.09 ± 0.37 µg/ml for the EO and 65.04 ± 0.00 µg/ml for the ME by DPPH method and a reducing power dose-dependent. In conclusion, C. montanum extracts showed potent which could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oils, antioxidant activity, reducing power, apiaceae, C. montanum

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12 Antimicrobial Activity of Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil: Disc Diffusion versus Vapour Diffusion Methods

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Ferhat Mohamed Amine

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Essential Oils (EO) produced by medicinal plants have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections and are used nowadays as ethical medicines for colds. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Algerian EGEO against some respiratory tract pathogens by disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different concentrations. The chemical composition of the EGEO was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96% (v/w) of essential oil whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%) and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. By disc diffusion method, EGEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 69 mm to 75 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram +) and from 13 to 42 mm for Enterobacter sp and Escherichia coli (Gram-), respectively. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial activity was observed in the vapour phase at lower concentrations. A. baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour with DIZ varied from 38 to 42 mm. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. Else, the DIZ increased with increase in the concentration of the oil. There is growing evidence that EGEO in the vapour phase are effective antibacterial systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment or prevention of patients with respiratory tract infections or as air decontaminants in the hospital. The present study indicates that EGEO has considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oils, eucalyptus globulus, respiratory tract pathogens, vapour phase

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11 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay, Behzad Nasseri

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Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: essential oils, Biofilm Formation, Nanofibers, anti-biofilm, proteus mirabilis

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10 Effects of Essential Oils on the Intestinal Microflora of Termite (Heterotermes indicola)

Authors: Ayesha Aihetasham, Najma Arshad, Sobia Khan

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Damage causes by subterranean termites are of major concern today. Termites majorly treated with pesticides resulted in several problems related to health and environment. For this reason, plant-derived natural products specifically essential oils have been evaluated in order to control termites. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitermitic potential of six essential oils on Heterotermes indicola subterranean termite. No-choice bioassay was used to assess the termiticidal action of essential oils. Further, gut from each set of treated termite group was extracted and analyzed for reduction in number of protozoa and bacteria by protozoal count method using haemocytometer and viable bacterial plate count (dilution method) respectively. In no-choice bioassay it was found that Foeniculum vulgare oil causes high degree of mortality 90 % average mortality at 10 mg oil concentration (10mg/0.42g weight of filter paper). Least mortality appeared to be due to Citrus sinensis oil (43.33 % average mortality at 10 mg/0.42g). The highest activity verified to be of Foeniculum vulgare followed by Eruca sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Peganum harmala, Syzygium cumini and Citrus sinensis. The essential oil which caused maximum reduction in number of protozoa was P. harmala followed by T. foenum-graecum and E. sativa. In case of bacterial count E. sativa oil indicated maximum decrease in bacterial number (6.4×10⁹ CFU/ml). It is concluded that F. vulgare, E. sativa and P. harmala essential oils are highly effective against H. indicola termite and its gut microflora.

Keywords: essential oils, bacterial count, Heterotermes indicola, protozoal count

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9 Stability of Essential Oils in Pang-Rum by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai, S. Techaeoi

Abstract:

Ancient Thai perfumed powder was used as a fragrance for clothing, food, and the body. Plant-based natural Thai perfume products are known as Pang-Rum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of essential oils after six months of incubation. The chemical compositions were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in terms of the qualitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The isolation of the essential oil of natural products by incubate sample for 5 min at 40 ºC is described. The volatile components were identified by percentage of total peak areas comparing their retention times of GC chromatograph with NIST mass spectral library. The results show no significant difference in the seven chromatograms of perfumed powder (Pang-Rum) both with binder and without binder. Further identification was done by GC-MS. Some components of Pang-Rum with/without binder were changed by temperature and time.

Keywords: Stability, essential oils, GC-MS analysis, pang-rum

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8 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: essential oils, chickpea, Morocco, insecticidal activity, liriomyza cicerina

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7 Fungicidal Evaluation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants for the Management of Early Blight Pathogen (Alternaria solani) in Pakistan

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Ahmad A. Shahid, Waheed Anwar, Muhammad S. Haider

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Early blight caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer is one of the most serious foliage diseases of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). This disease causes huge crop losses and has major economic importance worldwide. The antifungal activity for three medicinal plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Syzygium aromaticum, and Eucalyptus citriodora) against Alternaria solani has been evaluated. The inhibitory potential of selected essential oils on the radial mycelial growth and germination of spore was measured in vitro at various concentrations (5%, 2.5%. 1.25%, 0.625%, and 0.312%) using agar well diffusion assay. Essential oil of E. citriodora was most effective causing 85% inhibition of mycelial growth and 88% inhibition of spore germination at 0.625% and 1.25% concentrations. Essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare also caused 80% and 82% inhibition of the above mentioned parameters but at double the concentrations 1.25% and 2.5%. While essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum was least effective in controlling the mycelial growth and spore germination with 76% and 77% inhibition at 1.25% and 2.5%. All the selected essential oils, especially E. citriodora, showed marked antimicrobial activity significant at higher concentration. These results suggest that the use of essential oils for the control of A. solani can reduce environmental risks related with commercial fungicides, lower cost for control, and the chances for resistance development. Additional studies are essential to evaluate the potential of essential oils as natural treatments for this disease.

Keywords: essential oils, potato, clove, fennel

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6 The Use of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Plant Extracts for Increased Safety and Sustainability of Dairy Products

Authors: Loreta Serniene, Dalia Sekmokiene, Justina Tomkeviciute, Lina Lauciene, Vaida Andruleviciute, Ingrida Sinkeviciene, Kristina Kondrotiene, Neringa Kasetiene, Mindaugas Malakauskas

Abstract:

One of the most important areas of product development and research in the dairy industry is the product enrichment with active ingredients as well as leading to increased product safety and sustainability. The most expanding field of the active ingredients is the various plants' CO₂ extracts with aromatic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In this study, 15 plant extracts were evaluated based on their antioxidant, antimicrobial properties as well as sensory acceptance indicators for the development of new dairy products. In order to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products, it was important to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CO₂ extract. The total phenolic content of fifteen different commercial CO₂ extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as milligrams of the Gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in gram of extract. The antioxidant activities were determined by 2.2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS) methods. The study revealed that the antioxidant activities of investigated CO₂ extract vary from 4.478-62.035 µmole Trolox/g, while the total phenolic content was in the range of 2.021-38.906 mg GAE/g of extract. For the example, the estimated antioxidant activity of Chinese cinnamon (Cinammonum aromaticum) CO₂ extract was 62.023 ± 0.15 µmole Trolox/g and the total flavonoid content reached 17.962 ± 0.35 mg GAE/g. These two parameters suggest that cinnamon could be a promising supplement for the development of new cheese. The inhibitory effects of these essential oils were tested by using agar disc diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria, most commonly found in dairy products. The obtained results showed that essential oil of lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, P. florescens, L. monocytogenes, Br. thermosphacta, P. aeruginosa and S. typhimurium with the diameter of inhibition zones variation from 10 to 52 mm. The sensory taste acceptability of plant extracts in combination with a dairy product was evaluated by a group of sensory evaluation experts (31 individuals) by the criteria of overall taste acceptability in the scale of 0 (not acceptable) to 10 (very acceptable). Each of the tested samples included 200g grams of natural unsweetened greek yogurt without additives and 1 drop of single plant extract (essential oil). The highest average of overall taste acceptability was defined for the samples with essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis) - average score 6.67, lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) – 6.62, elderberry flower (Sambucus nigra flos.) – 6.61, lemon (Citrus limon) – 5.75 and cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) – 5.41, respectively. The results of this study indicate plant extracts of Cinnamomum cassia and Backhousia citriodora as a promising additive not only to increase the total antioxidant capacity of the milk products and as alternative antibacterial agent to combat pathogenic bacteria commonly found in dairy products but also as a desirable flavour for the taste pallet of the consumers with expressed need for safe, sustainable and innovative dairy products. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund according to the supported activity 'Research Projects Implemented by World-class Researcher Groups' under Measure No. 01.2.2-LMT-K-718.

Keywords: Dairy Products, essential oils, Antioxidant properties, cinnamon, antimicrobial properties, CO₂ plant extracts, lemon myrtle

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5 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: Food Safety, Nanotechnology, essential oils, Food Packaging

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4 Evaluation of Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Five Essential Oils

Authors: G. Ozturk, B. Demirci

Abstract:

It is well known that essential oils used for therapeutic purposes for many years. In this study, five different Pharmacopoeia grade essential oils (Achillea millefolium L., Pimpinella anisum L., Matricaria recutita L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Salvia officinalis L.) which obtained from commercial sources were evaluated for chemical compositions, synergistic antimicrobial activities, and lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitions. Volatile components were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer, simultaneously. The potential antimicrobial activity of essential oils was tested against oral pathogenic standard strains such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium striatum, Candida albicans and Candida krusei by broth microdilution methods. Ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole were used positive controls. It has been observed that the essential oils tested have average inhibitory antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration of 20-0.625 mg/mL. The active essential oils have been combined with antibiotics and synergistic effects have been evaluated by Checkerboard method. ƩFIC values were determined. In combination with antibiotics M. recutita essential oil has been shown to have a synergistic effect against S. aureus in combination with tetracycline (ƩFIC 0.46). In addition, 5-LOX inhibitory activity was measured by modifying the spectrophotometric method developed by Baylac and Racine. As a result, 5-LOX % inhibition of S. officinalis, E. globulus and M. recutita were calculated as 34.0 ± 6.66, 72.7 ± 2.78 and 27.7 ± 0.60, respectively.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oils, synergistic activity

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3 Seed Dressing and Foliar Spray of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with Some Essential Oils and Disinfectants for Suppressing Root Rot and Wilt Incidence under Field Conditions

Authors: N.S. El-Mougy, M.M. Abdel-Kader, H.M. Abouelnasr

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Under field conditions, evaluation of the efficacy of two essential oils and four commercial disinfectants as a bean seed dressing and seedlings foliar spray as a second treatment against root rot and wilt incidence. The essential oils, grape seed and Peppermint oils and the disinfectants, Gold, Revarest, Klenva, Malva were applied. Chitosan and the fungicide Topsin-M were used as comparison treatment. Essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants were applied as a bean seed dressing. Furthermore, emerged bean plants were sprayed with the same treatments. Under laboratory conditions, growth inhibition effect was observed for the isolated, tested fungi R. solani and F. oxysporum when exposed to essential oils individually or combined with disinfectants. A high inhibitor effect was recorded for Peppermint followed by grape seed oils. At concentrations of 1 and 2% of chitosan as well as Topsin M at 400 ppm showed complete reduction (100%) in the two fungal growths. Under field conditions, the obtained results showed that the applied treatments of chitosan had a superior effect on root rot and wilt disease incidence compared with other tested treatments. It was found that seed coating treatment provides good protection of emerged green bean seeds against the root pathogens attack compared with the fungicide and control treatments. Also, the application of seed dressing with essential oils accompanied by seedling spray demonstrated similar results. It was observed that essential oils had an enhancing effect against disease incidence when combined with disinfectants compared with their application. The obvious yield increase was significantly higher in all applied treatments than in fungicide and control.

Keywords: Disinfectants, essential oils, bean, root rot, Wilt

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2 Elimination of Mixed-Culture Biofilms Using Biological Agents

Authors: Csaba Vágvölgyi, Anita Vidacs, Judit Krisch

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The attachment of microorganisms to different surfaces and the development of biofilms can lead to outbreaks of food-borne diseases and economic losses due to perished food. In food processing environments, bacterial communities are generally formed by mixed cultures of different species. Plants are sources of several antimicrobial substances that may be potential candidates for the development of new disinfectants. We aimed to investigate cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris). Essential oils and their major components (cinnamaldehyde, terpinene-4-ol, and thymol) on four-species biofilms of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, P. putida, and S. aureus. Experiments had three parts: (i) determination of minimum bactericide concentration and the killing time with microdilution methods; (ii) elimination of the four-species 24– and 168-hours old biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene, tile and wood surfaces; and (iii) comparing the disinfectant effect with industrial used per-acetic based sanitizer (HC-DPE). E. coli and P. putida were more resistant to investigated essential oils and their main components in biofilm, than L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. These Gram-negative bacteria were detected on the surfaces, where the natural based disinfectant had not total biofilm elimination effect. Most promoted solutions were the cinnamon essential oil and the terpinene-4-ol that could eradicate the biofilm from stainless steel, polypropylene and even from tile, too. They have a better disinfectant effect than HC-DPE. These natural agents can be used as alternative solutions in the battle against bacterial biofilms.

Keywords: Surfaces, Biofilm, essential oils, terpinene-4-ol

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1 Effectiveness of Essential Oils as Inhibitors of Quorum Sensing Activity Using Biomonitor Strain Chromobacterium Violaceum

Authors: Ivana Cabarkapa, Zorica Tomicic, Olivera Duragic

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Antimicrobial resistance represents one of the major challenges facing humanity in the last decades. Increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens indicates the need for the development of alternative antibacterial drugs and new treatment strategies. One of the innovative emerging treatments in overcoming multidrug-resistant pathogens certainly represents the inhibition anti-quorum sensing system. For most of the food-borne pathogens, the expression of the virulence depends on their capability communication with other members of the population by means of quorum sensing (QS). QS represents a specific way of bacterial intercellular communication, which enabled owing to their ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation. QS mechanisms are responsible for controls the pathogenesis, virulence luminescence, motility, sporulation and biofilm formation of many organisms by regulating gene expression. Therefore, research in this field is being an attractive target for the development of new natural antibacterial agents. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Considering the importance of quorum sensing during bacterial pathogenesis, this research has been focused on evaluation anti - QS properties of four essential oils (EOs) Origanum heracleoticum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgare, and Thymus serpyllum, using biomonitor strain of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Tests conducted on Luria Bertani agar supplemented with N hexanol DL homoserine lacton (HHL) 10µl/50ml of agar. The anti-QS potential of the EOs was assayed in a range of concentrations of 200 – 0.39 µl/ml using the disc diffusion method. EOs of Th. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were exhibited anti-QS activity indicated by a non- pigmented ring with a dilution-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum in which they exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 6.25 µl/ml for both tested EOs. EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare were displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by the outer non-pigmented ring, in a concentration-dependent manner. The lowest dilution of EOs of O. heracleoticum and O. vulgare in which exhibited visually detectable inhibition of violacein synthesis was 1.56 and 3.25 µl/ml, respectively. Considering that, the main constituents of the tested EOs represented by monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene), anti - QS properties of tested EOs can be mainly attributed to their activity. In particular, from the scientific literature, carvacrol and thymol show a sub-inhibitory effect against foodborne pathogens. Previous studies indicated that sub-lethal concentrations of carvacrol reduced the mobility of bacteria due to the ability of interference using QS mechanism between the bacterial cells, and thereby reducing the ability of biofilm formation The precise mechanism by which carvacrol inhibits biofilm formation is still not fully understood. Our results indicated that EOs displayed different active principles, i.e., antimicrobial activity indicated by the inner clear ring and anti-QS activity indicated by an outer non- pigmented ring with visually detectable inhibition of violacein. Preliminary results suggest that EOs represent a promising alternative for effective control of the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens.

Keywords: essential oils, anti-quorum sensing activity, Chromobacterium violaceum, violacein

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