Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Essential Oil Related Abstracts

68 Antimicrobial Effect of Essential Oil of Plant Schinus molle on Some Bacteria Pathogens

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Ladjel segni

Abstract:

Humans use plants for thousands of years to treat various ailments, In many developing countries, Much of the population relies on traditional doctors and their collections of medicinal plants to cure them. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, They are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, Against dermatophytes, Those of bacterial origin. The aim of our study is to determine the antimicrobial effect of essential oils of the plant Schinus molle on some pathogenic bacteria. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional therapy. Essential oils have many therapeutic properties. In herbal medicine, They are used for their antiseptic properties against infectious diseases of fungal origin, Against dermatophytes, Those of bacterial origin. The test adopted is based on the diffusion method on solid medium (Antibiogram), This method allows to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism according to the sample studied. Our study reveals that the essential oil of the plant Schinus molle has a different effect on the resistance of germs: For Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain is a moderately sensitive with an inhibition zone of 10 mm, Further Antirobactere, Escherichia coli and Proteus are strains that represent a high sensitivity, A zone of inhibition equal to 14.66 mm.

Keywords: Microorganism, Essential Oil, antibiogram, shinus molle

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67 Assessment of Susceptibility of the Poultry Red Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) to Some Plant Preparations with Focus on Exposure Time

Authors: Shahrokh Ranjbar-Bahadori, Nima Farhadifar, Leila Mohammadyar

Abstract:

Plant preparations from thyme and garlic have been shown to be effective acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In a layer house with a history of D. gallinae problem, mites were detected in the monitoring traps for the first time and number of them was counted. Then, some rows of layer house was sprayed twice using a concentration of 0.21 mg/cm2 thyme essential oil and 0.07 mg/cm2 garlic juice and a similar row was used as an untreated control group. Red mite traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density during days 1 and 7 after treatment and always removed after 24 h. the collected mites were counted and the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) was calculated. Results showed that on day 1 and 7 after the administration of garlic extract efficacy rate was 92.05% and 74.62%, respectively. Moreover, efficacy rate on day 1 and 7 was 89.4% and 95.37% when treatment was done with thyme essential oil. It is concluded that using garlic juice to control of D. gallinae is more effective on short time. But thyme essential oil has a long time effect in compare to garlic preparation.

Keywords: Efficacy, Essential Oil, garlic, Dermanyssus gallinae, thyme

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66 Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Bunium alpinum and Bunium incrassatum

Authors: Hayet El Kolli, Hocine Laouer

Abstract:

Bunium in the world comprises about 50 to 100 species, mostly distributed in: Algeria, Italy, Pakistan, Iran, and South Africa. Bunium species have several uses like: Bunium persicum which is commonly used as antispasmodic, carminative, anti-obesity and lactogage. This plant have been widely used as an additive in food stuff such as in bread cooking, rice and yoghurt for its carminative, anti-dyspepsia and antispasmodic effect. The B. paucifolium oil has a wide spectrum of action against moulds, yeast and bacteria. The chemical compositions of Bunium incrassatum and Bunium alpinum essential oils were carry out by GC and GC/MS. Therefore, antibacterial activity of two oils was investigated by disk diffusion method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 1331, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Lysteria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Citrobacter freundii ATCC 8090, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659. A moderate antibacterial activity was found. In conclusion, it is found that essential oils of the two species are rich in sesquiterpens and other oxygenated compounds. These compounds have been reported to show bactericidal activity and the presence of phenolic compounds makes them useful antioxidants so that results confirm some ethnopharmacologique applications of these two oils of Bunium.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Phenols, Essential Oil, Bunium alpinum, Bunium incrassatum, apiaceae, sesquiterpens, antioxidant activities

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65 Chemical Constituents and Biological Evaluation of Leaves Essential Oils of Vitex agnus-castus L. Growing in the Southern-West Algeria

Authors: Khaled Sekkoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abdallah Habbab

Abstract:

Objective: This study is designed to examine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex agnus-castus. Methods: The essential oils of dry leaves of Vitex agnus-castus L. were obtained by hydro-distillation, afforded oil in the yield of 5.5% and their volatile constituents were identified by GC/MS. Antioxidant activity of the sample was determined by test system DPPH. Antifungal activity was tested against three fungal strains (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium escpansum and Aspergillus ochraceus) by direct contact method. Results: Forty-three compounds were identified, representing 98.02% of the oil. Major components of the oil were 1,8-cineole (18.27 %), caryophyllene (8.60 %), N-(M-fluorophenyl)-maleimide (6.30 %), (+)-epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (6.00 %), terpinen-4-ol (5.57 %), pyrrolo (3,2,1-jk) carbazole (5.43 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.79 %), and phenol (4.09 %). Conclusion: The chemical constituents in the essential oil from the locally grown Vitex agnus-castus were identified. Therefore, the essential oil of Vitex agnus-castus is an active candidate which would be used as antioxidant, or antifungal agent in new drugs preparation for therapy of diseases.

Keywords: Essential Oil, DPPH, GC/MS, Vitex agnus-castus

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64 The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Salvia officinalis Harvested in Boumerdes

Authors: A. Merabet, N. Behidj, N. Mezıou-Cheboutı, F. Z. Bissaad

Abstract:

The Algeria by its location, offers a rich and diverse vegetation. A large number of aromatic and medicinal plants grow spontaneously. The interest in these plants has continued to grow in recent years. Their particular properties due to the essential oil fraction can be utilized to treat microbial infections. To this end, and in the context of the valuation of the Algerian flora, we became interested in the species of the family Lamiaceae which is one of the most used as a global source of spices and extracts strong families antimicrobial potency. The plant on which we have based our choice is a species of sage "Salvia officinalis" from the Isser localized region within the province of Boumerdes. This work focuses on the study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of salvia officinalis. The extraction is carried out by HE hydrodistillation and reveals a yield of 1.06℅. The study of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil by the method of at aromatogramme shown that Gram positive bacteria are most susceptible (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) with a strong inhibition of growth. The yeast Candida albicans fungus Aspergillus niger and have shown moderately sensitive.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Salvia officinalis, steam distillation, aromatogram, anti-microbial activity

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63 Isolement and Identification of Major Constituents from Essential Oil of Launaea nudicaulis

Authors: M. Yakoubi, N. Belboukhari, A. Cheriti, K. Sekoum

Abstract:

Launaea nudicaulis (L.) Hook.f. is a desert, spontaneous plant and endemic to northem Sahara, which belongs to the Asteraceae family. This species exists in the region of Bechar (Local name; El-Rghamma). In our knowledge, no work has been founded, except studies showing the antimicrobial and antifungal activity of methalonic extract of this plant. The present paper describes the chemical composition of the essential oil from Launaea nudicaulis and qualification of isolation and identification of some pure products by column chromatography. The essential oil from the aerial parts of Launaea nudicaulis (Asteraceae) was obtained by hydroditillation in 0.4% yield, led to isolation of four several new products. The isolation is made by column chromatography and followed by GC-IK and GC-MS analysis.

Keywords: Essential Oil, asteraceae, column chromatography, GC-MS, Launaea nudicaulis, GC-FID

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62 Elucidation of Mechanism of Action of Antidepressant-Like Effect of Valeriana wallichii Maaliol Chemotype in Mice

Authors: Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, C. S. Mathela, Kanwaljit Chopra

Abstract:

Valeriana wallichii DC, an ayurvedic traditional medicine, popularly named as Indian valerian exist as three chemotypes. GC-MS analysis of V. wallichii essential oil in present study showed maaliol as the major constituent followed by the presence of β-gurjunene, acoradiene, guaiol and α-santalene. The results thus confirmed it to be a maaliol chemotype. Further, the antidepressant-like effect of root essential oil (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was investigated in both acute and chronic treatment study using forced swim test in mice. Single administration of different doses produced an inverted U shaped curve and significantly inhibited the immobility period (39.7% and 58%) at doses 10 and 40 mg/kg respectively. Standard drug imipramine significantly decreased immobility period (59.8%). None of the doses altered locomotor activity except a significant decrease of 44.9% was observed with 40 mg/kg (p < 0.05). Similarly, daily administration of essential oil for 14 days produced a dose dependent effect with significantly reduced immobility period (70.9%) at 40 mg/kg dose only whereas imipramine produced 86% decrease (p < 0.05). The neurotransmitter levels in mouse brain were estimated on day 14 after the behavioral study. Significant increase in the level of norepinephrine (10%) and dopamine (23%) (p < 0.05) was found at 40 mg/kg dose, while no change was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg doses. The antidepressant-like effect of essential oil (40 mg/kg) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with L-arginine (750 mg/kg i.p.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg i.p). On the contrary, pretreatment of mice with L-NAME (10 mg/kg i.p.) or methylene blue (10 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of essential oil (20 mg/kg). The findings thus demonstrated that nitric oxide pathway is involved in mediating antidepressant like effect of essential oil from this chemotype.

Keywords: Neurotransmitters, Essential Oil, Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype, forced swim test, nitric oxide modulators

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61 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: R. Zakaria, Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Essential Oil, electrophoretic mobility, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tween 80, zeta potential

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60 Inhibitory Effect of Helichrysum arenarium Essential Oil on the Growth of Food Contaminated Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohamadi Sani

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Helichrysum arenarium L. essential oil in "in-vitro" condition on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cereviciae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC) were determined for the essential oil at ten concentrations. Finally, the sensitivity of tested microbes to the essential oil of H. arenarium was investigated. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis (MIC=781.25 and MBC=6250 µg/ml) was more resistance than two other bacterial species. Among the tested yeasts, Saccharomyces cereviciae (MIC=97.65 and MFC=781.25 µg/ml) was more sensitive than Candida albicans, while among the fungal species, growth of Aspergillus parasiticus inhibited at lower concentration of oil than the Aspergillus flavus. The extracted essential oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus was observed in this medium with MFC values of 6250 and 390.625µg/ml, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Helichrysum arenarium L essential oil had significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity; therefore, it can be used as a natural preservation to increase the shelf life of food products.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Mic, Essential Oil, Helichrysum arenarium

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59 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis on a Few Bacteria and Fungi

Authors: M. Mehani, N. Salhi, T. Valeria, S. Ladjel

Abstract:

Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum). The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determine the fungal activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat) of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Eucalyptus camendulensis, bacteria and fungi, red river gum

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58 Micromorphological Traits and Essential Oil Contents of Valeriana tuberosa L.

Authors: Nada Bezić, Valerija Dunkić, Antonija Markovina, Mirko Rušćić

Abstract:

Valeriana is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Valerianacea family and growing wild in the sub-Mediterranean area. This abstract reports the types and distribution of trichomes and phyto-active composition of the essential oil of the Valeriana tuberosa from mountain Kozjak, near Split, Croatia. Two types of glandular trichomes: peltate (one basal epidermal cell, one short stalk cell and a small head) and capitate trichomes (one basal epidermal cell, one elongated stalk cell) were observed on leaf, using light microscopy. We analyzed the composition of the essential oil of stems and leaves of V. tuberosa species. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. The total yield of oil was 0.2%, based on dry weight of samples. Forty compounds representing 94.1% of the total oil of V. tuberosa. This essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of isovaleric acid (17.2%), geranyl isovalerate (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The present study gives additional knowledge about micromorphological traits and secondary metabolites contents on the genus Valeriana.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Croatia, isovaleric acid, Valeriana tuberosa

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57 Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum on Bacterial Strains of Hospital Origin Most Implicated in Nosocomial Infections

Authors: A. Lardjam, R. Mazid, S. Y. Boudghene, A. Izarouken, Y. Dali, N. Djebli, H. Toumi

Abstract:

Origanum glandulosum is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people for its medicinal properties. The essential oil from this plant, which grows in the west of Algeria, was studied to evaluate and determine its antibacterial activity. The extraction of the essential oil was performed by water steam distillation; the yield obtained from the aerial parts (1.78 %) is interesting, its chromatographic profile revealed by TLC showed the presence of phenolic compounds thymol and carvacrol. The evaluation of the activity of the essential oil of Origanum glandulosum on bacterial strains of hospital origin, ATCC, MRB, and HRB, most implicated in nosocomial infections (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to meticillin, Enterococcus faecium, VA R and R TEC, Acinetobacter baumanii, IMP R and R CAZ, Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing) by the method of aromatogramme and micro atmosphere, shows that the antibacterial potency of this oil is very high, expressed by significant inhibition diameters on all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and low MICs and is characterized by a bactericidal action.

Keywords: Nosocomial Infections, Essential Oil, antibacterial activity, HRB, MBR, origanum glandulosum

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56 Extraction of Grapefruit Essential Oil from Grapefruit Peels

Authors: Adithya Subramanian, S. Ananthan, T. Prasanth, S. P. Selvabharathi

Abstract:

This project involves extraction of grapefruit essential oil from grapefruit peels using various oils like castor oil, gingelly oil, olive oil as carrier oils. The main aim of this project is to extract the oil which has numerous medicinal uses. The extraction can be performed by two methods. Project involves extraction of the oil with various carrier oil in a view to reduce the cost of production and the physical properties of the extracted oil are examined.

Keywords: Essential Oil, carrier oil, medicinal uses, cost of production

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55 Effect of Nitrogen and/or Bio-Fertilizer on the Yield, Total Flavonoids, Carbohydrate Contents, Essential Oil Quantity and Constituents of Dill Plants

Authors: Mohammed S. Aly, Abou-Zeid N. El-Shahat, Nabila Y. Naguib, Huussie A. Said-Al Ahl, Atef M. Zakaria, Mohamed A. Abou Dahab

Abstract:

This study was conducted during two successive seasons of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to evaluate the response of Anethum graveolens L. plants to nitrogen fertilizer with or without bio-fertilizer on fruits yield, total flavonoids and carbohydrates content, essential oil yield and constituents. Results cleared that the treatment of 60 Kg N/feddan without and with bio-fertilizer gave the highest umbels number per plant through the two seasons and these increments were significant in comparison with control plants. Meanwhile, fruits weight (g/plant) showed significant increase with the treatments of nitrogen fertilizers alone and combined with bio-fertilizers compared with control plants in the first and second season. Maximum increments were resulted with the previous treatment (60 Kg N/fed). Fruits yield (Kg/fed) revealed the same trend of fruits weight (g/plant). Total flavonoids contents were significantly increased with all of used treatments. Maximum increase was noticed with bio-fertilizers combined with 60 Kg N/fed during two seasons. Total carbohydrate contents showed significant increase with applied nitrogen fertilizers treatments as alone, meanwhile total carbohydrate contents were increased non-significantly with the other used treatments during the two seasons in comparison with control plants content. The treatment of bio-fertilizer and in most of nitrogen fertilizer levels significantly increased essential oil percentage, content and yield. The treatment of 60 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizer gave the best values. All identified compounds were observed in the essential oil of all treatments. The major compounds were limonene, carvone and dillapiole. The most effective fertilization on limonene content was 40 Kg N/fed and/or bio-fertilizers. Meanwhile 20 Kg N/fed with or without bio-fertilizers increased carvone, but most of fertilization treatments except those of bio-fertlizers and 40 Kg N/fed increased dillapiole content.

Keywords: fertilizer, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Essential Oil, dill

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54 Essential Oil Compounds and Antioxidant Activity for α-Thujene Rich Two Species of Artemisia

Authors: Reza Dehghani Bidgoli

Abstract:

Although Artemisia species are one of the most important medicinal plants, there are a few reports on chemistry or activity of their essential oils because of low amounts of the oils in this genus. In this study, chemical composition of essential oils leaves and stems of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri growing wild in Kashan rangelands, central Iran, have been analyzed using GC–MS technique. Analysis revealed 50 identified compounds, representing 96.55% of the oil and 23 identified compounds representing 97.83% of the oil on Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri respectively. The yield of essential oil extraction is very higher than those of previous reports. In both plants α-thujene is the main component in both of them, with an extra value, 74.42%, in aucheri species. Several compounds (some with significant compositions), were found in these varieties of Artemisia which are not recorded in previous literature. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils were evaluated for the first time in this research work using β-carotene/linoleic acid assay and found to be surprisingly attributed directly to α-pinene contents in them.

Keywords: Essential Oil, antioxidant activity, artemisia aucheri, artemisia sieberi, α-thujene

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53 GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from the Leaves and Fruits of Artemesia Campestris from Algeria

Authors: B. Bakchiche, H. Guenane, M. Bireche, A. Noureddinne, A. Gherib

Abstract:

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were β-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by α-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Algeria, GC-MS, Artemesia campestris

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52 Insecticidial Effects of Essential Oil of Carum copticum on Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors: Giti Sabri, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi

Abstract:

Recently, there has been a growing interest in research concerning the possible use of plant extracts as alternatives to synthetic insecticides. In this research, the insecticidal effects of Carum copticum essential oils against rice weevil adults were investigated in laboratory condition. Essential oils was extracted through distillation with water using Clevenger apparatus. Tests of randomized complete block included six concentrations and three replications for essential oils (fumigant toxicity) along with control treatment in condition of 27±1ºC degrees Celsius temperature, relative humidity of 65 ± 5 percent and darkness. LC50 values were calculated by SPSS.21.0 software which presented the value of LC50 of Carum copticum essential oils after 48 hurs, 187.35± 0.40 µl/l air on rice weevil adults. Results showed that increasing the concentration of essential oils increased the mortality rate cases. The results also showed that essential oils of Carum copticum are effective biological sources which can effectively protect stored grain from infestation by the rice weevil; although for application of these combinations further research may be needed.

Keywords: Essential Oil, insecticidial effects, Carum copticum, Sitophilus oryzae

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51 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila (Algeria)

Authors: F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia, Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7%. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and three fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Artemisia herba-alba, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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50 Chemical Composition of Essential Oil and in vitro Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity of the Hydroalcolic Extract from Coronilla varia

Authors: A. A. Dehpour, B. Eslami, S. Rezaie, S. F. Hashemian, F. Shafie, M. Kiaie

Abstract:

The aims of study were investigation on chemical composition essential oil and the effect of extract of Coronilla varia on antimicrobial and cytotoxicity activity. The essential oils of Coronilla varia is obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by (GC/MS) for determining their chemical composition and identification of their components. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was determined by disc diffusion method. The effect of hydroalcolic extracts from Cornilla varia investigated on MCF7 cancer cell line by MTT assay. The major components were Caryophyllene Oxide (60.19%), Alphacadinol (4.13%) and Homoadantaneca Robexylic Acid (3.31%). The extracts from Coronilla varia had interesting activity against Proteus mirabilis in the concentration of 700 µg/disc and did not show any activity against Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Entrobacter cloacae. The positive control, Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cenphalothin had shown zone of inhibition resistant all bacteria. Corohilla varia ethanol extract could inhibit the proliferation of MCF7 cell line in RPMI 1640 medium. IC50 5(mg/ml) was the optimum concentration of extract from Coronilla varia inhibition of cell line growth. The MCF7 cancer cell line and Proteus mirabilis were more sensitive to Coronilla varia ethanol extract.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Essential Oil, anticancer, Coronilla varia, hela cell line

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49 Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene, Khaled Benyounes Nadjiba Chebouti1and F/Zohra Bissaad

Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Daucus carota, α-Pinene, carotol, limonene

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48 Effects of Collection Time on Chemical Composition of Leaf Essential Oils of Hoslundia opposita

Authors: L. A. Usman, O. E. Ogunjinmi, N. O. Olawore, S. O. Ogunjinmi

Abstract:

An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds produced by plants. It has been established that several factors affect the component of the plants such as the texture of the soil, relative humidity, wind, and collection time. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of collection time on the chemical composition of this essential oil. Pulverized leaves (500 g) of Hoslundia opposite harvested in the morning (7 am) and afternoon (2 pm) of the same day were separately hydrodistilled using Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oils from the leaves. The leaf oils collected in the morning (7 am) and afternoon (2 pm) harvests yielded 0.54 and 0.65 %w/w respectively. Analysis of the leaf oil obtained in the morning, using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography combined mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed the presence of twenty-three (23) compounds which made up 81.8% of the total oil while nineteen (19) compounds (93.2%) were identified in the afternoon leaf essential oil. The most abundant components of the leaf oil collected in the morning (7 am) harvest were p-cymene (28.7%), sabinene (7.1%) and 1,8-cineole (6.6%) Meanwhile the major components of leaf oil in the afternoon (2 pm) harvest were p-cymene (26.4%), thymol (15.3%), 1,8-cineole (15.0%) and g-terpinene (10.4%). The composition pattern of leaf oil obtained in the morning and afternoon harvests of Hoslundia opposite revealed significant differences in qualitative and quantitative.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Hoslundia opposita, para cymene

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47 Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Artemisia herba-alba Asso Essential Oil Growing in M’sila, Algeria

Authors: F. Z. Benrebiha, C. Chaouia, Asma Meliani, S. Lakehal

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in phytochemicals as new source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plants essential oils have come more into the focus of phytomedicine. Many researchers have reported various biological and/or pharmacological properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. The present study describes antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil. Artemisia herba alba Asso essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation (using Clevenger type apparatus) growing in Algeria (M’sila) was analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oil yield of the study was 0.7 %. The major components were found to be camphor, chrysanthenone et 1,8-cineole. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against four bacteria (Gram-negative and Gram-positive) and one fungi using the diffusion method and by determining the inhibition zone. The oil was found to have significant antibacterial activity. In addition, antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric reducing (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test, and high activity was found for Artemisia herba-alba oil.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Artemisia herba-alba, antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity

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46 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus lanceolatus Desf. an Endemic Thyme from Algeria

Authors: Tahar Dob, Ahmed Nouasri, Toumi Mohamed, Dahmane Dahmane, Soumioa Krimat, Lynda Lamari, Chabane Chelghom

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition for the first time, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil (EO) of Thymus lanceolatus Desf., an endemic thyme from Tiaret province of Algeria. The chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from flowering aerial parts has been analyzed by GC and GC/MS techniques, the antimicrobial activity was realised by agar disc diffusion method and MIC was determined in solid medium by direct contact. Essential oil of T. lanceolataus has been yielded of 2.336 (w/w) based on dry weight, the analyses cited above, led to the identification of 29 components, which accounted for 97.34% of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes was the main fraction (88.31%) dominated by thymol (80.2%) as major component of this oil, followed by carvacrol (6.25%). The oil was found effective against all tested strains especially fungus, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa were low activity observed, in addition Gram (+) bacteria found to be more sensitive to the EO than Gram (-) bacteria. This activity was ranging from12±2.65mm to 60.00±0.00mm Ø, with the lowest MIC value of under 0.06mg/ml to 12.53mg/ml. This results provided the evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents

Keywords: Chemical Composition, Essential Oil, antimicrobial activities, Thymus lanceolatus Desf

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45 Analyzing Antimicrobial Power of Cotula cinerea Essential Oil: Case of Western Algeria

Authors: B. Dennai, A. Abdenbi, B. Touati, M. Bouaaza, A. Saad

Abstract:

The essential oils of many plants have become popular in recent years and their bioactive principles have recently won several industry sectors, however their use as antibacterial and anti fungal agents has been reported. This study focuses on the physico chemical and phyto chemical with a study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plant of southwest Algeria, this essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation of aerial parts of Cotula cinerea, belonging to the Asteraceae family, it is very extensive in the spring season in a region called Kenadza road, located 12km from Bechar. Variable anti fungal activity of the essential oil of Cotula cinerea (yield 2%) were revealed about four fungal strains, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of essential oils were determined by the method of dilution in agar. Significant fungal sensitivity of Penicillium sp with an inhibition of 32.3 mm area.

Keywords: Essential Oil, Cotula cinerea, physico- chemical analysis and phyto- chemical, anti fungal power

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44 Chemical Composition and Biological Investigation of Halpophyllum tuberculatum A. Juss (Rutaceae) Essential Oils Growing in Libya

Authors: O. M. M. Sabry, Abeer M. El Sayed

Abstract:

The essential oils from the aerial parts and flowers of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) Adr. Juss (Rutaceae) growing in Libya were obtained separately by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oils yield were (0.4, 1.5w/w%) respectively based on the dry weight of the plant. The oils were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty four constituents, amounting to 96.6%, were identified in the oil of the aerial parts. The predominant compounds were among the non oxygenated terpenoids (82.4%) as monoterpene hydrocarbons, represented by sabinen (26.4 %), δ-terpinen (26 %), β-phellandrene (10.4%) and 3-carene (3.86%). Zingiberine (0.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (0.12%) were the major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified. Oxygenated monoterpenes were represented by eucalyptol (5.5%) and piperitone (5.55%). Twenty six constituents, equivalent to 99.5%, were identified in the oil of the flowers. The dominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons in the flowers oil can be attributed to the high percentage of γ-terpinen (38.44%), β-phellandrene (10.0%), α- phellandrene (2.33%), 3,4-dimethyl-1,5-cyclooctadiene (6.67%), β-myrecene (6.04%), 3-carene (5.43%) and α-pinene (1.3%).While the oxygenated monoterpenes can be contributed to the trans-piperitol (4.67%) and piperitone (2.07%). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were not identified in the oil of the flower of H. tuberculatum. Variation in constitution between oils of Libyan H. tuberculatum and that obtained from other countries can be due to both environmental and genetic factors. The essential oils have demonstrated variable antimicrobial activities against certain micro-organisms. Also have revealed marked in vitro cytotoxicity against lung (H1299), liver (HEPG2) carcinoma cell line and variably effective as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Essential Oil, Libya, antioxidant, antitumor, rutaceae, Halpophyllum tuberculatum

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43 Efficiency of Lavandula angustifolia Mill and Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oils on nutritional indices of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Col.: Tenebrionidae)

Authors: Karim Saeidi

Abstract:

One of the most important pests in the warehouses is the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Col.: Tenebrionidae). Regarding the high degree of damage of stored product pests and dangerous effects of the chemical control using plant extracts and their components are some of the best approaches to control these pests. Antifeedant activity of plant extracts from Lavandula angustifolia Mill and Zataria multiflora Boiss using hydro-distillation were tested against the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. The nutritional indices: relative growth rate (RGR), relative consumption rate (RCR), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and feeding deterrence index (FDI) were measured for adult insects. Treatments were evaluated using a flour disk bioassay in the dark; at 25±1ᵒC and 60±5% R. H. Concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, and 2 μl/disk were prepared from each essential oil. After 72 h, nutritional indices were calculated. L. angustifolia oils were more effective than Z. multiflora oils by significantly decreasing the RGR, RCR, and ECI. Feeding deterrence index (FDI) of L. angustifolia essential oil was increased significantly as essential oil concentration increased. The essential oil of L. angustifolia was more effective on FDI than Z. multiflora in some concentration.

Keywords: Essential Oil, nutritional indices, Tribolium confusum

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42 Antioxidant Activity of the Methanolic Extract and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria

Authors: Nassim Belkacem, Amina Azzam, Dalila Haouchine, Kahina Bennacer, Samira Soufit

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract along with the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in the region of Bejaia (northern center of Algeria). Materials and methods: The polyphenols and flavonoids contents of the methanolic extract were measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using two methods: the ABTS method and DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method against five bacterial strains (Three Gram positive strains and two Gram negative strains) and one fungus. Results: The total polyphenol and flavonoid content was about 43.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GA Eq/g) and 7.04 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (Q Eq/g), respectively. In the ABTS assay, the rosemary extract has shown an inhibition of 98.02% at the concentration of 500ug/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 194.92ug/ml. The results of DPPH assay have shown that the rosemary extract has an inhibition of 94.67 % with an IC50 value of 17.87ug/ml, which is lower than that of Butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) about 6.03ug/ml and ascorbic acid about 1.24μg/ml. The yield in essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation was 1.42%. Based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition, different antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was revealed against the six tested microbes. Escherichia coli from the University Hospital (UH), Streptococcus aureus (UH) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC have a minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) of 62.5µl/ml. However, Bacillus sp (UH) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC have an MIC value of 125μl/ml. The inhibition zone against Candida sp was about 24 mm. The aromatograms showed that the essential oil of rosemary exercises an antifungal activity more important than the antibacterial one.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential Oil, antioxidant, Rosmarinus officinalis L, maceration

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41 Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene

Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physic-chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: Essential Oil, Daucus carota, α-Pinene, carotol, limonene

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40 Preservative Potentials of Piper Guineense on Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit

Authors: Grace O. Babarinde, Adegoke O.Gabriel, Rahman Akinoso, Adekanye Bosede R.

Abstract:

Health risks associated with the use of synthetic chemicals to control post-harvest losses in fruit calls for use of natural biodegradable compounds. The potential of Piper guineense as postharvest preservative for Roma tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was investigated. Freshly harvested red tomato (200 g) was dipped into five concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% w/v) of P. guineense aqueous extract, while untreated fruits served as control. The samples were stored under refrigeration and analysed at 5-day interval for physico-chemical properties. P. guineense essential oil (EO) was characterised using GC-MS and its tomato preservative potential was evaluated. Percentage weight loss (PWL) in extract-treated tomato ranged from 0.0-0.68% compared to control (0.3-19.97%) during storage. Values obtained for firmness ranged from 8.23-16.88 N and 8.4 N in extract-treated and control. pH reduced from 5.4 to 4.5 and 3.7 in extract-treated and untreated samples, respectively. Highest value of Total Soluble Solid (1.8 °Brix) and maximum retention of Ascorbic acid (13.0 mg/100 g) were observed in 4% P. guineense-treated samples. Predominant P. guineense EO components were zingiberene (9.9%), linalool (10.7%), β-caryophyllene (12.6%), 1, 5-Heptadiene, 6-methyl-2-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexene-l-yl) (16.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (23.7%). Tomatoes treated with EO had lower PWL (5.2%) and higher firmness (14.2 N) than controls (15.3% and 11.9 N) respectively. The result indicates that P. guineense can be incorporated in to post harvest technology of Roma tomato fruit.

Keywords: Essential Oil, aqueous extract, piper guineense, Roma tomato, storage condition

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39 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Daucus Gracilis Extracts

Authors: El Kolli Meriem, Laouer Hocine, Sahli Farida, Akkal Salah, El Kolli Hayet

Abstract:

The aerial parts of Daucus gracilis (Apiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation by a Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil (EO) which has been analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The antioxidant properties of this EO and D. gracilis methanolic extract were studied by both of the free diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the reducing power techniques. The dominant constituents of the EO were the elemicin (35.3 %) and the geranyl acetate (26.8 %). Both of EO and methanolic extract showed important antioxidant properties with respectively IC50 of 0,002 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml. They showed also a reducing power dose-dependent.

Keywords: Essential Oil, antioxidant activity, apiaceae, daucus gracilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 164