Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Escherichia coli Related Abstracts

36 Efficiency of Background Chlorine Residuals against Accidental Microbial Episode in Proto-Type Distribution Network (Rig) Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi, Luiza Campos, Qizhi Zhou, Kim Keu


A quadratic model (p ˂ 0.0001) was developed by using central composite design of 50 experimental runs (42 non-center + 8 center points) to assess efficiency of background chlorine residuals in combating accidental microbial episode in a prototype distribution network (DN) (rig). A known amount of background chlorine residuals were maintained in DN and a required number of bacteria, Escherichia coli K-12 strain were introduced by an injection port in the pipe loop system. Samples were taken at various time intervals at different pipe lengths. Spread plate count was performed to count bacterial number. The model developed was significant. With microbial concentration and time (p ˂ 0.0001), pipe length (p ˂ 0.022), background chlorine residuals (p ˂ 0.07) and time^2 (p ˂ 0.09) as significant factors. The ramp function of variables shows that at the microbial count of 10^6, at 0.76 L/min, and pipe length of 133 meters, a background residual chlorine 0.16 mg/L was enough for complete inactivation of microbial episode in approximately 18 minutes.

Keywords: central composite design (CCD), distribution network, Escherichia coli, residual chlorine

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35 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: Nanomaterial, Antibiotic, Staphylococcus aureus, TEM, Escherichia coli

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34 Production and Purification of Salmonella Typhimurium MisL Autotransporter Protein in Escherichia coli

Authors: Neslihan Taskale Karatug, Mustafa Akcelik


Some literature data show that misL protein play a role on host immune response formed against Salmonella Typhimurium. The aim of the present study is to learn the role of the protein in S. Typhimurium pathogenicity. To describe certain functions of the protein, primarily recombinant misL protein was produced and purified. PCR was performed using a primer set targeted to passenger domain of the misL gene on S. Typhimurium LT2 genome. Amplicon and pet28a vector were enzymatically cleaved with EcoRI and NheI. The digested DNA materials were purified with High Pure PCR Product Purification Kit. The ligation reaction was achieved with the pure products. After preparation of competent Escherichia coli Dh5α, ligation mix was transformed into the cell by electroporation. To confirm the existence of insert gene, recombinant plasmid DNA of Dh5α was isolated with high pure plasmid DNA kit. Proved the correctness of recombinant plasmid was electroporated to BL21. The cell was induced by IPTG. After induction, the presence of recombinant protein was checked by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant misL protein was purified using HisPur Ni-NTA spin colon. The pure protein was shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot immünoassay. The concentration of the protein was measured BCA Protein Assay kit. In the wake of ligation with digested products (2 kb misL and 5.4 kb pet28a) visualised on gel size of the band was about 7.4 kb and was named as pNT01. The pNT01 recombinant plasmid was transformed into Dh5α and colonies were chosen in selective medium. Plasmid DNA isolation from them was carried out. PCR was achieved on the pNT01 to check misL and 2 kb band was observed on the agarose gel. After electroporation of the plasmid and induction of the cell, 68 kDa misL protein was seen. Subsequent to the purification of the protein, only a band was observed on SDS-PAGE. Association of the pure protein with anti-his antibody was verified by the western blot assay. The concentration of the pure misL protein was determined as 345 μg/mL. Production of polyclonal antibody will be achieved by using the obtained pure recombinant misL protein as next step. The role of the protein will come out on the immune system together some assays.

Keywords: Cloning, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, recombinant protein purification

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33 Prevalence of Extended Spectrum of Beta Lactamase Producers among Gram Negative Uropathogens

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level with a high rate of morbidity . This is further augmented by increase in the number of resistant and multi resistant strains of bacteria particularly by those producing Extended spectrum of beta lactamases. The present study was aimed at analysis of antibiograms of E.coli and Klebsiella sp causing urinary tract infections. Between November 2011 and April 2013, a total of 1120 urine samples were analyzed,. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done with 542(48%) isolates of E.coli and 446(39%) of Klebsiella sp using the standard disc diffusion method against eleven commonly used antibiotics .Organisms showed high susceptibility to Amikacin and Netilimicin and low susceptibility to Cephalosporins. MAR index was calculated for the multidrug resistant strains. Maximum MAR index detected among the isolates was 0.9. Phenotypic identification for ESBL production was confirmed by double disk synergy test (DDST) according to CLSI guidelines. Plasmid profile of the isolates was carried out using alkaline hydrolysis method. Agarose-gel electrophoresis showed presence of high-molecular weight plasmid DNA among the ESBL strains. This study emphasizes the importance of indiscriminate use of antibiotics which if discontinued, in turn would prevent further development of bacterial drug resistance. For this, a proper knowledge of susceptibility pattern of uropathogens is necessary before prescribing empirical antibiotic therapy and it should be made mandatory.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, extended spectrum of beta lactamase, Klebsiella spp, Uropathogens

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32 Virulence Phenotypes among Multi Drug Resistant Uropathogenic E. Coli and Klebsiella SPP

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in the community. Susceptible individuals experience multiple episodes, and progress to acute pyelonephritis or uro-sepsis or develop asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Ability to cause extraintestinal infections depends on several virulence factors required for survival at extraintestinal sites. Presence of virulence phenotypes enhances the pathogenicity of these otherwise commensal organisms and thus augments its ability to cause extraintestinal infections, the most frequent in urinary tract infections(UTI). The present study focuses on detection of the virulence characters exhibited by the uropathogenic organism and most common factors exhibited in the local pathogens. A total of 700 isolates of E.coli and Klebsiella spp were included in the study.These were isolated from patients from local hospitals reported to be suffering with UTI over a period of three years. Isolation and identification was done based on Gram character and IMVIC reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity profile was carried out by disc diffusion method and multi drug resistant strains with MAR index of 0.7 were further selected. Virulence features examined included their ability to produce exopolysaccharides, protease- gelatinase production, hemolysin production, haemagglutination and hydrophobicity test. Exopolysaccharide production was most predominant virulence feature among the isolates when checked by congo red method. The biofilms production examined by microtitre plates using ELISA reader confirmed that this is the major factor contributing to virulencity of the pathogens followed by hemolysin production.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Uropathogens, virulence features

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31 Virulence Phenotypes Among Multi-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Y. V. S. Annapurna, V. V. Lakshmi


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases seen in the community. Susceptible individuals experience multiple episodes, and progress to acute pyelonephritis or uro-sepsis or develop asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Ability to cause extraintestinal infections depends on several virulence factors required for survival at extraintestinal sites. Presence of virulence phenotypes enhances the pathogenicity of these otherwise commensal organisms and thus augments its ability to cause extraintestinal infections, the most frequent in urinary tract infections(UTI). The present study focuses on detection of the virulence characters exhibited by the uropathogenic organism and most common factors exhibited in the local pathogens. A total of 700 isolates of E.coli and Klebsiella spp were included in the study. These were isolated from patients from local hospitals reported to be suffering with UTI over a period of three years. Isolation and identification was done based on Gram character and IMVIC reactions. Antibiotic sensitivity profile was carried out by disc diffusion method and multi drug resistant strains with MAR index of 0.7 were further selected.. Virulence features examined included their ability to produce exopolysaccharides, protease- gelatinase production, hemolysin production, haemagglutination and hydrophobicity test. Exopolysaccharide production was most predominant virulence feature among the isolates when checked by congo red method. The biofilms production examined by microtitre plates using ELISA reader confirmed that this is the major factor contributing to virulencity of the pathogens followed by hemolysin production

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Uropathogens, virulence features, Klebsiella sp

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30 Optimization of Fermentation Parameters for Bioethanol Production from Waste Glycerol by Microwave Induced Mutant Escherichia coli EC-MW (ATCC 11105)

Authors: Refal Hussain, Saifuddin M. Nomanbhay


Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as bioethanol through microbial fermentation. Bioethanol is an important industrial chemical with emerging potential as a biofuel to replace vanishing fossil fuels. The yield of liquid fuel in this process was greatly influenced by various parameters viz, temperature, pH, glycerol concentration, organic concentration, and agitation speed were considered. The present study was undertaken to investigate optimum parameters for bioethanol production from raw glycerol by immobilized mutant Escherichia coli (E.coli) (ATCC11505) strain on chitosan cross linked glutaraldehyde optimized by Taguchi statistical method in shake flasks. The initial parameters were set each at four levels and the orthogonal array layout of L16 (45) conducted. The important controlling parameters for optimized the operational fermentation was temperature 38 °C, medium pH 6.5, initial glycerol concentration (250 g/l), and organic source concentration (5 g/l). Fermentation with optimized parameters was carried out in a custom fabricated shake flask. The predicted value of bioethanol production under optimized conditions was (118.13 g/l). Immobilized cells are mainly used for economic benefits of continuous production or repeated use in continuous as well as in batch mode.

Keywords: Optimization, Bioethanol, immobilization, Escherichia coli

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29 Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Genes and DNA Damage Induced by Endotoxic Shock in Laying Hens

Authors: Ahmed Abbas, Mariam G. Eshak, M. I. El-Sabry, M. M. Mashaly


This investigation was conducted to determine the physiological response and evaluate the expression of inflammatory and cell death genes and DNA damage induced by endotoxic shock in laying hens. Endotoxic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of 107 Escherichia coli (E. coli,) colony/hen. In the present study, 240 forty-week-old laying hens (H&N) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 40 birds each. Hens were reared in battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all groups. At 42-wk of age, 45 hens from the first group (15 replicate) were infected with E. coli, while the same number of hens from the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) expression, plasma corticosterone concentration, body temperature, and the gene expression of bax, caspase-3 activity, P38, Interlukin-1β (Il-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes and DNA damage in the brain and liver were measured. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P≤0.05) increase of body temperature by 1.2 ᴼC and plasma corticosterone by 3 folds compared to the controls. Further, hens injected with E.Coli showed markedly over-expression of HSP-70 and increase DNA damage in brain and liver. These results were synchronized with activating cell death program since our data showed significant (P≤0.05) high expression of bax and caspase-3 activity genes in the brain and liver. These results were related to remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α in brain and liver. In conclusion, our results indicate that endotoxic shock induces inflammatory physiological response and triggers cell death program by promoting P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression in the brain and liver.

Keywords: Gene expression, Inflammation, Chicken, DNA damage, Escherichia coli

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28 The Determination of Contamination Rate of Traditional White Cheese in Behbahan Markets to Coliforms and Pathogenic Escherichia Coli

Authors: Sana Mohammad Jafar, Hossaini Seyahi Zohreh


Infections and food intoxication caused by microbial contamination of food is of major issues in different countries, and diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated food included a large percentage of the country's health problems. Since traditional cheese for cultural reasons, good taste and smell in many parts of the area still has the important place in people's food basket, transmission of pathogenic bacteria could be at risk human health through the consumption of this food. In this study selected randomly 100 samples of 250 grams of traditional cheeses supplied in the city Behbahan market and adjacent to the ice was transferred to the laboratory and microbiological tests were performed immediately. According to the results, from 100 samples tested traditional cheese, 94 samples (94% of samples) were contaminated with coliforms, which of this number 75 samples (75% of samples) the contamination rate was higher than the limit (more than 100 cfu/g). Of the total samples, 36 samples (36% of samples) were contaminated with fecal coliform which of this number 30 samples (30% of samples) were contaminated with Escherichia.coli bacteria. Based on the results of agglutination test,no samples was found positive as pathogenic Escherichia.coli.

Keywords: determination, Escherichia coli, traditional cheese, Behbahan

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27 Mongolian Water Quality Problem and Health of Free-Grazing Sheep

Authors: Yu Yoshihara, Chika Tada, Moe Takada, Nyam-Osor Purevdorj, Khorolmaa Chimedtseren, Yutaka Nakai


Water pollution from animal waste and its influence on grazing animals is a current concern regarding Mongolian grazing lands. We allocated 32 free-grazing lambs to four groups and provided each with water from a different source (upper stream, lower stream, well, and pond) for 49 days. We recorded the amount of water consumed by the lambs, as well as their body weight, behavior, white blood cell count, acute phase (haptoglobin) protein level, and fecal condition. We measured the chemical and biological qualities of the four types of water, and we detected enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in fecal samples by using a genetic approach. Pond water contained high levels of nitrogen and minerals, and well water contained high levels of bacteria. The odor concentration index decreased in order from pond water to upper stream, lower stream, and well. On day 15 of the experiment, the following parameters were the highest in lambs drinking water from the following sources: water intake (pond or lower stream), body weight gain (pond), WBC count (lower stream), haptoglobin concentration (well), and enteropathogenic E. coli infection rate (lower stream). Lambs that drank well water spent more time lying down and less time grazing than the others, and lambs that drank pond water spent more time standing and less time lying down. Lambs given upper or lower stream water exhibited more severe diarrhea on day 15 of the experiment than before the experiment. Mongolian sheep seemed to adapt to chemically contaminated water: their productivity benefited the most from pond water, likely owing to its rich mineral content. Lambs that drank lower stream water showed increases in enteropathogenic E. coli infection, clinical diarrhea, and WBC count. Lambs that drank well water, which was bacteriologically contaminated, had increased serum acute phase protein levels and poor physical condition; they were thus at increased risk of negative health and production effects.

Keywords: Dna, Escherichia coli, fecal sample, lower stream, well water

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26 Molecular Biomonitoring of Bacterial Pathogens in Wastewater

Authors: Sahar Zaki, Desouky Abd El Haleem


This work was conducted to develop a one-step multiplex PCR system for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of three different bacterial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella spp, directly in wastewater without prior isolation on selective media. As a molecular confirmatory test after isolation of the pathogens by classical microbiological methods, PCR-RFLP of their amplified 16S rDNA genes was performed. It was observed that the developed protocols have significance impact in the ability to detect sensitively, rapidly and specifically the three pathogens directly in water within short-time, represents a considerable advancement over more time-consuming and less-sensitive methods for identification and characterization of these kinds of pathogens.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, bacterial pathogens

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25 Cell Surface Display of Xylanase on Escherichia coli by TibA Autotransporter

Authors: Yeng Min Yi, Rosli Md Illias, Salehhuddin Hamdan


Industrial biocatalysis is mainly based on the use of cell free or intracellular enzyme systems. However, the expensive cost and relatively lower operational stability of free enzymes limit practical use in industries. Cell surface display system can be used as a cost-efficient alternative to overcome the laborious purification and substrate transport limitation. In this research, TibA autotransporter from E. coli was used to display Aspergillus fumigatus xylanase (xyn). The amplified xyn was fused in between N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal β-barrel of TibA. The cloned was transformed and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Outer membrane localization of TibA-xyn fusion protein was confirmed by SDS PAGE and western blot with expected size of 62.5 kDa. Functional display of xyn was examined by activity assay. Cell surface displayed xyn exhibited the highest activity at 37 °c, 0.3 mM IPTG. As a summary, TibA displaying system has the potential for further industrial applications. Moreover, this is the first report of the display of xylanase using TibA on the surface of E. coli.

Keywords: Biocatalysis, Escherichia coli, cell surface display, TibA autotransporter

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24 Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Flora of the Intestinal Microbiota of Rattus norvegicus an Algerian Firm West

Authors: B. Meddah, Karima Ould Yerou, A. Tir Touil


The intestinal flora also called the intestinal microbiota, consists of different bacteria and other microorganisms which occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract organs components. These intestinal bacteria are present in their millions and help the functioning of the body in particular allowing aid to degradation of certain molecules into absorbable substrates. They also protect against invasion of the gut by other pathogenic bacteria, that is to say which may be responsible for disease. Factors like stress, antibiotics and diet can affect the balance of intestinal flora and in case of imbalance, digestive disorders type bloating, diarrhea or vomiting may occur. Rattus norvegicus of bad weight of 100 kg, an Algerian firm West are scarified and isolation of their ileum and colon respectively two Bactrian strains Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus are then purified and identified.

Keywords: Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Rattus norvegicus, intestinal flora, West Algerian farm

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23 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović


In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Metal, Escherichia coli, benzimidazoles, complexes

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22 Modification of Escherichia coli PtolT Expression Vector via Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Authors: Yakup Ulusu, Numan Eczacıoğlu, İsa Gökçe, Helen Waller, Jeremy H. Lakey


Besides having the appropriate amino acid sequence to perform the function of proteins, it is important to have correct conformation after this sequence to process. To consist of this conformation depends on the amino acid sequence at the primary structure, hydrophobic interaction, chaperones and enzymes in charge of folding etc. Misfolded proteins are not functional and tend to be aggregated. Cysteine originating disulfide cross-links make stable this conformation of functional proteins. When two of the cysteine amino acids come side by side, disulfide bond is established that forms a cystine bridge. Due to this feature cysteine plays an important role on the formation of three-dimensional structure of many proteins. There are two cysteine amino acids (C44, C69) in the Tol-A-III protein. Unlike protein disulfide bonds from within his own, any non-specific cystine bridge causes a change in the three dimensional structure of the protein. Proteins can be expressed in various host cells as directly or fusion (chimeric). As a result of overproduction of the recombinant proteins, aggregation of insoluble proteins in the host cell can occur by forming a crystal structure called inclusion body. In general fusion proteins are produced for provide affinity tags to make proteins more soluble and production of some toxic proteins via fusion protein expression system like pTolT. Proteins can be modified by using a site-directed mutagenesis. By this way, creation of non-specific disulfide crosslinks can be prevented at fusion protein expression system via the present cysteine replaced by another amino acid such as serine, glycine or etc. To do this, we need; a DNA molecule that contains the gene that encodes for the target protein, required primers for mutation to be designed according to site directed mutagenesis reaction. This study was aimed to be replaced cysteine encoding codon TGT with serine encoding codon AGT. For this sense and reverse primers designed (given below) and used site-directed mutagenesis reaction. Several new copy of the template plasmid DNA has been formed with above mentioned mutagenic primers via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product consists of both the master template DNA (wild type) and the new DNA sequences containing mutations. Dpn-l endonuclease restriction enzyme which is specific for methylated DNA and cuts them to the elimination of the master template DNA. E. coli cells obtained after transformation were incubated LB medium with antibiotic. After purification of plasmid DNA from E. coli, the presence of the mutation was determined by DNA sequence analysis. Developed this new plasmid is called PtolT-δ.

Keywords: Protein expression, Escherichia coli, site directed mutagenesis, pTolT

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21 Synergistic Interactions between Secondary Metabolites in Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Authors: Ruta Mickiene, Audrius Maruska, Ona Ragazinskiene


This research focuses on phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of compounds isolated and identified from species Rosmarinus officinalis L. This is a study of synergistic effects between phenolic fraction and essential oils. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis L. originated from the sector of medicinal plants, Kaunas botanical garden of Vytautas Magnus University Lithuania, were tested by the method of series dilutions, against different bacteria species. Investigated microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus with and without antibiotic resistances originating from livestock. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were described by determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Preliminary results show that the MIC range between 9.0 % and 12.0 % for the different Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts and bacterial species. The total amounts of phenolic compounds and total amounts of flavonoids were tested in the methanolic extracts of the plants. The chemical composition for essential oils analysed by GC/MS. Predominant components were alpha pinene (20%), camphor (10%), 1.8‐cineole (5%), phellandrene (6%), camphene (5%), beta pinene (4%), bornylacetate (4%), limonene (2%), borneol (3%), alpha terpineol (3%), cymene (2%), caryophyllene (15%), verbenone (7%), alpha terpinene (3%), eucalyptol (11%).

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential Oil, Escherichia coli, Rosmarinus officinalis L

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20 Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. By Traditional Phytomedicines That Are Commonly Used to Treat Gastroenteritis in Zimbabwe

Authors: Constance Chivengwa, Tinashe Mandimutsira, Jephris Gere, Charles Magogo, Irene Chikanza, Jerneja Vidmar, Walter Chingwaru


The use of traditional methods in the management of diarrhoea has remained a common practice among the indigenous African tribes of Southern Africa. Despite the widespread use of traditional medicines in Zimbabwe, very little research validating the activities of phytomedicines against diarrhoea, as claimed by the Shona people of Zimbabwe, has been reported. This study sought to determine the efficacies of the plants that are frequently used to treat stomach complaints, namely Dicoma anomala, Cassia abbreviata, Lannea edulis and Peltophorum africanum against Escherichia coli (an indicator of faecal contamination of water, and whose strains such as EHEC (O157), ETEC and EPEC, are responsible for a number of outbreaks of diarrhoea) and Salmonella spp. Ethanol and aqueous extracts from these plants were obtained, evaporated, dried and stored. The dried extracts were reconstituted and diluted 10-fold in nutrient broth (from 100 to 0.1 microgram/mL) and tested for inhibition against the bacteria. L. edulis exhibited the best antimicrobial effect (minimum inhibition concentration = 10 microgram/mL for both extracts and microorganisms). Runners up to L. edulis were C. abbreviata (20 microgram/mL for both microorganisms) and P. africanum (20 and 30 microgram/mL respectively). Interestingly, D. anomala, which is widely considered panacea in African medicinal practices, showed low antimicrobial activity (60 and 100 microgram/mL respectively). The high antimicrobial activity of L. edulis can be explained by its content of flavonoids, tannins, alkylphenols (cardonol 7 and cardonol 13) and dihydroalkylhexenones. The antimicrobial activities of C. abbreviata can be linked to its content of anthraquinones and triterpenoids. P. africanum is known to contain benzenoids, flavanols, flavonols, terpenes, xanthone and coumarins. This study therefore demonstrated that, among the plants that are used against diarrhoea in African traditional medicine, L. edulis is a clear winner against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Activity guided extraction is encouraged to establish the complement of compounds that have antimicrobial activities.

Keywords: Phytomedicine, Mic, Escherichia coli, diarrhoea, salmonella, Zimbabwe

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19 Polyphosphate Kinase 1 Active Site Characterization for the Identification of Novel Antimicrobial Targets

Authors: Sanaa Bardaweel


Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is present in all living forms tested to date, from each of the three kingdoms of life. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, poly P and its associated enzymes are vital in diverse basic metabolism, in at least some structural functions and, notably, in stress responses. These plentiful and unrelated roles for poly P are probably the consequence of its presence in life-forms early in evolution. The genomes of many bacterial species, including pathogens, encode a homologue of a major poly P synthetic enzyme, poly P kinase 1 (PPK1). Genetic deletion of ppk1 results in reduced poly P levels and loss of pathogens virulence towards protozoa and animals. Thus far, no PPK1 homologue has been identified in higher-order eukaryotes and, therefore, PPK1 represents a novel target for chemotherapy. The idea of the current study is to purify the PPK1 from Escherichia coli to homogeneity in order to study the effect of active site point mutations on PPK1 catalysis via the application of site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The knowledge obtained about the active site of PPK1 will be utilized to characterize the catalytic and kinetic mechanism of PPK1 with model substrates. Comprehensive understanding of the enzyme kinetic mechanism and catalysis will be used to design and screen a library of synthetic compounds for potential discovery of selective PPK1-inhibitors.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, antimicobial, inorganic polyphosphate, PPK1-inhibitors

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18 Engineering Escherichia coli for Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid by Exploiting Fatty Acid Metabolic Pathway

Authors: Malik Z. Abdin, Kamran Jawed, Anu Jose Mattam, Zia Fatma, Saima Wajid, Syed Shams Yazdani


Worldwide demand of natural and sustainable fuels and chemicals have encouraged researchers to develop microbial platform for synthesis of short chain fatty acids as they are useful precursors to replace petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. In this study, we evaluated the role of fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation cycle of Escherichia coli to produce butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, with the help of three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. We found that E. coli strain transformed with gene for TesBT and grown in presence of 8 g/L glucose produced maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g/L, followed by that of TesBF at 0.85 g/L and TesAT at 0.12 g/L, indicating that these thioesterases were efficiently converting short chain fatty acyl-ACP intermediate of fatty acid synthesis pathway into the corresponding acid. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. Deletion of genes for fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which are involved in initiating the fatty acid degradation cycle, and overexpression of FadR, which is a dual transcriptional regulator and exerts negative control over fatty acid degradation pathway, reduced up to 30% of butyric acid titer. This observation suggested that β-oxidation pathway is working synergistically with fatty acid synthesis pathway in production of butyric acid. Moreover, accelerating the fatty acid elongation cycle by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase (Acc) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) or by deleting FabR, the transcription suppressor of elongation, did not improve the butyric acid titer, rather favored the long chain fatty acid production. Finally, a balance between cell growth and butyric acid production was achieved with the use of phosphorous limited growth medium and 14.3 g/L butyric acid, and 17.5 g/L total free fatty acids (FFAs) titer was achieved during fed-batch cultivation. We have engineered an E. coli strain which utilizes the intermediate of both fatty acid synthesis and degradation pathway, i.e. butyryl-ACP and -CoA, to produce butyric acid from glucose. The strategy used in this study resulted in highest reported titers of butyric acid and FFAs in engineered E. coli.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, fed-batch fermentation, butyric acid, butenoic acid, short chain fatty acids, thioesterase

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17 Screening and Isolation of Lead Molecules from South Indian Plant Extracts against NDM-1 Producing Escherichia coli

Authors: B. Chandar, M. K. Ramasamy, P. Madasamy


The discovery and development of newer antibiotics are limited with the increase in resistance of such multi-drug resistant bacteria creating the need for alternative new therapeutic agents. The recently discovered New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1), which confers antibiotic resistance to most of the currently available β-lactams, except colistin and tigecycline, is a global concern. Several antibacterial drugs approved are natural products or their semisynthetic derivatives, but plant extracts remain to be explored to find molecules that are effective against NDM-1 bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility of finding new and effective antibacterial compounds against NDM-1 bacteria. In the present study, we have screened a diverse set South Indian plant species, and report most plant species as a potential source for antimicrobial compounds against NDM-1 bacteria. Ethanol extracts from the leaves of taxonomically diverse South Indian medicinal plants were screened for antibacterial activity against NDM-1 E. coli using streak plate method. Among the plant screened against NDM-1 E. coli, the ethanol extracts from many plant extracts showed minimum bactericidal concentration between 5 and 15 mg /ml and MIC between 2.54 and 5.12 mg/ml. These extracts also showed a potent synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics colistin and tetracycline. Combretum albidum that was effective was taken for further analysis. At 5mg/L concentration, these extracts inhibited the NDM-1 enzyme in vitro, and residual activity for Combretum albidum was 33.09%. Treatment of NDM-1 E. coli with the extracts disrupted the cell wall integrity and caused 89.7% cell death. The plant extract of Combretum albidum that was effective was subjected to fractionation and the fraction was further subjected to HPLC, LC-MS for identification of antibacterial compound.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Escherichia coli, combretum albidum, NDM-1

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16 An Alternative Antimicrobial Approach to Fight Bacterial Pathogens from Phellinus linteus

Authors: S. Techaoei, K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai


The objective of this research was focused on investigating in vitro antimicrobial activity of Phellinus linteus fruiting body extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phellinus linteus fruiting body was extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate and was vaporized. The disc diffusion assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. Primary screening of chemical profile of crude extract was determined by using thin layer chromatography. The positive control and the negative control were used as erythromycin and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively. Initial screening of Phellinus linteus crude extract with the disc diffusion assay demonstrated that only ethanol had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC assay showed that the lower MIC was observed with 0.5 mg/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 0.25 mg/ml. of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. TLC chemical profile of extract was represented at Rf ≈ 0.71-0.76.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Phellinus linteus

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15 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Electrophoresis, Escherichia coli, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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14 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Afrin Jahan


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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13 Elucidation of the Sequential Transcriptional Activity in Escherichia coli Using Time-Series RNA-Seq Data

Authors: Sachiyo Aburatani, Pui Shan Wong, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara


Functional genomics and gene regulation inference has readily expanded our knowledge and understanding of gene interactions with regards to expression regulation. With the advancement of transcriptome sequencing in time-series comes the ability to study the sequential changes of the transcriptome. This method presented here works to augment existing regulation networks accumulated in literature with transcriptome data gathered from time-series experiments to construct a sequential representation of transcription factor activity. This method is applied on a time-series RNA-Seq data set from Escherichia coli as it transitions from growth to stationary phase over five hours. Investigations are conducted on the various metabolic activities in gene regulation processes by taking advantage of the correlation between regulatory gene pairs to examine their activity on a dynamic network. Especially, the changes in metabolic activity during phase transition are analyzed with focus on the pagP gene as well as other associated transcription factors. The visualization of the sequential transcriptional activity is used to describe the change in metabolic pathway activity originating from the pagP transcription factor, phoP. The results show a shift from amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, to energy metabolism during the transition to stationary phase in E. coli.

Keywords: Network, Gene Regulation, Escherichia coli, time-series

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12 Design of an Artificial Oil Body-Cyanogen Bromide Technology Platform for the Expression of Small Bioactive Peptide, Mastoparan B

Authors: Feng-Chia Hsieh, Tzyy-Rong Jinn, Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Yi-Ching Chung


In this study, we attempted to develop a recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce bioactive mastoparan B (MP-B). As reported, the oleosin in AOB system plays a carrier (fusion with target protein), since oleosin possess two amphipathic regions (at the N-terminus and C-terminus), which result in the N-terminus and C-terminus of oleosin could be arranged on the surface of AOB. Thus, the target protein fused to the N-terminus or C-terminus of oleosin which also is exposed on the surface of AOB, and this process will greatly facilitate the subsequent separation and purification of target protein from AOB. In addition, oleosin, a unique structural protein of seed oil bodies, has the added advantage of helping the fused MP-B expressed in inclusion bodies, which can protect from proteolytic degradation. In this work, MP-B was fused to the C-terminus of oleosin and then was expressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein. As a consequence, we successfully developed a reliable recombinant oleosin-based fusion expression strategy in Escherichia coli and coupled with the artificial oil bodies (AOB)-cyanogen bromide technology platform to produce the small peptide, MP-B. Take together, this platform provides an insight into the production of active MP-B, which will facilitate studies and applications of this peptide in the future.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, artificial oil bodies, Oleosin-fusion protein, Mastoparan-B

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11 The Effect of Cinnamaldehyde on Escherichia coli Survival during Low Temperature Long Time Cooking

Authors: Fuji Astuti, Helen Onyeaka


The aim of the study was to investigate the combine effects of cinnamaldehyde (0.25 and 0.45% v/v) on thermal resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli during low temperature long time (LT-LT) cooking below 60℃. Three different static temperatures (48, 53 and 50℃) were performed, and the number of viable cells was studied. The starting concentrations of cells were 10⁸ CFU/ml. In this experiment, heat treatment efficiency for safe reduction indicated by decimal logarithm reduction of viable recovered cells, which was monitored for heating over 6 hours. Thermal inactivation was measured by means of establishing the death curves between the mean log surviving cells (log₁₀ CFU/ml) and designated time points (minutes) for each temperature test. The findings depicted that addition of cinnamaldehyde exhibited to elevate the thermal sensitivity of E. coli. However, the injured cells found to be well-adapted to all temperature tests after certain time point of cooking, in which they grew to more than 10⁵ CFU/ml.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, cinnamaldehyde, decimal logarithm reduction, LT-LT cooking

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10 Molecular Detection of Naegleria fowleri and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Brackish Water of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana

Authors: Samendra Sherchan, Jia Xue, Frederica G. Lamar, Siyu Lin, Jennifer G. Lamori


Brackish water samples from Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana were assessed for the presence of pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri, which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In our study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were used to determine N. fowleri, E. coli, and Enterococcus in water collected from Lake Pontchartrain. A total of 158 water samples were analyzed over the 10-month sampling period. Statistically significant positive correlation between water temperature and N. fowleri concentration was observed. N. fowleri target sequence was detected at 35.4% (56/158) of the water samples from ten sites around the Lake ranged from 11.6 GC/100 ml water to 457.8 GC/100 ml water. A single factor (ANOVA) analysis shows the average concentration of N. fowleri in summer (119.8 GC/100 ml) was significantly higher than in winter (58.6 GC/100 ml) (p < 0.01). Statistically significant positive correlations were found between N. fowleri and qPCR E. coli results and N. fowleri and colilert E. coli (culture method), respectively. A weak positive correlation between E. coli and Enterococcus was observed from both qPCR (r = 0.27, p < 0.05) and culture based method (r = 0.52, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, significant positive correlation between qPCR and culture based methods for E. coli (r = 0.30, p < 0.05) and Enterococcus concentration was observed (r = 0.26, p < 0.05), respectively. Future research is needed to determine whether sediment is a source of N. fowleri found in the water column.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, brackish water, qPCR, Enterococcus, Naegleria fowleri, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

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9 Bacteriological Analysis of Logan's Branch Rowan County, Kentucky Utilizing Membrane Filtration Method

Authors: Elizabeth G. Hereford, Geoffrey W. Gearner


Logan’s Branch, within the Triplett Creek Watershed of Rowan County, Kentucky, is a waterway located near important agricultural and residential areas. Part of Logan’s Branch flows over an exposed black shale formation with elevated radioactivity and heavy metals. Three sites were chosen in relation to the formation and sampled five times over a thirty-day period during the recreational season. A fourth site in North Fork in Rowan County, Kentucky was also sampled periodically as it too has contact with the shale formation. These sites were then sampled monthly. All samples are analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli, heterotrophic bacteria, and total coliform bacteria utilizing the membrane filtration method and various culture media. Current data suggests that the radioactivity of the shale formation influences the bacteriological growth present in the waterway; however, further data will be collected and compared with that of my colleagues to confirm this trend.

Keywords: Water Quality, Escherichia coli, bacteriological analysis, heterotrophic bacteria, radioactive black shale formation

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8 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Turmeric Oleoresin, Capsicum Oleoresin and Garlic Essential Oil against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

Authors: Jin Ho Cho, Jun Hyung Lee, Robin B. Guevarra, Bo-Ra Kim, Jiwon Shin, Doo Wan Kim, Young Hwa Kim, Minho Song, Hyeun Bum Kim


Colibacillosis is one of the major health problems in young piglets ultimately resulting in their death, and it is common especially in young piglets. For the swine industry, colibacillosis is one of the important economic burdens. Therefore, it is necessary for the swine industries to prevent Colibacillosis in piglets in order to reduce economic losses. Thus, we tested three types of natural plant extracts (PEs) to evaluate antibacterial effects against Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from the piglet. Three PEs including turmeric oleoresin (containing curcumin 79 to 85%), capsicum oleoresin (containing capsaicin 40%-40.1%), and garlic essential oil (100% natural garlic) were tested using the direct contact agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration test, growth curve assay, and heat stability test. The tests were conducted with PEs at each concentration of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. For the heat stability test, PEs with 10% concentration were incubated at each 4, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 °C for 1 hour, then the direct contact agar diffusion test was used. For the positive and negative controls, 0.5N HCl and 1XPBS were used. All the experiments were duplicated. In the direct contact agar diffusion test, garlic essential oil with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% concentration showed inhibit zones of 1.1cm, 3.0cm, and 3.6 cm in diameters compared to that of 3.5cm diameter for 0.5N HCl. The minimum inhibited concentration of garlic essential oil was 2.5%. Growth curve assay showed that the garlic essential oil was able to inhibit STEC growth significantly after 4 hours. The garlic essential oil retained the ability to inhibit STEC growth after heat treatment at each temperature. However, turmeric and capsicum oleoresins were not able to significantly inhibit STEC growth by all the tests. Even though further tests using the piglets will be required to evaluate effects of garlic essential oil for the Colibacillosis prevention for piglets, our results showed that the garlic essential oil could be used as a potential natural agent to prevent Colibacillosis in swine.

Keywords: Pig, Escherichia coli, garlic essential oil, Colibacillosis

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7 Enhanced Functional Production of a Crucial Biomolecule Human Serum Albumin in Escherichia coli

Authors: Ashima Sharma


Human Serum Albumin (HSA)- one of the most demanded therapeutic proteins with immense biotechnological applications- is a large multidomain protein containing 17 disulfide bonds. The current source of HSA is human blood plasma which is a limited and unsafe source. Thus, there exists an indispensable need to promote non-animal derived recombinant HSA (rHSA) production. Escherichia coli is one of the most convenient hosts which had contributed to the production of more than 30% of the FDA approved recombinant pharmaceuticals. It grows rapidly and reaches high cell density using inexpensive and simple substrates. E. coli derived recombinant products have more economic potential as fermentation processes are cheaper compared to the other expression hosts. The major bottleneck in exploiting E. coli as a host for a disulfide-rich multidomain protein is the formation of aggregates of overexpressed protein. The majority of the expressed HSA forms inclusion bodies (more than 90% of the total expressed rHSA) in the E. coli cytosol. Recovery of functional rHSA from inclusion bodies is not preferred because it is difficult to obtain a large multidomain disulfide bond rich protein like rHSA in its functional native form. Purification is tedious, time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Because of such limitations, the E. coli host system was neglected for rHSA production for the past few decades despite its numerous advantages. In the present work, we have exploited the capabilities of E. coli as a host for the enhanced functional production of rHSA (~60% of the total expressed rHSA in the soluble fraction). Parameters like intracellular environment, temperature, induction type, duration of induction, cell lysis conditions etc. which play an important role in enhancing the level of production of the desired protein in its native form in vivo have been optimized. We have studied the effect of assistance of different types of exogenously employed chaperone systems on the functional expression of rHSA in the E. coli host system. Different aspects of cell growth parameters during the production of rHSA in presence and absence of molecular chaperones in E. coli have also been studied. Upon overcoming the difficulties to produce functional rHSA in E. coli, it has been possible to produce significant levels of functional protein through engineering the biological system of protein folding in the cell, the E. coli-derived rHSA has been purified to homogeneity. Its detailed physicochemical characterization has been performed by monitoring its conformational properties, secondary and tertiary structure elements, surface properties, ligand binding properties, stability issues etc. These parameters of the recombinant protein have been compared with the naturally occurring protein from the human source. The outcome of the comparison reveals that the recombinant protein resembles exactly the same as the natural one. Hence, we propose that the E. coli-derived rHSA is an ideal biosimilar for human blood plasma-derived serum albumin. Therefore, in the present study, we have introduced and promoted the E. coli- derived rHSA as an alternative to the preparation from a human source, pHSA.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, recombinant human serum albumin, biosimilar, chaperone assisted protein folding

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