Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

ESBL Related Abstracts

3 Biochemical Characterization of CTX-M-15 from Enterobacter cloacae and Designing a Novel Non-β-Lactam-β-Lactamase Inhibitor

Authors: Asad U. Khan, Mohammad Faheem, M. Tabish Rehman, Mohd Danishuddin


The worldwide dissemination of CTX-M type β-lactamases is a threat to human health. Previously, we have reported the spread of blaCTX-M-15 gene in different clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae from the hospital settings of Aligarh in north India. In view of the varying resistance pattern against cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics, we intended to understand the correlation between MICs and catalytic activity of CTX-M-15. In this study, steady-state kinetic parameters and MICs were determined on E. coli DH5α transformed with blaCTX-M-15 gene that was cloned from Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15) strain of clinical background. The effect of conventional β-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam) on CTX-M-15 was also studied. We have found that tazobactam is the best among these inhibitors against CTX-M-15. The inhibition characteristic of tazobactam is defined by its very low IC50 value (6 nM), high affinity (Ki = 0.017 µM) and better acylation efficiency (k+2/K9 = 0.44 µM-1s-1). It forms an acyl-enzyme covalent complex, which is quite stable (k+3 = 0.0057 s-1). Since increasing resistance has been reported against conventional b-lactam antibiotic-inhibitor combinations, we aspire to design a non-b-lactam core containing b-lactamase inhibitor. For this, we screened ZINC database and performed molecular docking to identify a potential non-β-lactam based inhibitor (ZINC03787097). The MICs of cephalosporin antibiotics in combination with this inhibitor gave promising results. Steady-state kinetics and molecular docking studies showed that ZINC03787097 is a reversible inhibitor which binds non-covalently to the active site of the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Though, it’s IC50 (180 nM) is much higher than tazobactam, it has good affinity for CTX-M-15 (Ki = 0.388 µM). This study concludes that ZINC03787097 compound can be used as seed molecule to design more efficient non-b-lactam containing b-lactamase inhibitor that could evade pre-existing bacterial resistance mechanisms.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, ESBL, non-b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitor

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2 Microbiological Profile of UTI along with Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern with Special Reference to Nitrofurantoin

Authors: Rupinder Bakshi, Geeta Walia, Anita Gupta


Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered to be one of the most common bacterial infections with an estimated annual global incidence of 150 million. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to widespread usage of uncontrolled antibiotics. Materials and Methods: A total number of 9149 urine samples were collected from R.H Patiala and processed in the Department of Microbiology G.M.C Patiala. Urine samples were inoculated on MacConkey’s and blood agar plates by using calibrated loop delivering 0.001 ml of sample and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hrs. The organisms were identified by colony characters, gram’s staining and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined against various antimicrobial agents (Hi – Media Mumbai India) by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. Results: Maximum patients were in the age group of 21-30 yrs followed by 31-40 yrs. Males (34%) are less prone to urinary tract infections than females (66%). Out of 9149 urine sample, the culture was positive in 25% (2290) samples. Esch. coli was the most common isolate 60.3% (n = 1378) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.5% (n = 310), Proteus spp. 9% (n = 209), Staphylococcus aureus 7.6 % (n = 173), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3.7% (n = 84), Citrobacter spp. 3.1 % (70), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 1.8 % (n = 142), Enterococcus faecalis 0.8%(n=19) and Acinetobacter spp. 0.2%(n=5). Gram negative isolates showed higher sensitivity towards, Piperacillin +Tazobactum (67%), Amikacin (80%), Nitrofurantoin (82%), Aztreonam (100%), Imipenem (100%) and Meropenam (100%) while gram positive showed good response towards Netilmicin (69%), Nitrofurantoin (79%), Linezolid (98%), Vancomycin (100%) and Teicoplanin (100%). 465 (23%) isolates were resistant to Penicillins, 1st generation and 2nd generation Cehalosporins which were further tested by double disk approximation test and combined disk method for ESBL production. Out of 465 isolates, 375 were ESBLs consisting of n 264 (70.6%) Esch.coli and 111 (29.4%) Klebsiella pneumoniae. Susceptibility of ESBL producers to Imipenem, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were found to be 100%, 76%, and 75% respectively. Conclusion: Uropathogens are increasingly showing resistance to many antibiotics making empiric management of outpatients UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, and Ciprofloxacin should not be used in empiric treatment. Nitrofurantoin could be used in lower urinary tract infection. Knowledge of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a geographical region will help inappropriate and judicious antibiotic usage in a health care setup.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, ESBL, UTI, antibiotic susceptibility pattern

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1 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay


Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, ESBL, VITEK 2, gram negative rods

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