Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Error Analysis Related Abstracts

17 Integrating Blogging into Peer Assessment on College Students’ English Writing

Authors: Su-Lien Liao


Most of college students in Taiwan do not have sufficient English proficiency to express themselves in written English. Teachers spent a lot of time correcting students’ English writing, but the results are not satisfactory. This study aims to use blogs as a teaching and learning tool in written English. Before applying peer assessment, students should be trained to be good reviewers. The teacher starts the course by posting the error analysis of students’ first English composition on blogs as the comment models for students. Then the students will go through the process of drafting, composing, peer response and last revision on blogs. Evaluation Questionnaires and interviews will be conducted at the end of the course to see the impact and students’ perception for the course.

Keywords: Error Analysis, blog, peer assessment, English writing

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16 Error Analysis of English Inflection among Thai University Students

Authors: Suwaree Yordchim, Toby J. Gibbs


The linguistic competence of Thai university students majoring in Business English was examined in the context of knowledge of English language inflection, and also various linguistic elements. Errors analysis was applied to the results of the testing. Levels of errors in inflection, tense and linguistic elements were shown to be significantly high for all noun, verb and adjective inflections. Findings suggest that students do not gain linguistic competence in their use of English language inflection, because of interlanguage interference. Implications for curriculum reform and treatment of errors in the classroom are discussed.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, Error Analysis, interlanguage, inflection, Thai students

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15 An Error Analysis of English Communication of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University Students

Authors: Chantima Wangsomchok


The main purposes of this study are (1) to test the students’ communicative competence within six main functions: greeting, parting, thanking, offering, requesting and suggesting, (2) to employ error analysis in the students’ communicative competence within those functions, and (3) to compare the characteristics of the error found from the investigation. The subjects of the study is 328 first-year undergraduates taking the Foundation English course in the first semester of the 2008 academic year at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This study found that while the subjects showed high communicative competence in the use of the following three functions: greeting, thanking, and offering, they seemed to show poor communicative competence in suggesting, requesting and parting instead. In addition, this study found that the grammatical errors were likely to be most frequently found in the parting function. In the same way, the type of errors which were less frequently found was in the functions of thanking and requesting respectively. Instead, the students tended to have high pragmatic failure in the use of greeting and suggesting functions.

Keywords: Cognitive Science, Communicative Competence, Error Analysis, functions of English language

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14 Error Analysis of Pronunciation of French by Sinhala Speaking Learners

Authors: Chandeera Gunawardena


The present research analyzes the pronunciation errors encountered by thirty Sinhala speaking learners of French on the assumption that the pronunciation errors were systematic and they reflect the interference of the native language of the learners. The thirty participants were selected using random sampling method. By the time of the study, the subjects were studying French as a foreign language for their Bachelor of Arts Degree at University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The participants were from a homogenous linguistics background. All participants speak the same native language (Sinhala) thus they had completed their secondary education in Sinhala medium and during which they had also learnt French as a foreign language. A battery operated audio tape recorder and a 120-minute blank cassettes were used for recording. A list comprised of 60 words representing all French phonemes was used to diagnose pronunciation difficulties. Before the recording process commenced, the subjects were requested to familiarize themselves with the words through reading them several times. The recording was conducted individually in a quiet classroom and each recording approximately took fifteen minutes. Each subject was required to read at a normal speed. After the completion of recording, the recordings were replayed to identify common errors which were immediately transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet. Results show that Sinhala speaking learners face problems with French nasal vowels and French initial consonants clusters. The learners also exhibit errors which occur because of their second language (English) interference.

Keywords: Error Analysis, pronunciation difficulties, pronunciation errors, Sinhala speaking learners of French

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13 Error Analysis in English Essays Writing of Thai Students with Different English Language Experiences

Authors: Sirirat Choophan Atthaphonphiphat


The objective of the study is to analyze errors in English essay writing of Thai (Suratthani Rajabhat University)’s students with different English language experiences. 16 subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their English language experience. The data were collected from English essay writing about 'My daily life'. The finding shows that 275 tokens of errors were found from 240 English sentences. The errors were categorized into 4 types based on frequency counts: grammatical errors, mechanical errors, lexical errors, and structural errors, respectively. The findings support all of the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the students with low English language experience made more errors than those with high English language experience; 2) all errors in English essay writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students, the interlingual errors are more than the intralingual ones; 3) systemic and structural differences between English (target language) and Thai (mother-tongue language) lead to the errors in English essays writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students.

Keywords: Applied Linguistics, Error Analysis, Interference, language transfer

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12 Spelling Errors of EFL Students: An Insight into Curriculum Development

Authors: Sheikha Ali Salim Al-Breiki


The purpose of this study was to explore the types of the spelling errors students of grade ten make and to find out whether there were any significant differences between males and females with respect to the types of the spelling errors made. The sample of the study included 90 grade ten students from four different schools in North Batinah. The researcher manipulated the use of a test that consisted of two questions: an oral dictation test of 70 words with a contextualizing sentence and a free writing task. The misspellings were classified into nine different types. The findings revealed that the most common spelling errors among Omani grade ten students were vowel substitution, then came vowel omission in the second place and consonant substitution in the third place. Male students omitted more vowels than female students while females made more true word errors than their male counterparts. In light of the findings, the study presents some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Keywords: Errors, Error Analysis, types of spelling errors, ESL/EFL

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11 Approximations of Fractional Derivatives and Its Applications in Solving Non-Linear Fractional Variational Problems

Authors: Harendra Singh, Rajesh Pandey


The paper presents a numerical method based on operational matrix of integration and Ryleigh method for the solution of a class of non-linear fractional variational problems (NLFVPs). Chebyshev first kind polynomials are used for the construction of operational matrix. Using operational matrix and Ryleigh method the NLFVP is converted into a system of non-linear algebraic equations, and solving these equations we obtained approximate solution for NLFVPs. Convergence analysis of the proposed method is provided. Numerical experiment is done to show the applicability of the proposed numerical method. The obtained numerical results are compared with exact solution and solution obtained from Chebyshev third kind. Further the results are shown graphically for different fractional order involved in the problems.

Keywords: Error Analysis, convergence analysis, non-linear fractional variational problems, Rayleigh-Ritz method

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10 The Analysis of Gizmos Online Program as Mathematics Diagnostic Program: A Story from an Indonesian Private School

Authors: Shofiayuningtyas Luftiani


Some private schools in Indonesia started integrating the online program Gizmos in the teaching-learning process. Gizmos was developed to supplement the existing curriculum by integrating it into the instructional programs. The program has some features using an inquiry-based simulation, in which students conduct exploration by using a worksheet while teachers use the teacher guidelines to direct and assess students’ performance In this study, the discussion about Gizmos highlights its features as the assessment media of mathematics learning for secondary school students. The discussion is based on the case study and literature review from the Indonesian context. The purpose of applying Gizmos as an assessment media refers to the diagnostic assessment. As a part of the diagnostic assessment, the teachers review the student exploration sheet, analyze particularly in the students’ difficulties and consider findings in planning future learning process. This assessment becomes important since the teacher needs the data about students’ persistent weaknesses. Additionally, this program also helps to build student’ understanding by its interactive simulation. Currently, the assessment over-emphasizes the students’ answers in the worksheet based on the provided answer keys while students perform their skill in translating the question, doing the simulation and answering the question. Whereas, the assessment should involve the multiple perspectives and sources of students’ performance since teacher should adjust the instructional programs with the complexity of students’ learning needs and styles. Consequently, the approach to improving the assessment components is selected to challenge the current assessment. The purpose of this challenge is to involve not only the cognitive diagnosis but also the analysis of skills and error. Concerning the selected setting for this diagnostic assessment that develops the combination of cognitive diagnosis, skills analysis and error analysis, the teachers should create an assessment rubric. The rubric plays the important role as the guide to provide a set of criteria for the assessment. Without the precise rubric, the teacher potentially ineffectively documents and follows up the data about students at risk of failure. Furthermore, the teachers who employ the program of Gizmos as the diagnostic assessment might encounter some obstacles. Based on the condition of assessment in the selected setting, the obstacles involve the time constrain, the reluctance of higher teaching burden and the students’ behavior. Consequently, the teacher who chooses the Gizmos with those approaches has to plan, implement and evaluate the assessment. The main point of this assessment is not in the result of students’ worksheet. However, the diagnostic assessment has the two-stage process; the process to prompt and effectively follow-up both individual weaknesses and those of the learning process. Ultimately, the discussion of Gizmos as the media of the diagnostic assessment refers to the effort to improve the mathematical learning process.

Keywords: Error Analysis, diagnostic assessment, Gizmos online program, skills analysis

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9 Study of Syntactic Errors for Deep Parsing at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam, Shahid Alam


Syntactic parsing is vital for semantic treatment by many applications related to natural language processing (NLP), because form and content coincide in many cases. However, it has not yet reached the levels of reliable performance. By manually examining and analyzing individual machine translation output errors that involve syntax as well as semantics, this study attempts to discover what is required for improving syntactic and semantic parsing.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Error Analysis, syntactic parsing, deep parsing

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8 Knowledge Required for Avoiding Lexical Errors at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam


This research aims at finding out the causes that led to wrong lexical selections in machine translation (MT) rather than categorizing lexical errors, which has been a main practice in error analysis. By manually examining and analyzing lexical errors outputted by a MT system, it suggests what knowledge would help the system reduce lexical errors.

Keywords: Evaluation, Machine Translation, Error Analysis, lexical errors

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7 Reasons for the Selection of Information-Processing Framework and the Philosophy of Mind as a General Account for an Error Analysis and Explanation on Mathematics

Authors: Michael Lousis


This research study is concerned with learner’s errors on Arithmetic and Algebra. The data resulted from a broader international comparative research program called Kassel Project. However, its conceptualisation differed from and contrasted with that of the main program, which was mostly based on socio-demographic data. The way in which the research study was conducted, was not dependent on the researcher’s discretion, but was absolutely dictated by the nature of the problem under investigation. This is because the phenomenon of learners’ mathematical errors is due neither to the intentions of learners nor to institutional processes, rules and norms, nor to the educators’ intentions and goals; but rather to the way certain information is presented to learners and how their cognitive apparatus processes this information. Several approaches for the study of learners’ errors have been developed from the beginning of the 20th century, encompassing different belief systems. These approaches were based on the behaviourist theory, on the Piagetian- constructivist research framework, the perspective that followed the philosophy of science and the information-processing paradigm. The researcher of the present study was forced to disclose the learners’ course of thinking that led them in specific observable actions with the result of showing particular errors in specific problems, rather than analysing scripts with the students’ thoughts presented in a written form. This, in turn, entailed that the choice of methods would have to be appropriate and conducive to seeing and realising the learners’ errors from the perspective of the participants in the investigation. This particular fact determined important decisions to be made concerning the selection of an appropriate framework for analysing the mathematical errors and giving explanations. Thus the rejection of the belief systems concerning behaviourism, the Piagetian-constructivist, and philosophy of science perspectives took place, and the information-processing paradigm in conjunction with the philosophy of mind were adopted as a general account for the elaboration of data. This paper explains why these decisions were appropriate and beneficial for conducting the present study and for the establishment of the ensued thesis. Additionally, the reasons for the adoption of the information-processing paradigm in conjunction with the philosophy of mind give sound and legitimate bases for the development of future studies concerning mathematical error analysis are explained.

Keywords: Error Analysis, advantages-disadvantages of theoretical prospects, behavioral prospect, critical evaluation of theoretical prospects, information-processing paradigm, opting for the appropriate approach, philosophy of science prospect, Piagetian-constructivist research frameworks, review of research in mathematical errors

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6 Mathematical Competence as It Is Defined through Learners' Errors in Arithmetic and Algebra

Authors: Michael Lousis


Mathematical competence is the great aim of every mathematical teaching and learning endeavour. This can be defined as an idealised conceptualisation of the quality of cognition and the ability of implementation in practice of the mathematical subject matter, which is included in the curriculum, and is displayed only through performance of doing mathematics. The present study gives a clear definition of mathematical competence in the domains of Arithmetic and Algebra that stems from the explanation of the learners’ errors in these domains. The learners, whose errors are explained, were Greek and English participants of a large, international, longitudinal, comparative research program entitled the Kassel Project. The participants’ errors emerged as results of their work in dealing with mathematical questions and problems of the tests, which were presented to them. The construction of the tests was such as only the outcomes of the participants’ work was to be encompassed and not their course of thinking, which resulted in these outcomes. The intention was that the tests had to provide undeviating comparable results and simultaneously avoid any probable bias. Any bias could stem from obtaining results by involving so many markers from different countries and cultures, with so many different belief systems concerning the assessment of learners’ course of thinking. In this way the validity of the research was protected. This fact forced the implementation of specific research methods and theoretical prospects to take place in order the participants’ erroneous way of thinking to be disclosed. These were Methodological Pragmatism, Symbolic Interactionism, Philosophy of Mind and the ideas of Computationalism, which were used for deciding and establishing the grounds of the adequacy and legitimacy of the obtained kinds of knowledge through the explanations given by the error analysis. The employment of this methodology and of these theoretical prospects resulted in the definition of the learners’ mathematical competence, which is the thesis of the present study. Thus, learners’ mathematical competence is depending upon three key elements that should be developed in their minds: appropriate representations, appropriate meaning, and appropriate developed schemata. This definition then determined the development of appropriate teaching practices and interventions conducive to the achievement and finally the entailment of mathematical competence.

Keywords: meaning, Representations, Computationalism, Error Analysis, Kassel Project, appropriate developed schemata, explanations for the probable causes of the errors, mathematical competence

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5 Study of Error Analysis and Sources of Uncertainty in the Measurement of Residual Stresses by the X-Ray Diffraction

Authors: E. T. Carvalho Filho, J. T. N. Medeiros, L. G. Martinez


Residual stresses are self equilibrating in a rigid body that acts on the microstructure of the material without application of an external load. They are elastic stresses and can be induced by mechanical, thermal and chemical processes causing a deformation gradient in the crystal lattice favoring premature failure in mechanicals components. The search for measurements with good reliability has been of great importance for the manufacturing industries. Several methods are able to quantify these stresses according to physical principles and the response of the mechanical behavior of the material. The diffraction X-ray technique is one of the most sensitive techniques for small variations of the crystalline lattice since the X-ray beam interacts with the interplanar distance. Being very sensitive technique is also susceptible to variations in measurements requiring a study of the factors that influence the final result of the measurement. Instrumental, operational factors, form deviations of the samples and geometry of analyzes are some variables that need to be considered and analyzed in order for the true measurement. The aim of this work is to analyze the sources of errors inherent to the residual stress measurement process by X-ray diffraction technique making an interlaboratory comparison to verify the reproducibility of the measurements. In this work, two specimens were machined, differing from each other by the surface finishing: grinding and polishing. Additionally, iron powder with particle size less than 45 µm was selected in order to be a reference (as recommended by ASTM E915 standard) for the tests. To verify the deviations caused by the equipment, those specimens were positioned and with the same analysis condition, seven measurements were carried out at 11Ψ tilts. To verify sample positioning errors, seven measurements were performed by positioning the sample at each measurement. To check geometry errors, measurements were repeated for the geometry and Bragg Brentano parallel beams. In order to verify the reproducibility of the method, the measurements were performed in two different laboratories and equipments. The results were statistically worked out and the quantification of the errors.

Keywords: Error Analysis, Residual Stress, X-Ray Diffraction, Reproducibility, repeatability

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4 Error Analysis: Examining Written Errors of English as a Second Language (ESL) Spanish Speaking Learners

Authors: Maria Torres


After the acknowledgment of contrastive analysis, Pit Coder’s establishment of error analysis revolutionized the way instructors analyze and examine students’ writing errors. One question that relates to error analysis with speakers of a first language, in this case, Spanish, who are learning a second language (English), is the type of errors that these learners make along with the causes of these errors. Many studies have looked at the way the native tongue influences second language acquisition, but this method does not take into account other possible sources of students’ errors. This paper examines writing samples from an advanced ESL class whose first language is Spanish at non-profit organization, Learning Quest Stanislaus Literacy Center. Through error analysis, errors in the students’ writing were identified, described, and classified. The purpose of this paper was to discover the type and origin of their errors which generated appropriate treatments. The results in this paper show that the most frequent errors in the advanced ESL students’ writing pertain to interlanguage and a small percentage from an intralanguage source. Lastly, the least type of errors were ones that originate from negative transfer. The results further solidify the idea that there are other errors and sources of errors to account for rather than solely focusing on the difference between the students’ mother and target language. This presentation will bring to light some strategies and techniques that address the issues found in this research. Taking into account the amount of error pertaining to interlanguage, an ESL teacher should provide metalinguistic awareness of the students’ errors.

Keywords: ESL, Error Analysis, interlanguage, intralangauge

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3 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser


This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: Error Analysis, empirical study, consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, pronunciation problems

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2 How Do L1 Teachers Assess Haitian Immigrant High School Students in Chile?

Authors: Gloria Toledo, Andrea Lizasoain, Leonardo Mena


Immigration has largely increased in Chile in the last 20 years. About 6.6% of our population is foreign, from which 14.3% is Haitian. Haitians are between 15 and 29 years old and have come to Chile escaping from a social crisis. They believe that education and work will help them do better in life. Therefore, rates of Haitian students in the Chilean school system have also increased: there were 3,121 Haitian students enrolled in 2017. This is a challenge for the public school, which takes in young people who must face schooling, social immersion and learning of a second language simultaneously. The linguistic barrier affects both students’ and teachers’ adaptation process, which has an impact on the students’ academic performance and consequent acquisition of Spanish. In order to explore students’ academic performance and interlanguage development, we examined how L1 teachers assess Haitian high school students’ written production in Spanish. With this purpose, teachers were asked to use a specially designed grid to assess correction, accommodation, lexical and analytical complexity, organization and fluency of both Haitian and Chilean students. Parallelly, texts were approached from an error analysis perspective. Results from grids and error analysis were then compared. On the one hand, it has been found that teachers give very little feedback to students apart from scores and grades, which does not contribute to the development of the second language. On the other hand, error analysis has yielded that Haitian students are in a dynamic process of the acquisition of Spanish, which could be enhanced if L1 teacher were aware of the process of interlanguage developmen.

Keywords: Grid, Assessment, Immigration, Writing, Error Analysis, Spanish aquisition

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1 A Longitudinal Case Study of Greek as a Second Language

Authors: M. Vassou, A. Karasimos


A primary concern in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research is to determine the innate mechanisms of second language learning and acquisition through the systematic study of a learner's interlanguage. Errors emerge while a learner attempts to communicate using the target-language and can be seen either as the observable linguistic product of the latent cognitive and language process of mental representations or as an indispensable learning mechanism. Therefore, the study of the learner’s erroneous forms may depict the various strategies and mechanisms that take place during the language acquisition process resulting in deviations from the target-language norms and difficulties in communication. Mapping the erroneous utterances of a late adult learner in the process of acquiring Greek as a second language constitutes one of the main aims of this study. For our research purposes, we created an error-tagged learner corpus composed of the participant’s written texts produced throughout a period of a 4- year instructed language acquisition. Error analysis and interlanguage theory constitute the methodological and theoretical framework, respectively. The research questions pertain to the learner's most frequent errors per linguistic category and per year as well as his choices concerning the Greek Article System. According to the quantitative analysis of the data, the most frequent errors are observed in the categories of the stress system and syntax, whereas a significant fluctuation and/or gradual reduction throughout the 4 years of instructed acquisition indicate the emergence of developmental stages. The findings with regard to the article usage bespeak fossilization of erroneous structures in certain contexts. In general, our results point towards the existence and further development of an established learner’s (inter-) language system governed not only by mother- tongue and target-language influences but also by the learner’s assumptions and set of rules as the result of a complex cognitive process. It is expected that this study will contribute not only to the knowledge in the field of Greek as a second language and SLA generally, but it will also provide an insight into the cognitive mechanisms and strategies developed by multilingual learners of late adulthood.

Keywords: Error Analysis, interlanguage, Greek as a second language, late adult learner

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