Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

erosion Related Abstracts

33 Erodibility Analysis of Cikapundung Hulu: A Study Case of Mekarwangi Catchment Area

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Rachmat Harryanto


The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of land use and slope steepness on soil erodibility index. The research was conducted from September to December 2013 in Mekarwangi catchment area, sub watershed of Cikapundung Hulu, Indonesia. The study was carried out using descriptive method. Physiographic free survey method was used as survey method, it was a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity of slope without calculating the range between points of observation. Soil samples were carried onto three classes of land use such as: forest, plantation and dry cultivation area. Each land use consists of three slope classes such as: 8-15%, 16-25%, and 26-40% class. Five samples of soil were taken from each of them, resulting 45 points of observation. The result of the research showed that type of land use and slope classes gave different effect on soil erodibility. The highest C-organic and permeability was found on forest with slope 16-25%. Slope of 8-15% with forest land use give the lowest effect on soil erodibility.

Keywords: Land Use, erosion, slope, erodibility

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32 Effect of Slope Steepness with Toposequent on Erosion Factor: A Study Case of Cikeruh Catchment Area, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Julianto Arief Ismail, Rachmat Harryanto


The research was conducted with the aim to know the effect of slope steepness on organic carbon and soil erodibility as erosion factor. This research was conducted from September to December 2011 in the Raharja and Cinanjung Village, Tanjungsari, Sumedang District, West Java, Indonesia. The study was carried out using physiographic free survey method, which is a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity slope without calculating the point of observation range. Soil sampling was carried onto three classes of slope as follows: 8–15%, 15–25% and 25–40%. Each was consisted of three slope position i.e. top slope, middle slope and down slope and four samples of soil were taken from each of them, hence it resulted in 36 points of observation. The results of this study indicate that gradient of slope have some significant contribution in every sample. Middle slope with gradient 26-40% has the highest potential erosion occurrence. It has organic C content (0.84%) and the highest erodibility value (0.1092).

Keywords: erosion, erodibility, slope steepness, erosion factor

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31 Mathematical Modeling to Reach Stability Condition within Rosetta River Mouth, Egypt

Authors: Ali Masria , Abdelazim Negm, Moheb Iskander, Oliver C. Saavedra


Estuaries play an important role in exchanging water and providing a navigational pathway for ships. These zones are very sensitive and vulnerable to any interventions in coastal dynamics. Almost major of these inlets experience coastal problems such as severe erosion, and accretion. Rosetta promontory, Egypt is an example of this environment. It suffers from many coastal problems as erosion problem along the coastline and siltation problem inside the inlet. It is due to lack of water and sediment resources as a side effect of constructing the Aswan High dam. The shoaling of the inlet leads to hindering the navigation process of fishing boats, negative impacts to estuarine and salt marsh habitat and decrease the efficiency of the cross section to transfer the flow during emergencies to the sea. This paper aims to reach a new condition of stability of Rosetta Promontory by using coastal measures to control the sediment entering, and causes shoaling inside the inlet. These coastal measures include modifying the inlet cross section by using centered jetties, eliminate the coastal dynamic in the entrance using boundary jetties. This target is achieved by using a hydrodynamic model Coastal Modeling System (CMS). Extensive field data collection (hydrographic surveys, wave data, tide data, and bed morphology) is used to build and calibrate the model. About 20 scenarios were tested to reach a suitable solution that mitigate the coastal problems at the inlet. The results show that 360 m jetty in the eastern bank with system of sand bypass from the leeside of the jetty can stabilize the estuary.

Keywords: erosion, Sedimentation, Rosetta promontory, inlet stability

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30 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara


In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: Hardness, erosion, Tablets, Color, Powder, disintegration time, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

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29 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity

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28 Developing a Web GIS Tool for the Evaluation of Soil Erosion of a Watershed

Authors: Y. Fekir, K. Mederbal, M. A. Hamadouche, D. Anteur


The soil erosion by water has become one of the biggest problems of the environment in the world, threatening the majority of countries. There are several models to evaluate erosion. These models are still a simplified representation of reality. They permit the analysis of complex systems, measurements are complementary to allow an extrapolation in time and space and may combine different factors. The empirical model of soil loss proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (Universal Soil Loss Equation), is widely used in many countries. He considers that erosion is a multiplicative function of five factors: rainfall erosivity (the R factor) the soil erodibility factor (K), topography (LS), the erosion control practices (P) and vegetation cover and agricultural practices (C). In this work, we tried to develop a tool based on Web GIS functionality to evaluate soil losses caused by erosion taking into account five factors. This tool allows the user to integrate all the data needed for the evaluation (DEM, Land use, rainfall ...) in the form of digital layers to calculate the five factors taken into account in the USLE equation (R, K, C, P, LS). Accordingly, and after treatment of the integrated data set, a map of the soil losses will be achieved as a result. We tested the proposed tool on a watershed basin located in the weste of Algeria where a dataset was collected and prepared.

Keywords: erosion, Algeria, USLE, web gis

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27 Effectiveness of Jute Geotextiles for Hill Slope Stabilization in Adverse Climatic Condition

Authors: Pradip Choudhury, Tapobrata Sanyal


Effectiveness of Jute Geotextiles (JGT) in hill slope management now stands substantiated. The reasons of its efficacy are attributed to its bio-degradability, hygroscopic property and its thickness. Usually open weave JGT is used for slope management. Thickness of JGT helps in reducing the velocity of surface run-off, thus curbing the extent of migration of soil particles detached as a result of kinetic energy of rain-drops and also of wind effects. Initially JGT acts as cover of the surface of slope thus protect movement of loose soil particles. Hygroscopic property of jute effects overland storage of the flow. JGT acts as mulch and creates a congenial micro-climate that fosters quick growth of vegetation on bio-degradation. In fact JGT plays an important role in bio-remediation of slope-erosion problems. Considering the environmental aftermath, JGT is the preferred option in developed countries for surface soil conservation against erosion. In India JGT has not been tried in low temperature zones at high altitudes where temperature goes below the freezing point (even below - 25° Celsius). The behavior of JGT in such low-temperature zones is not precisely known. The 16th BRTF of Project Himank of Border Roads Organization (BRO) has recently taken the initiative to try two varieties of JGT , ie, 292 gsm and 500 gsm at two different places for hill slope management in Leh, a high altitude place of about 2,660 mtrs and 4900 mtrs above MSL respectively in Jammu & Kashmir where erosion is caused more as a result of rapid movement of sand particles due to high wind (wind erosion. Soil particles of the region formed naturally by weathering of fragile rocks are usually loosely bonded (non-cohesive), undergo dissociation with the rise in wind force and kinetic energy of rain drops and are blown away by wind. Open weave JGT interestingly was observed to contain the dissociated soil particles within its pores and lend stability the affected soil mass to a great extent thus preventing its movement by extraneous agents such as wind. The paper delineates about climatic factors, type of JGT used and the prevailing site conditions with an attempt to analyze the mechanism of functioning of JGT in low temperature zones.

Keywords: Climate, erosion, jutegeotextile, stabilize

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26 Folliculitis Decalvans: Update

Authors: Abdullah Alyoussef


Folliculitis decalvans is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder. This paper gives an update to patient management and treatment modalities. Folliculitis decalvans is classified as primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia and predominantly occurs in middle-aged adults. The cause of folliculitis decalvans (FD) remains unknown. Staphylococcus aureus and a deficient host immune response seem to play an important role in the development of this disfiguring scalp disease. Lesions occur mainly in the vertex and occipital area. Clinically, the lesions present with follicular pustules, lack of ostia, diffuse and perifollicular erythema, follicular tufting, and, oftentimes, hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. Histology displays a mainly neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate in early lesions and additionally lymphocytes and plasma cells in advanced lesions. Treatment is focused on the eradication of S. aureus and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the etiology of FD is unclear, S. aureus is almost always isolated from affected areas, and eradication is an important part of therapeutic management, in combination with systemic and ⁄ or topical anti-inflammatory treatment.

Keywords: erosion, cicatricial alopecia, folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis

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25 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry


The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: erosion, corrosion rate, proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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24 Comparative Assessment of a Distributed Model and a Lumped Model for Estimating of Sediments Yielding in Small Urban Areas

Authors: J.Zambrano Nájera, M.Gómez Valentín


Increases in urbanization during XX century, have brought as one major problem the increased of sediment production. Hydraulic erosion is one of the major causes of increasing of sediments in small urban catchments. Such increments in sediment yielding in header urban catchments can caused obstruction of drainage systems, making impossible to capture urban runoff, increasing runoff volumes and thus exacerbating problems of urban flooding. For these reasons, it is more and more important to study of sediment production in urban watershed for properly analyze and solve problems associated to sediments. The study of sediments production has improved with the use of mathematical modeling. For that reason, it is proposed a new physically based model applicable to small header urban watersheds that includes the advantages of distributed physically base models, but with more realistic data requirements. Additionally, in this paper the model proposed is compared with a lumped model, reviewing the results, the advantages and disadvantages between the both of them.

Keywords: Urban Planning, erosion, Urban Runoff, Sediment Modeling, hydrologic modeling, sediment yielding

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23 Hydrological Modelling to Identify Critical Erosion Areas in Gheshlagh Dam Basin

Authors: Golaleh Ghaffari


A basin sediment yield refers to the amount of sediment exported by a basin over a period of time, which will enter a reservoir located at the downstream limit of the basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2008) was used to hydrology and sediment transport modeling at daily and monthly time steps within the Gheshlagh dam basin in north-west of Iran. The SWAT model and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to evaluate basin hydrology and sediment yield using historical flow and sediment data and to identify and prioritize critical sub-basins based on sediment transport. The results of this study indicated that simulated daily discharge and sediment values matched the observed values satisfactorily. The model predicted that mean annual basin precipitation for the total study period (413 mm) was partitioned in to evapotranspiration (36%), percolation/groundwater recharge (21%) and stream water (25%), yielding 18% surface runoff. Potential source areas of erosion were also identified with the model. The range of the annual contributing erosive zones varied spatially from 0.1 to 103 t/ha according to the slope and land use at the basin scale. Also the fifteen sub basins create the 60% of the total sediment yield between the all (102) sub basins. The results of the study indicated that SWAT can be a useful tool for assessing hydrology and sediment yield response of the watersheds in the region.

Keywords: erosion, SWAT, sediment yield, Gheshlagh dam

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22 Temperature Effect on Corrosion and Erosion in Transfer Line Exchange by CFD

Authors: S. Hehni Meidani Behzad, Mokhtari Karchegani Amir, Mabodi Samad


There are some TLE (Transfer Line Exchanger) that their lifetime reduced to 4 years instead of 30 years and after 4 years, we saw corroded area on one part of those T.L.E. that named Oval header and this happened in condition that other parts of those TLE were safe and perfect. By using of thickness measurement devices, we find that thickness reduces unusually on that part and after research and doing computer analysis with fluent software, it was recognized that on that part, we have high temperature and when this out of range temperature adds to bad quality of water, corrosion increased with high rate on that part and after more research it became obviously that it case by more excess air in furnace that located before this T.L.E. that this more air case to consuming more fuel to reach same furnace temperature so it concluded that inner coil fluid temperature increased and after received to T.L.E, this case happened and deflector condition, creep in coil and material analysis confirmed that condition.

Keywords: CFD, Corrosion, erosion, Tube, Transfer Line Exchanger (TLE), oval header

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21 The Effect of the Rain Intensity on the Hydrodynamic Behavior of the Low-Floor ChéLiffe

Authors: Ahmed Abbas


Land degradation in the Lower Cheliff region leads to loss of their fertility, physical and chemical properties by secondary salinization and film forming surface or surface crust. The main factor related to runoff and soil erosion is their susceptibility to crusting caused by the impact of raindrops, which causes the reduction of the filterability of the soil. The present study aims to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of five types of soil taken from the plain of low Cheliff under simulated rainfall by using two intensities, one moderate, and others correspond to heavy rains at low kinetic energies. Experimental results demonstrate the influence of chemical and mechanical physical properties of soils on their hydrodynamic behavior and the influence of heavy rain on the modality of the reduction in the filterability and the amount of transported sediment.

Keywords: Soil, erosion, hydrodynamic behavior, rain simulation

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20 Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Nadjet Bouhelal, Ismail Daoud


This paper investigates the application of metallic coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer. The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance. This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.

Keywords: Coating, Composite, erosion, arc spray

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19 Ecosystem Post-Wildfires Effects of Thasos Island

Authors: George D. Ranis, Valasia Iakovoglou, George N. Zaimes


Fires are one of the main types of disturbances that shape ecosystems in the Mediterranean region. However nowadays, climate alterations towards higher temperature regimes results on the increased levels of the intensity, frequency and the spread of fires inducing obstacles for the natural regeneration. Thasos Island is one of the Greek islands that have experienced those problems. Since 1984, a series of wildfires led to the reduction of forest cover from 61.6% to almost 20%. The negative impacts were devastating in many different aspects for the island. The absence of plant cover, post-wildfire precipitation and steep slopes were the major factors that induced severe soil erosion and intense flooding events. That also resulted to serious economic problems to the local communities and the ability of the burnt areas to regenerate naturally. Despite the substantial amount of published work regarding Thasos wildfires, there is no information related to post-wildfire effects on the hydrology and soil erosion. More research related to post-fire effects should help to an overall assessment of the negative impacts of wildfires on land degradation through processes such as soil erosion and flooding.

Keywords: Land Degradation, Regeneration, erosion, wildfires, Mediterranean islands, Thasos

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18 Estimation of Soil Erosion Potential in Herat Province, Afghanistan

Authors: M. E. Razipoor, T. Masunaga, K. Sato, M. S. Saboory


Estimation of soil erosion is economically and environmentally important in Herat, Afghanistan. Degradation of soil has negative impact (decreased soil fertility, destroyed soil structure, and consequently soil sealing and crusting) on life of Herat residents. Water and wind are the main erosive factors causing soil erosion in Herat. Furthermore, scarce vegetation cover, exacerbated by socioeconomic constraint, and steep slopes accelerate soil erosion. To sustain soil productivity and reduce soil erosion impact on human life, due to sustaining agricultural production and auditing the environment, it is needed to quantify the magnitude and extent of soil erosion in a spatial domain. Thus, this study aims to estimate soil loss potential and its spatial distribution in Herat, Afghanistan by applying RUSLE in GIS environment. The rainfall erosivity factor ranged between values of 125 and 612 (MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1). Soil erodibility factor varied from 0.036 to 0.073 (Mg h MJ-1 mm-1). Slope length and steepness factor (LS) values were between 0.03 and 31.4. The vegetation cover factor (C), derived from NDVI analysis of Landsat-8 OLI scenes, resulting in range of 0.03 to 1. Support practice factor (P) were assigned to a value of 1, since there is not significant mitigation practices in the study area. Soil erosion potential map was the product of these factors. Mean soil erosion rate of Herat Province was 29 Mg ha-1 year-1 that ranged from 0.024 Mg ha-1 year-1 in flat areas with dense vegetation cover to 778 Mg ha-1 year-1 in sharp slopes with high rainfall but least vegetation cover. Based on land cover map of Afghanistan, areas with soil loss rate higher than soil loss tolerance (8 Mg ha-1 year-1) occupies 98% of Forests, 81% rangelands, 64% barren lands, 60% rainfed lands, 28% urban area and 18% irrigated Lands.

Keywords: GIS, erosion, RUSLE, Afghanistan, Herat

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17 Evaluation of the Beach Erosion Process in Varadero, Matanzas, Cuba: Effects of Different Hurricane Trajectories

Authors: Ana Gabriela Diaz, Luis Fermín Córdova, Jr., Roberto Lamazares


The island of Cuba, the largest of the Greater Antilles, is located in the tropical North Atlantic. It is annually affected by numerous weather events, which have caused severe damage to our coastal areas. In the same way that many other coastlines around the world, the beautiful beaches of the Hicacos Peninsula also suffer from erosion. This leads to a structural regression of the coastline. If measures are not taken, the hotels will be exposed to the advance of the sea, and it will be a serious problem for the economy. With the aim of studying the intensity of this type of activity, specialists of group of coastal and marine engineering from CIH, in the framework of the research conducted within the project MEGACOSTAS 2, provide their research to simulate extreme events and assess their impact in coastal areas, mainly regarding the definition of flood volumes and morphodynamic changes in sandy beaches. The main objective of this work is the evaluation of the process of Varadero beach erosion (the coastal sector has an important impact in the country's economy) on the Hicacos Peninsula for different paths of hurricanes. The mathematical model XBeach, which was integrated into the Coastal engineering system introduced by the project of MEGACOSTA 2 to determine the area and the more critical profiles for the path of hurricanes under study, was applied. The results of this project have shown that Center area is the greatest dynamic area in the simulation of the three paths of hurricanes under study, showing high erosion volumes and the greatest average length of regression of the coastline, from 15- 22 m.

Keywords: erosion, mathematical model, coastal areas, beach

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16 Effect of Manure Treatment on Furrow Erosion: A Case Study of Sagawika Irrigation Scheme in Kasungu, Malawi

Authors: Abel Mahowe


Furrow erosion is the major problem menacing sustainability of irrigation in Malawi and polluting water bodies resulting in death of many aquatic animals. Many rivers in Malawi are drying due to some poor practices that are being practiced around these water bodies, furrow erosion is one of the cause of sedimentation in these rivers although it has gradual effect on deteriorating of these rivers hence neglected, but has got long term disastrous effect on water bodies. Many aquatic animals also suffer when these sediments are taken into these water bodies. An assessment of effect of manure treatment on furrow erosion was carried out in Sagawika irrigation scheme located in Kasungu District north part of Malawi. The soil on the field was clay loam and had just been tilled. The average furrow slope of 0.2% and was divided into two blocks, A and B. Each block had 20V-shaped furrow having a length of 10 m. Three different manure were used to construct these furrows by mixing it with soil which was moderately moist and 5 furrows from each block were constructed without manure. In each block 5furrow were made using a specific type of manure, and one set of five furrows in each block was made without manure treatment. The types of manure that were used were goat manure, pig manure, and manure from crop residuals. The manure application late was 5 kg/m. The furrow was constructed at a spacing of 0.6 m. Tomato was planted in the two blocks at spacing of 0.15 m between rows and 0.15 m between planting stations. Irrigation water was led from feeder canal into the irrigation furrows using siphons. The siphons discharge into each furrow was set at 1.86 L/S. The ¾ rule was used to determine the cut-off time for the irrigation cycles in order to reduce the run-off at the tail end. During each irrigation cycle, samples of the runoff water were collected at one-minute intervals and analyzed for total sediment concentration for use in estimating the total soil sediment loss. The results of the study have shown that a significant amount of soil is lost in soils without many organic matters, there was a low level of erosion in furrows that were constructed using manure treatment within the blocks. In addition, the results have shown that manure also differs in their ability to control erosion since pig manure proved to have greater abilities in binding the soil together than other manure since they were reduction in the amount of sediments at the tail end of furrows constructed by this type of manure. The results prove that manure contains organic matters which helps soil particles to bind together hence resisting the erosive force of water. The use of manure when constructing furrows in soil with less organic matter can highly reduce erosion hence reducing also pollution of water bodies and improve the conditions of aquatic animals.

Keywords: Aquatic, Soil, erosion, furrow

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15 Spatial Variation of Trace Elements in Suspended Sediments from Urban River

Authors: Daniel Macedo Neto, Sandro Froehner, Juan Sanez


Suspended sediments (SS) are an environmental constituent able to represent the effects of land use changes on watersheds. One important consideration of land use change is its implication on trace element loading. Water bodies have the capacity to retain trace elements. Spatial variation in trace elements concentrations can be associated with land occupation and sources of pollution. In this work, the spatial variation of trace elements in suspended sediments from an urban river was assessed. Time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples were installed in three different sites of Barigui River. The suspend solids were collected every 30 days, from May 2015 to August 2015 (total samples 12). Site P1 covers 44 km2 drainage area and has low land occupation, whilst P2 cover an area of 87 km2 and it is totally urban as P3, which area is higher than 130 km2. Trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn) were analysed by ICP-ES. All elements analyzed showed a similar pattern, i.e., the concentration raise with the urbanization, exception for As (P1=7.75; P2=5.75; P3=5.60mg/kg). There was increase in concentration for Cd (P1=0.75; P2=0.78; P3=1.45mg/kg), Cr (P1=59.50; P2=101.75; P3=102.00 mg/kg), Zn (P1=142.25; P2=152.50; P3=223.00mg/kg), P (P1=937.50; P2=1,545.00; P3=2,355.00 mg/kg) and for Pb (P1=31.25; P2=32.75; P3=39.17±2.56 mg/kg). The variation in concentrations were as follow -27.74% (As), +93.33% (Cd), +71.43% (Cr), +151.20% (P), +25.33% (Pb) e +56.77% (Zn). Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn presented a clear trend of increasing the concentration from upstream to downstream. Such variation is more notorious for P, Cd and Cr, possibly due the urbanization.

Keywords: Urbanization, erosion, Trace Elements, suspended sediments

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14 Measuring Impacts of Agroforestry on Soil Erosion with Field Devices: Quantifying Potential for Water Infiltration, Soil Conservation, and Payments for Ecosystems Services Schemes

Authors: Arthur Rouanet, Marina Gavaldao


Throughout the second half of the 20th Century, estimates indicate that soil losses due to erosion have impacted one-third of worldwide arable lands. As such, these losses are amongst the largest threats to agriculture sustainability and production potential. Increasing tree cover is considered one of the most efficient methods to mitigate this phenomenon. The present study describes soil erosion measurements in different land cover situations in Alto Huayabamba, Peru, using the experimental plot methodology. Three parcels were studied during a one-year period (starting September 2015) with 3 different land cover scenarii evaluated: 10-year-old secondary tropical forest (P1), 3-year-old native species reforestation (P2) and bare soil (P3). Information was collected systematically after each rain to assess the average rainfall, water runoff and soil eroded. The results indicate that variance in land cover has a strong impact on the level of soil erosion. In our study, it was found that P1, P2 and P3 had erosion rates of 92 kg/ha/yr, 11 tons/ha/yr and 59,7 tons/ha/year respectively. Using a replacement cost method, the potential of limiting erosion by reforesting bare soil was estimated to be 561 $/ha/yr after three years and 687 $/ha/yr after ten years. Finally, the results of the study allow us to assess the potential soil services provided by vegetation, which could be an important building block for a payment for ecosystems services (PES) scheme. The latter has been increasingly spread all over the world through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP).

Keywords: Water Conservation, Agroforestry, ecosystem services, erosion, Public Private Partnership (PPP), payment for ecosystem services (PES)

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13 Investigation of Failures in Wadi-Crossing Pipe Culverts, Sennar State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi


Crossing culverts are essential element of rural roads. The paper aims to investigate failures of recently constructed wadi-crossing pipe culverts in Sennar state and provide necessary remedial measures. The investigation is conducted to provide an extensive diagnosis study in order to find out the main structural and hydrological weaknesses of the culverts. Literature of steel pipe culverts related to construction practices and common types of culvert failures and their appropriate mitigation measures were reviewed. A detailed field survey was conducted to detect failures and defects appeared on the existing culverts. The results revealed that seepage of water through the embankment and foundation of the culverts leads to excessive erosion and scouring causing sever failures and damages. The design mistakes and poor construction were detected as the main causes of culverts failures. For sustainability of the culverts, various remedial measures are recommended to be considered in urgent rehabilitation of the existing crossings.

Keywords: Sustainability, erosion, Failure, culvert

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12 Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Hemant Kumar


The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.

Keywords: erosion, k-ε model, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), slurry transportation

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11 Analysis of Erosion Quantity on Application of Conservation Techniques in Ci Liwung Hulu Watershed

Authors: Zaenal Mutaqin


The level of erosion that occurs in the upsteam watersheed will lead to limited infiltrattion, land degradation and river trivialisation and estuaries in the body. One of the watesheed that has been degraded caused by using land is the DA Ci Liwung Upstream. The high degradation that occurs in the DA Ci Liwung upstream is indicated by the hugher rate of erosion on the region, especially in the area of agriculture. In this case, agriculture cultivation intent to the agricultural land that has been applied conservation techniques. This study is applied to determine the quantity of erosion by reviewing Hidrologic Response Unit (HRU) in agricuktural cultivation land which is contained in DA Ci Liwung upstream by using the Soil and Water Assessmen Tool (SWAT). Conservation techniques applied are terracing, agroforestry and gulud terrace. It was concluded that agroforestry conservation techniques show the best value of erosion (lowest) compared with other conservation techniques with the contribution of erosion of 25.22 tonnes/ha/year. The results of the calibration between the discharge flow models with the observation that R²=0.9014 and NS=0.79 indicates that this model is acceptable and feasible applied to the Ci Liwung Hulu watershed.

Keywords: Conservation, erosion, SWAT analysis, watersheed

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10 A Unified Approach for Naval Telecommunication Architectures

Authors: Y. Lacroix, J.-F. Malbranque


We present a chronological evolution for naval telecommunication networks. We distinguish periods: with or without multiplexers, with switch systems, with federative systems, with medium switching, and with medium switching with wireless networks. This highlights the introduction of new layers and technology in the architecture. These architectures are presented using layer models of transmission, in a unified way, which enables us to integrate pre-existing models. A ship of a naval fleet has internal communications (i.e. applications' networks of the edge) and external communications (i.e. the use of the means of transmission between edges). We propose architectures, deduced from the layer model, which are the point of convergence between the networks on board and the HF, UHF radio, and satellite resources. This modelling allows to consider end-to-end naval communications, and in a more global way, that is from the user on board towards the user on shore, including transmission and networks on the shore side. The new architectures need take care of quality of services for end-to-end communications, the more remote control develops a lot and will do so in the future. Naval telecommunications will be more and more complex and will use more and more advanced technologies, it will thus be necessary to establish clear global communication schemes to grant consistency of the architectures. Our latest model has been implemented in a military naval situation, and serves as the basic architecture for the RIFAN2 network.

Keywords: erosion, potential function, equilibrium beach profile, eastern tombolo of Giens

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9 Numerical Prediction of Wall Eroded Area by Cavitation

Authors: Ridha Zgolli, Ahmed Belhaj, Maroua Ennouri


This study presents a new method to predict cavitation area that may be eroded. It is based on the post-treatment of URANS simulations in cavitant flows. The most RANS calculations with incompressible consideration are based on cavitation model using mixture fluid with density (ρm) calculated as a function of liquid density (ρliq), vapour or gas density (ρvap) and vapour or gas volume fraction α (ρm = αρvap + (1-α) ρliq). The calculations are performed on hydrofoil geometries and compared with experimental works concerning flows characteristics (size of pocket, pressure, velocity). We present here the used cavitation model and the approach followed to evaluate the value of α fixing the shape of pocket around wall before collapsing.

Keywords: CFD, cavitation, flows, erosion

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8 Stream Channel Changes in Balingara River, Sulawesi Tengah

Authors: Muhardiyan Erawan, Zaenal Mutaqin


Balingara River is one of the rivers with the type Gravel-Bed in Indonesia. Gravel-Bed Rivers easily deformed in a relatively short time due to several variables, that are climate (rainfall), river discharge, topography, rock types, and land cover. To determine stream channel changes in Balingara River used Landsat 7 and 8 and analyzed planimetric or two dimensions. Parameters to determine changes in the stream channel are sinuosity ratio, Brice Index, the extent of erosion and deposition. Changes in stream channel associated with changes in land cover then analyze with a descriptive analysis of spatial and temporal. The location of a stream channel has a low gradient in the upstream, and middle watershed with the type of rock in the form of gravel is more easily changed than other locations. Changes in the area of erosion and deposition influence the land cover changes.

Keywords: Deposition, Land Cover Change, erosion, gravel-bed, Brice Index, sinuosity ratio, stream channel change

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7 Depth-Averaged Modelling of Erosion and Sediment Transport in Free-Surface Flows

Authors: Thomas Rowan, Mohammed Seaid


A fast finite volume solver for multi-layered shallow water flows with mass exchange and an erodible bed is developed. This enables the user to solve a number of complex sediment-based problems including (but not limited to), dam-break over an erodible bed, recirculation currents and bed evolution as well as levy and dyke failure. This research develops methodologies crucial to the under-standing of multi-sediment fluvial mechanics and waterway design. In this model mass exchange between the layers is allowed and, in contrast to previous models, sediment and fluid are able to transfer between layers. In the current study we use a two-step finite volume method to avoid the solution of the Riemann problem. Entrainment and deposition rates are calculated for the first time in a model of this nature. In the first step the governing equations are rewritten in a non-conservative form and the intermediate solutions are calculated using the method of characteristics. In the second stage, the numerical fluxes are reconstructed in conservative form and are used to calculate a solution that satisfies the conservation property. This method is found to be considerably faster than other comparative finite volume methods, it also exhibits good shock capturing. For most entrainment and deposition equations a bed level concentration factor is used. This leads to inaccuracies in both near bed level concentration and total scour. To account for diffusion, as no vertical velocities are calculated, a capacity limited diffusion coefficient is used. The additional advantage of this multilayer approach is that there is a variation (from single layer models) in bottom layer fluid velocity: this dramatically reduces erosion, which is often overestimated in simulations of this nature using single layer flows. The model is used to simulate a standard dam break. In the dam break simulation, as expected, the number of fluid layers utilised creates variation in the resultant bed profile, with more layers offering a higher deviation in fluid velocity . These results showed a marked variation in erosion profiles from standard models. The overall the model provides new insight into the problems presented at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: Sediment Transport, erosion, finite volume method, shallow water equations

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6 Case Study: Geomat Installation against Slope Erosion

Authors: Serap Kaymakci, Dogan Gundogdu, M. Bugra Yagcioglu


Erosion (soil erosion) is a phenomenon in which the soil on the slope surface is exposed to natural influences such as wind, rainfall, etc. in open areas. The most natural solution to prevent erosion is to plant surfaces exposed to erosion. However, proper ground and natural conditions must be provided in order for planting to occur. Erosion is prevented in a fast and natural way and the loss of soil is reduced mostly. Lead to allowing plants to hold onto the soil with its three-dimensional and hollow structure are as follows: The types of geomat called MacMat that is used in a case study in Turkey in order to prevent water carry over due to rainfall. The geosynthetic combined with double twisted steel wire mesh. That consists of 95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated double twisted steel wire based that is a reinforced MacMat (geosynthetic three-dimensional erosion control mat) obtained by a polypropylene consisted (mesh type 8x10-Wire diam. 2.70 mm–95% Zn–5% Al alloy coated). That is developed by the progress of the technology. When using reinforced MacMat on top clay liners, fixing pins should not be used as they will rupture the mats. Mats are simply anchored (J Type) in the top trench and, if necessary, in intermediate berm trenches. If the slope angle greater than 20°, it is necessary to use additional rebar depending soil properties also. These applications may have specific technical and installation requirements. In that project, the main purpose is erosion control after that is greening. There is a slope area around the factory which is located in Gebze, İstanbul.

Keywords: erosion, Geosynthetic, slope, GeoMat

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5 Analysis and Evaluation of the Water Catch Basins of the Erosive-Mudflow Rivers of Georgia on the Example of the River Vere

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


On June 13-14 of 2015, a landslide in village Akhaldaba was formed as a result of the intense rains in the water catch basin of the river Vere. As a result of the landslide movement, freshets and mudflows originated, and unfortunately, there were victims: zoo animals and birds were drawn in the flood and 12 people died due to the flooded motor road. The goal of the study is to give the analysis of the results of the field and scientific research held in 2015-2017 and to generalize them to the water catch basins of the erosive-mudflow rivers of other mountain landscapes of Georgia. By considering the field and scientific works, the main geographic, geological, climatic, hydrological and hydraulic properties of the erosive-mudflow tributaries of the water catch basin of the river Vere were evaluated and the probabilities of mudflow formation by considering relevant risk-factors were identified. The typology of the water catch basins of erosive-mudflow rivers of Georgia was identified on the example of the river Vere based on the field and scientific study, and their genesis, frequency of mudflow formation and volume of the drift material was identified. By using the empirical and theoretical dependencies, the amount of solid admixtures in the mudflow formed in the gorge of the river Jokhona, the right tributary of the river Vere was identified by considering the shape of the stones.

Keywords: erosion, Typology, mudflow, water catchment basin

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4 Modelling of Meandering River Dynamics in Colombia: A Case Study of the Magdalena River

Authors: Laura Isabel Guarin, Juliana Vargas, Philippe Chang


The analysis and study of Open Channel flow dynamics for River applications has been based on flow modelling using discreet numerical models based on hydrodynamic equations. The overall spatial characteristics of rivers, i.e. its length to depth to width ratio generally allows one to correctly disregard processes occurring in the vertical or transverse dimensions thus imposing hydrostatic pressure conditions and considering solely a 1D flow model along the river length. Through a calibration process an accurate flow model may thus be developed allowing for channel study and extrapolation of various scenarios. The Magdalena River in Colombia is a large river basin draining the country from South to North with 1550 km with 0.0024 average slope and 275 average width across. The river displays high water level fluctuation and is characterized by a series of meanders. The city of La Dorada has been affected over the years by serious flooding in the rainy and dry seasons. As the meander is evolving at a steady pace repeated flooding has endangered a number of neighborhoods. This study has been undertaken in pro of correctly model flow characteristics of the river in this region in order to evaluate various scenarios and provide decision makers with erosion control measures options and a forecasting tool. Two field campaigns have been completed over the dry and rainy seasons including extensive topographical and channel survey using Topcon GR5 DGPS and River Surveyor ADCP. Also in order to characterize the erosion process occurring through the meander, extensive suspended and river bed samples were retrieved as well as soil perforation over the banks. Hence based on DEM ground digital mapping survey and field data a 2DH flow model was prepared using the Iber freeware based on the finite volume method in a non-structured mesh environment. The calibration process was carried out comparing available historical data of nearby hydrologic gauging station. Although the model was able to effectively predict overall flow processes in the region, its spatial characteristics and limitations related to pressure conditions did not allow for an accurate representation of erosion processes occurring over specific bank areas and dwellings. As such a significant helical flow has been observed through the meander. Furthermore, the rapidly changing channel cross section as a consequence of severe erosion has hindered the model’s ability to provide decision makers with a valid up to date planning tool.

Keywords: Flow Dynamics, erosion, finite volume method, flow modelling, meander

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