Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Ergonomics Related Abstracts

36 The Exploration of Psychosocial Risk and the Handling of Unsafe Acts and Misconduct

Authors: Jacquelene Swanepoel, J. C. Visagie, H. M. Linde

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this article is to investigate the psychosocial risk environment influencing employee behaviour, and subsequently the trust relationship between employer and employee. Design/methodology/approach: The unique nature and commonness of negative acts, such as unsafe behaviour, human errors, poor performance and negligence, also referred to as unsafe practice, are explored. A literature review is formulated to investigate the nature of negative acts or unsafe behaviour. The findings of this study are used to draw comparisons between unsafe behaviour/misconduct and accidents in the workplace and finally conclude how it should be addressed from a labour relations point of view. Findings: The results indicate comparisons between unsafe practice/misconduct and occupational injuries and accidents, as a result of system flaws, human error or psychosocial risk.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Labour relations, occupational risks, unsafe practice, misconduct, organisational safety culture, management commitment and leadership

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35 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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34 Model of MSD Risk Assessment at Workplace

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon

Abstract:

This article focuses on upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders risk assessment model at workplace. In this model are used risk factors that are responsible for musculoskeletal system damage. Based on statistic calculations the model is able to define what risk of MSD threatens workers who are under risk factors. The model is also able to say how MSD risk would decrease if these risk factors are eliminated.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Occupational diseases, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Risk Factors

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33 UEMSD Risk Identification: Case Study

Authors: K. Sekulová, M. Šimon

Abstract:

The article demonstrates on a case study how it is possible to identify MSD risk. It is based on a dissertation risk identification model of occupational diseases formation in relation to the work activity that determines what risk can endanger workers who are exposed to the specific risk factors. It is evaluated based on statistical calculations. These risk factors are main cause of upper-extremities musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Case study, Risk Identification, upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders

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32 Efficacy of Isometric Neck Exercises and Stretching with Ergonomics for Neck Pain in Computer Professionals

Authors: Esther Liyanage, Indrajith Liyanage, Masih Khan

Abstract:

Neck pain has become a common epidemiological problem. One of the reasons for this is a sedentary way of life, connected with using a personal computer during all daily activities. Work place and work duration has not been properly adapted to the personal physical conditions of these employees. During 1990’s the importance of workstation design and work methods, or ergonomics on health was brought to the forefront of public attention. Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects. Ergonomic intervention results in improvement of working posture and a decrease in prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stretching and resistance exercises to the neck are easy to do, when performed 1-2 times daily reduce discomfort and ease neck stiffness. This study is aimed at finding if ergonomics with exercises to the neck prove beneficial to reduce neck pain in Computer Professionals. The outcomes measures used were: Oswestry neck disability index and VAS score for pain. 100 subjects satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Results: Ergonomic intervention along with isometric neck exercises and stretching proved to reduce neck pain and disability among computer professionals.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Neck pain, neck exercises, physiotherapy for neck pain

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31 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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30 New Employee on-Boarding Program: Effective Tool for Reducing the Prevalence of Workplace Injuries/Accidents

Authors: J. Lee, U. Ugochukwu, P. Conley

Abstract:

According to a recent survey by the UT Southwestern Workplace Safety Committee, the three most common on-the-job injuries reported by workers at the medical center are musculoskeletal injuries, slip-and-fall injuries and repetitive motion injuries. Last year alone, of the 650 documented workplace injuries and accidents, 45% were seen in employees in their first-two years of employment. UT Southwestern New Employee On-Boarding program was created and modeled to follows OSHA’s model that consist of: determining if training is needed, identifying training needs, identifying goals and objectives, developing learning activities, conducting the training, evaluating program effectiveness, and improving the program. The hospital’s management best practices were recreated to limit and control workplace injuries and accidents. Regular trainings and workshops on workplace safety and compliance were initiated for new employees. Various computer workstations were evaluated and recommendations were made to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Post exposure protocols and workers protection programs were remodeled for infectious agents and chemicals used in the hospital, and medical surveillance programs were updated, for every emerging threat, to ensure they are in compliance with the US policy, regulatory and standard setting organizations. If ignorance of specific job hazards and of proper work practices is to blame for this higher injury rate, then training will help to provide a solution. Use of this program in training activities is just one of many ways UT Southwestern complied with the OSHA standards that relate to training while enhancing the safety and health of their employees.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Surveillance, workplace, Hazard, on-boarding

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29 Human-factor and Ergonomics in Bottling Lines

Authors: Parameshwaran Nair

Abstract:

Filling and packaging lines for bottling of beverages into glass, PET or aluminum containers require specialized expertise and a different configuration of equipment like – Filler, Warmer, Labeller, Crater/Recrater, Shrink Packer, Carton Erector, Carton Sealer, Date Coder, Palletizer, etc. Over the period of time, the packaging industry has evolved from manually operated single station machines to highly automized high-speed lines. Human factor and ergonomics have gained significant consideration in this course of transformation. A pre-requisite for such bottling lines, irrespective of the container type and size, is to be suitable for multi-format applications. It should also be able to handle format changeovers with minimal adjustment. It should have variable capacity and speeds, for providing great flexibility of use in managing accumulation times as a function of production characteristics. In terms of layout as well, it should demonstrate flexibility for operator movement and access to machine areas for maintenance. Packaging technology during the past few decades has risen to these challenges by a series of major breakthroughs interspersed with periods of refinement and improvement. The milestones are many and varied and are described briefly in this paper. In order to have a brief understanding of the human factor and ergonomics in the modern packaging lines, this paper, highlights the various technologies, design considerations and statutory requirements in packaging equipment for different types of containers used in India.

Keywords: Ergonomics, human-factor, bottling lines, automized high-speed lines

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28 Co-Development of an Assisted Manual Harvesting Tool for Peach Palm That Avoids the Harvest in Heights

Authors: Mauricio Quintero Angel, Alexander Pereira, Selene Alarcón

Abstract:

One of the elements of greatest importance in agricultural production is the harvesting; an activity associated to different occupational health risks such as harvesting in high altitudes, the transport of heavy materials and the application of excessive muscle strain that leads to muscular-bone disorders. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to improve and validate interventions to reduce exposition and risk to harvesters. This article has the objective of describing the co-development under the ergonomic analysis framework of an assisted manual harvesting tool for peach palm oriented to reduce the risk of death and accidents as it avoid the harvest in heights. The peach palm is a palm tree that is cultivated in Colombia, Perú, Brasil, Costa Rica, among others and that reaches heights of over 20 m, with stipes covered with spines. The fruits are drupes of variable size. For the harvesting of peach palm, in Colombia farmers use the “Marota” or “Climber”, a tool in a closed X shape built in wood, that has two supports adjusted at the stipe, that elevate alternately until reaching a point high enough to grab the bunch that is brought down using a rope. An activity of high risk since it is done at a high altitude without any type of protection and safety measures. The Marota is alternated with a rod, which as variable height between 5 and 12 Meters with a harness system at one end to hold the bunch that is lowered with the whole system (bamboo bunch). The rod is used from the ground or from the Marota in height. As an alternative to traditional tools, the Bajachonta was co-developed with farmers, a tool that employs a traditional bamboo hook system with modifications, to be able to hold it with a rope that passes through a pulley. Once the bunch is hitched, the hook system is detached and this stays attached to the peduncle of the palm tree, afterwards through a pulling force being exerted towards the ground by tensioning the rope, the bunch comes loose to be taken down using a rope and the pulley system to the ground, reducing the risk and efforts in the operation. The bajachonta was evaluated in tree productive zones of Colombia, with innovative farmers, were the adoption is highly probable, with some modifications to improve its efficiency and effectiveness, keeping in mind that the farmers perceive in it an advantage in the reduction of death and accidents by not having to harvest in heights.

Keywords: Ergonomics, assisted harvesting, harvesting in high altitudes, participative design, peach palm

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27 Industrial Ergonomics Improvement at a Refrigerator Manufacturing Company in Iran: An Approach on Interventional Ergonomics

Authors: Hassan S. Naeini

Abstract:

Nowadays a lot of people are working in several sorts of industrial sectors in which there are some risk factors which threaten human being especially in developing countries. One of the main problems which effect on workers’ health refers to Ergonomics. Ergonomics as multidisciplinary science concerns workers’ health and safety in terms of somatic and mental concepts. Surely ergonomics interventions and improvement make a better condition for workers and change the quality of working life to better condition. In this study, one of the factories in Iran which is producing some kinds of small and medium size of refrigerators was chosen as the sample. The preliminary ergonomics observation of the mentioned factory showed that there are some risk factors in terms of ergonomics aspects, so an ergonomic intervention was defined, then some ergonomic assessment methods such as NMQ,OWAS, and Environmental Ergonomic Assessment were used. Also Anthropometric measurement was done. This study shows that there are some workstations and plants which suffer some degrees of ergonomic problems. Considering with the gathered data, illumination, noise control and workstation design in metal workstation are known as the priority actions. Some parts of the mentioned interventions are ongoing actions. it seems that the mentioned intervention and workstations design make a better condition for workers, because ergonomics make a safer and more sustainable environments for human being.

Keywords: Health, Ergonomics, Anthropometry, NMQ, OWAS

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26 Vehicles Analysis, Assessment and Redesign Related to Ergonomics and Human Factors

Authors: Susana Aragoneses Garrido

Abstract:

Every day, the roads are scenery of numerous accidents involving vehicles, producing thousands of deaths and serious injuries all over the world. Investigations have revealed that Human Factors (HF) are one of the main causes of road accidents in modern societies. Distracted driving (including external or internal aspects of the vehicle), which is considered as a human factor, is a serious and emergent risk to road safety. Consequently, a further analysis regarding this issue is essential due to its transcendence on today’s society. The objectives of this investigation are the detection and assessment of the HF in order to provide solutions (including a better vehicle design), which might mitigate road accidents. The methodology of the project is divided in different phases. First, a statistical analysis of public databases is provided between Spain and The UK. Second, data is classified in order to analyse the major causes involved in road accidents. Third, a simulation between different paths and vehicles is presented. The causes related to the HF are assessed by Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Fourth, different car models are evaluated using the Rapid Upper Body Assessment (RULA). Additionally, the JACK SIEMENS PLM tool is used with the intention of evaluating the Human Factor causes and providing the redesign of the vehicles. Finally, improvements in the car design are proposed with the intention of reducing the implication of HF in traffic accidents. The results from the statistical analysis, the simulations and the evaluations confirm that accidents are an important issue in today’s society, especially the accidents caused by HF resembling distractions. The results explore the reduction of external and internal HF through the global analysis risk of vehicle accidents. Moreover, the evaluation of the different car models using RULA method and the JACK SIEMENS PLM prove the importance of having a good regulation of the driver’s seat in order to avoid harmful postures and therefore distractions. For this reason, a car redesign is proposed for the driver to acquire the optimum position and consequently reducing the human factors in road accidents.

Keywords: Ergonomics, analysis vehicles, asssesment, car redesign

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25 Effects of Ergonomics on Labor Productivity in Office Design

Authors: Filiz Erden, Abdullah Erden

Abstract:

In the present information society era, a change is seen in every field together with changing technology. Along with this change, importance given to information and human who is the producer of information increased. Work life and working conditions included in these changes have also been affected. The most important factors that disturb employees in offices are lighting, ventilation, noise and office furniture. Upon arrangement of these according to ergonomic principles, performance and efficiency of employees will increase. Fatigue and stress resulting from office environment are harmful for employees. Attention and efficiency of employee who feels bad will decrease. It should be noted that office employees are human and affected from environment. It should be allowed them to work in comfortable, healthy and peaceful environment. As a result, efficiency will increase and target will be reached. In this study, it has been focused on basic concepts such as office management and efficiency, effects of ergonomics on office efficiency has been examined. Also, a place is given to the factors affecting operational efficiency and effects of physical environment on employees.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Efficiency, office design, office

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24 Ergonomics Aspects of Work with Computers

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba

Abstract:

This paper is based on a large questionnaire study. The paper presents how all participants and subgroups (upper- and lower-level white-collar workers) answered the question, “Have you had an ache, pain, or numbness, which you associate with desktop computer use, in the different body parts during the last 12 months?’ 14.6% of participants (19.4% of women and 8.2% of men) reported that they had often or very often physical symptoms in the neck. Even if our results cannot prove a causal relation of symptoms with computer use, show that workers believe that computer use can influence their wellbeing: This is important when devising treatment modalities to decrease these physical symptoms.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Computer, Work, symptoms

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23 Ergonomical Study of Hand-Arm Vibrational Exposure in a Gear Manufacturing Plant in India

Authors: Santosh KUMAR, M. Muralidhar

Abstract:

The term ‘ergonomics’ is derived from two Greek words: ‘ergon’, meaning work and ‘nomoi’, meaning natural laws. Ergonomics is the study of how working conditions, machines and equipment can be arranged in order that people can work with them more efficiently. In this research communication an attempt has been made to study the effect of hand-arm vibrational exposure on the workers of a gear manufacturing plant by comparison of potential Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) symptoms and effect of different exposure levels of vibration on occurrence of CTS in actual industrial environment. Chi square test and correlation analysis have been considered for statistical analysis. From Chi square test, it has been found that the potential CTS symptoms occurrence is significantly dependent on the level of vibrational exposure. Data analysis indicates that 40.51% workers having potential CTS symptoms are exposed to vibration. Correlation analysis reveals that potential CTS symptoms are significantly correlated with exposure to level of vibration from handheld tools and to repetitive wrist movements.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Physical Tests, CTS symptoms, hand-arm vibration

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22 CONDUCTHOME: Gesture Interface Control of Home Automation Boxes

Authors: J. Branstett, V. Gagneux, A. Leleu, B. Levadoux, J. Pascale

Abstract:

This paper presents the interface CONDUCTHOME which controls home automation systems with a Leap Motion using ‘invariant gesture protocols’. The function of this interface is to simplify the interaction of the user with its environment. A hardware part allows the Leap Motion to be carried around the house. A software part interacts with the home automation box and displays the useful information for the user. An objective of this work is the development a natural/invariant/simple gesture control interface to help elder people/people with disabilities.

Keywords: Automation, Interoperability, Ergonomics, Gesture Recognition

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21 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Mechanical Design, Ergonomics, Laparoscopic Surgery

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20 International E-Learning for Assuring Ergonomic Working Conditions of Orthopaedic Surgeons: First Research Outcomes from Train4OrthoMIS

Authors: J. Bartnicka, J. A. Piedrabuena, R. Portilla, L. Moyano - Cuevas, J. B. Pagador, P. Augat, J. Tokarczyk, F. M. Sánchez Margallo

Abstract:

Orthopaedic surgeries are characterized by a high degree of complexity. This is reflected by four main groups of resources: 1) surgical team which is consisted of people with different competencies, educational backgrounds and positions; 2) information and knowledge about medical and technical aspects of surgery; 3) medical equipment including surgical tools and materials; 4) space infrastructure which is important from an operating room layout point of view. These all components must be integrated and build a homogeneous organism for achieving an efficient and ergonomically correct surgical workflow. Taking this as a background, there was formulated a concept of international project, called “Online Vocational Training course on ergonomics for orthopaedic Minimally Invasive” (Train4OrthoMIS), which aim is to develop an e-learning tool available in 4 languages (English, Spanish, Polish and German). In the article, there is presented the first project research outcomes focused on three aspects: 1) ergonomic needs of surgeons who work in hospitals around different European countries, 2) the concept of structure of e-learning course, 3) the definition of tools and methods for knowledge assessment adjusted to users’ expectation. The methodology was based on the expert panels and two types of surveys: 1) on training needs, 2) on evaluation and self-assessment preferences. The major findings of the study allowed describing the subjects of four training modules and learning sessions. According to peoples’ opinion there were defined most expected test methods which are single choice test and right after quizzes: “True or False” and “Link elements”. The first project outcomes confirmed the necessity of creating a universal training tool for orthopaedic surgeons regardless of the country in which they work. Because of limited time that surgeons have, the e-learning course should be strictly adjusted to their expectation in order to be useful.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Orthopaedic Surgery, international e-learning, Train4OrthoMIS

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19 Study and Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety in Power Plant in Pakistan

Authors: Saira Iqbal

Abstract:

Occupational Health and Safety issues nowadays have become an important esteem in the context of Industrial Production. This study is designed to measure the workplace hazards at Kohinoor Energy Limited. Mainly focused hazards were Heat Stress, Noise Level, Light Level and Ergonomics. Measurements for parameters like Wet, Dry, Globe, WBGTi and RH% were taken directly by visiting the Study Area. The temperature in Degrees was recoded at Control Room and Engine Hall. Highest Temperature was recoded in Engine Hall which was about 380C. Efforts were made to record emissions of Noise Levels from the main area of concern like Engines in Engine hall, parking area, and mechanical workshop. Permissible level for measuring Noise is 85 and its Unit of Measurement is dB (A). In Engine Hall Noise was very high which was about 109.6 dB (A) and that level was exceeding the limits. Illumination Level was also recorded at different areas of Power Plant. The light level was though under permissible limits but in some areas like Engine Hall and Boiler Room, level of light was very low especially in Engine Hall where the level was 29 lx. Practices were performed for measuring hazards in context of ergonomics like extended reaching, deviated body postures, mechanical stress, and vibration exposures of the worker at different units of plants by just observing workers during working hours. Since KEL is ISO 8000 and 14000 certified, the researcher found no serious problems in the parameter Ergonomics however it was a common scenario that workers were reluctant to apply PPEs.

Keywords: Illumination, Ergonomics, workplace hazards, heat hazard, noise hazard

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18 Ergonomics Sallow Recharge Well for Sustainable Ground Water Resources

Authors: Lilik Sudiajeng, Wiraga Wayan, Lanang Parwita I Gusti

Abstract:

This is the ongoing research started in 2013 with the final aim is to design the recharge wells both for housing and industry for ground water conservation in Bali - Indonesia. The research started in Denpasar Regency, one of the strategic areas in Bali. The research showed that there is some critical area of ground water resources, especially in north and west part of Denpasar Regency. It driven by the rapid increase of the tourism industry which is followed by the high rate of population, change of land use that leads to the decreasing of rain water catchment areas, and less awareness on preserve natural resources, including ground water. Focus Group Discussion concluded that in order to solve the problem of groundwater crisis, requires the contribution of all parties, started from making simple recharge well for housing. Because of the availability of land is limited and expensive, it is necessary to present an ergonomic shallow recharge well in accordance with the ability of the family or community. The ergonomics shallow recharge well is designed based on the data of hydrology and the characteristics of soil. The design is very flexible depending on the availability of land, environmentally friendly, energy efficient, culture-based, and affordable. To meet the recommended standard of ground water quality, then it equipped with a filtration and sedimentation ponds. Before design recharge wells is disseminated to the public, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of the wells to harvest and absorb rainwater into the ground.

Keywords: Sustainable, Ergonomics, Ground Water Resources, recharge well

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17 Proposal of Innovative Risk Assessment of Ergonomic Factors in the Production of Jet Engines Using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)

Authors: Jose Cristiano Pereira, Gilson Brito Alves Lima

Abstract:

Ergonomics is a key factor affecting the operational safety and quality in the aircraft engine manufacturing industry and evidence shows that the lack of attention to it can increase the risk of accidents. In order to emphasize the importance of ergonomics, this paper systematically reviews the critical processes used in the aircraft engine production industry with focus on the ergonomic factors. about the subject to identify key ergonomic factors. Experts validated the factors and used AHP to rank the factors in order of significance. From the six key risk factors identified, the ones with the highest weight are psychological demand followed by understanding of operational side. These factors suggest that measures must be taken to improve ergonomic factors, quality and safety in the manufacturing of aircraft engines.

Keywords: Safety, Aviation, Ergonomics, aircraft engine production

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16 Ergonomics and Its Applicability in the Design Process in Egypt Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Mohamed Moheyeldin Mahmoud

Abstract:

Egypt suffers from a severe shortage of data and charts concerning the physical dimensions, measurements, qualities and consumer behavior. The shortage of needed information and appropriate methods has forced the Egyptian designer to use any other foreign standard when designing a product for the Egyptian consumer which has led to many problems. The urgently needed database concerning the physical specifications, measurements of the Egyptian consumers, as well as the need to support the Ergonomics given courses in many colleges and institutes with the latest technologies, is stated as the research problem. Descriptive analytical method relying on the compiling, comparing and analyzing of information and facts in order to get acceptable perceptions, ideas and considerations is the used methodology by the researcher. The research concludes that: 1. Good interaction relationship between users and products shows the success of that product. 2. An integration linkage between the most prominent fields of science specially Ergonomics, Interaction Design and Ethnography should be encouraged to provide an ultimately updated database concerning the nature, specifications and environment of the Egyptian consumer, in order to achieve a higher benefit for both user and product. 3. Chinese economic policy based on the study of market requirements long before any market activities should be emulated. 4. Using Ethnography supports the design activities creating new products or updating existent ones through measuring the compatibility of products with their environment and user expectations, While contracting a joint cooperation between military colleges, sports education institutes from one side, and design institutes from the other side to provide an ultimately updated (annually updated) database concerning some specifications about students of both sexes applying in those institutes (height, weight, etc.) to provide the Industrial designer with the needed information when creating a new product or updating an existing one concerning that category is recommended by the researcher.

Keywords: Ergonomics, ethnography, Interaction Design, adapt

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15 Process Improvement and Redesign of the Immuno Histology (IHC) Lab at MSKCC: A Lean and Ergonomic Study

Authors: Samantha Meyerholz

Abstract:

MSKCC offers patients cutting edge cancer care with the highest quality standards. However, many patients and industry members do not realize that the operations of the Immunology Histology Lab (IHC) are the backbone for carrying out this mission. The IHC lab manufactures blocks and slides containing critical tissue samples that will be read by a Pathologist to diagnose and dictate a patient’s treatment course. The lab processes 200 requests daily, leading to the generation of approximately 2,000 slides and 1,100 blocks each day. Lab material is transported through labeling, cutting, staining and sorting manufacturing stations, while being managed by multiple techs throughout the space. The quality of the stain as well as wait times associated with processing requests, is directly associated with patients receiving rapid treatments and having a wider range of care options. This project aims to improve slide request turnaround time for rush and non-rush cases, while increasing the quality of each request filled (no missing slides or poorly stained items). Rush cases are to be filled in less than 24 hours, while standard cases are allotted a 48 hour time period. Reducing turnaround times enable patients to communicate sooner with their clinical team regarding their diagnosis, ultimately leading faster treatments and potentially better outcomes. Additional project goals included streamlining tech and material workflow, while reducing waste and increasing efficiency. This project followed a DMAIC structure with emphasis on lean and ergonomic principles that could be integrated into an evolving lab culture. Load times and batching processes were analyzed using process mapping, FMEA analysis, waste analysis, engineering observation, 5S and spaghetti diagramming. Reduction of lab technician movement as well as their body position at each workstation was of top concern to pathology leadership. With new equipment being brought into the lab to carry out workflow improvements, screen and tool placement was discussed with the techs in focus groups, to reduce variation and increase comfort throughout the workspace. 5S analysis was completed in two phases in the IHC lab, helping to drive solutions that reduced rework and tech motion. The IHC lab plans to continue utilizing these techniques to further reduce the time gap between tissue analysis and cancer care.

Keywords: Healthcare, Engineering, Ergonomics, Lean

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14 Model Development for Real-Time Human Sitting Posture Detection Using a Camera

Authors: Jheanel E. Estrada, Larry A. Vea

Abstract:

This study developed model to detect proper/improper sitting posture using the built in web camera which detects the upper body points’ location and distances (chin, manubrium and acromion process). It also established relationships of human body frames and proper sitting posture. The models were developed by training some well-known classifiers such as KNN, SVM, MLP, and Decision Tree using the data collected from 60 students of different body frames. Decision Tree classifier demonstrated the most promising model performance with an accuracy of 95.35% and a kappa of 0.907 for head and shoulder posture. Results also showed that there were relationships between body frame and posture through Body Mass Index.

Keywords: Image Processing, Ergonomics, posture, gyroscope, spinal points

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13 Internet-Of-Things and Ergonomics, Increasing Productivity and Reducing Waste: A Case Study

Authors: V. Jaime Contreras, S. Iliana Nunez, S. Mario Sanchez

Abstract:

Inside a manufacturing facility, we can find innumerable automatic and manual operations, all of which are relevant to the production process. Some of these processes add more value to the products more than others. Manual operations tend to add value to the product since they can be found in the final assembly area o final operations of the process. In this areas, where a mistake or accident can increase the cost of waste exponentially. To reduce or mitigate these costly mistakes, one approach is to rely on automation to eliminate the operator from the production line - requires a hefty investment and development of specialized machinery. In our approach, the center of the solution is the operator through sufficient and adequate instrumentation, real-time reporting and ergonomics. Efficiency and reduced cycle time can be achieved thorough the integration of Internet-of-Things (IoT) ready technologies into assembly operations to enhance the ergonomics of the workstations. Augmented reality visual aids, RFID triggered personalized workstation dimensions and real-time data transfer and reporting can help achieve these goals. In this case study, a standard work cell will be used for real-life data acquisition and a simulation software to extend the data points beyond the test cycle. Three comparison scenarios will run in the work cell. Each scenario will introduce a dimension of the ergonomics to measure its impact independently. Furthermore, the separate test will determine the limitations of the technology and provide a reference for operating costs and investment required. With the ability, to monitor costs, productivity, cycle time and scrap/waste in real-time the ROI (return on investment) can be determined at the different levels to integration. This case study will help to show that ergonomics in the assembly lines can make significant impact when IoT technologies are introduced. Ergonomics can effectively reduce waste and increase productivity with minimal investment if compared with setting up to custom machine.

Keywords: Ergonomics, augmented reality visual aids, real-time data acquisition and reporting, RFID triggered workstation dimensions

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12 SENSE-SEAT: Improving Creativity and Productivity through the Redesign of a Multisensory Technological Office Chair

Authors: Fernando Miguel Campos, Pedro Campos, Carlos Ferreira, João Pestana, Nils Ehrenberg, Wojciech Hydzik

Abstract:

The current trend of organizations offering their workers open-office spaces and co-working offices has been primed for stimulating teamwork and collaboration. However, this is not always valid as these kinds of spaces bring other types of challenges that compromise workers productivity and creativity. We present an approach for improving creativity and productivity at the workspace by redesigning an office chair that incorporates subtle technological elements that help users focus, relax and being more productive and creative. This sheds light on how we can better design interactive furniture for such popular contexts, as we develop this new chair through a multidisciplinary approach using ergonomics, interior design, interaction design, hardware and software engineering and psychology.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Productivity, Creativity, Interaction, Human-Computer Interaction, co-working, interactive furniture

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11 Analysis of Train Passenger Seat Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method

Authors: Robertoes K. K. Wibowo, Siswoyo Soekarno, Irma Puspitasari

Abstract:

Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class train transportation because it is cheaper and has a more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, the economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of trains that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. Thus, research needs to be conducted on the design of the seats in the economic class of trains. The purpose of this research is to make the design of economy class passenger seats ergonomic. This research method uses questionnaires and anthropometry measurements. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing were obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is a stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, with a seat width for each passenger of 400 mm and a depth of 400 mm. Design of the backrest has a height of 840 mm, width of 430 mm and length of 300 mm that can move at the angle of 105-115 degrees. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of the seat cushion is 100 mm.

Keywords: Ergonomics, chair, function development, train passenger

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10 Human Factors Integration of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Response: Systems and Technologies

Authors: Graham Hancox, Saydia Razak, Sue Hignett, Jo Barnes, Jyri Silmari, Florian Kading

Abstract:

In the event of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) incident rapidly gaining, situational awareness is of paramount importance and advanced technologies have an important role to play in improving detection, identification, monitoring (DIM) and patient tracking. Understanding how these advanced technologies can fit into current response systems is essential to ensure they are optimally designed, usable and meet end-users’ needs. For this reason, Human Factors (Ergonomics) methods have been used within an EU Horizon 2020 project (TOXI-Triage) to firstly describe (map) the hierarchical structure in a CBRN response with adapted Accident Map (AcciMap) methodology. Secondly, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) has been used to describe and review the sequence of steps (sub-tasks) in a CBRN scenario response as a task system. HTA methodology was then used to map one advanced technology, ‘Tag and Trace’, which tags an element (people, sample and equipment) with a Near Field Communication (NFC) chip in the Hot Zone to allow tracing of (monitoring), for example casualty progress through the response. This HTA mapping of the Tag and Trace system showed how the provider envisaged the technology being used, allowing for review and fit with the current CBRN response systems. These methodologies have been found to be very effective in promoting and supporting a dialogue between end-users and technology providers. The Human Factors methods have given clear diagrammatic (visual) representations of how providers see their technology being used and how end users would actually use it in the field; allowing for a more user centered approach to the design process. For CBRN events usability is critical as sub-optimum design of technology could add to a responders’ workload in what is already a chaotic, ambiguous and safety critical environment.

Keywords: Human Factors, Ergonomics, CBRN, AcciMap, hierarchical task analysis

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9 An Anthropometric and Postural Risk Assessment of Students in Computer Laboratories of a State University

Authors: Sarah Louise Cruz, Jemille Venturina

Abstract:

Ergonomics considers the capabilities and limitations of a person as they interact with tools, equipment, facilities and tasks in their work environment. Workplace is one example of physical work environment, be it a workbench or a desk. In school laboratories, sitting is the most common working posture of the students. Students maintain static sitting posture as they perform different computer-aided activities. The College of Engineering and College of Information and Communication Technology of a State University consist of twenty-two computer laboratories. Normally, students aren’t usually aware of the importance of sustaining proper sitting posture while doing their long hour computer laboratory activities. The study evaluates the perceived discomfort and working postures of students as they are exposed on current workplace design of computer laboratories. The current study utilizes Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Body Discomfort Chart using Borg’s CR-10 Scale Rating and Quick Exposure Checklist in order to assess the posture and the current working condition. The result of the study may possibly minimize the body discomfort experienced by the students. The researchers redesign the individual workstations which includes working desk, sitting stool and other workplace design components. Also, the economic variability of each alternative was considered given that the study focused on improvement of facilities of a state university.

Keywords: Ergonomics, workplace, students, posture, computer workstation

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8 The Design Process of an Interactive Seat for Improving Workplace Productivity

Authors: Carlos Ferreira, Paulo Freitas, Valentim Freitas

Abstract:

Creative industries’ workers are becoming more prominent as countries move towards intellectual-based economies. Consequently, the nature and essence of the workplace needs to be reconfigured so that creativity and productivity can be better promoted at these spaces. Using a multidisciplinary approach and a user-centered methodology, combining product design, electronic engineering, software and human-computer interaction, we have designed and developed a new seat that uses embedded sensors and actuators to increase the overall well-being of its users, their productivity and their creativity. Our contribution focuses on the parameters that most affect the user’s work on these kinds of spaces, which are, according to our study, noise and temperature. We describe the design process for a new interactive seat targeted at improving workspace productivity.

Keywords: Ergonomics, Creativity, Human-Computer Interaction, User Interface, Usability

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7 Integrating Ergonomics at Design Stage in Development of Continuous Passive Motion Machine

Authors: Mahesh S. Harne, Sunil V. Deshmukh

Abstract:

A continuous passive motion machine improves and helps the patient to restore range of motion in various physiotherapy activities. The paper presents a concept for portable CPM. The device is used for various joint for upper and lower body extremities. The device is designed so that the active and passive motion is incorporated. During development, the physiotherapist and patient need is integrated with designer aspects. Various tools such as Analytical Higher Hierarchy process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to integrate the need at the design stage. With market survey of various commercial CPM the gaps are identified, and efforts are made to fill the gaps with ergonomic need. Indian anthropomorphic dimension is referred. The device is modular to best suit for all the anthropomorphic need of different human. Experimentation is carried under the observation of physiotherapist and doctor on volunteer patient. We reported better results are compare to conventional CPM with comfort and less pain. We concluded that the concept will be helpful to reduces therapy cost and wide utility of device for various joint and physiotherapy exercise.

Keywords: Physiotherapy, Ergonomics, quality function deployment, continuous passive motion machine

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