Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Equilibrium Related Abstracts

11 Polymerization: An Alternative Technology for Heavy Metal Removal

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


In this paper, the adsorption performance of a novel environmental friendly material, calcium alginate gel beads as a non-conventional technique for the successful removal of copper ions from aqueous solution are reported on. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity and process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosages, initial metal ion concentrations, stirring rates and contact times. It was observed that the optimum pH for maximum copper ions adsorption was at pH 5.0. For all contact times, an increase in copper ions concentration resulted in decrease in the percent of copper ions removal. Langmuir and Freundlich's isothermal models were used to describe the experimental adsorption. Adsorbent was characterization using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: Equilibrium, Adsorption, isothermal models, alginate polymer

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10 Mathematical Model for Defection between Two Political Parties

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed Auwal


Formation and change or decamping from one political party to another have now become a common trend in Nigeria. Many of the parties’ members who could not secure positions and or win elections in their parties or are not very much satisfied with the trends occurring in the party’s internal democratic principles and mechanisms, change their respective parties. This paper developed/presented and analyzed the used of non linear mathematical model for defections between two political parties using epidemiological approach. The whole population was assumed to be a constant and homogeneously mixed. Equilibria have been analytically obtained and their local and global stability discussed. Conditions for the co-existence of both the political parties have been determined, in the study of defections between People Democratic Party (PDP) and All Progressive Congress (APC) in Nigeria using numerical simulations to support the analytical results.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Stability, Equilibrium, model, Political Parties, deffection

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9 Polygeneration Solar Air Drying

Authors: Binoy Chandra Sarma, S. K. Deb


Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study. Over 85% of industrial dryers are of the convective type with hot air or direct flue gases as the drying medium. Over 99% of the applications involve removal of water. In this study, the performance of a solar air heater with the recovery of the absorbed heat by the metallic concentrator sheet itself besides the normal heat accumulated by the receiver at the focus of the concentrator for generating drying air by convection at a low to medium temperature range is discussed. The system performance through thermal analysis & the performance of a model achieving the required temperature range is also investigate in this study.

Keywords: Equilibrium, polygeneration, moisture, humidity, dryer

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8 Separation of Oryzanol from Rice Bran Oil Using Silica: Equilibrium of Batch Adsorption

Authors: W. B. Sediawan, A. D. Susanti, S. K. Wirawan, Budhijanto, Ritmaleni


Rice bran oil contains significant amounts of oryzanol, a natural antioxidant that considered has higher antioxidant activity than vitamin E (tocopherol). Oryzanol reviewed has several health properties and interested in pharmacy, nutrition, and cosmetics. For practical usage, isolation and purification would be necessary due to the low concentration of oryzanol in crude rice bran oil (0.9-2.9%). Batch chromatography has proved as a promising process for the oryzanol recovery, but productivity was still low and scale-up processes of industrial interest have not yet been described. In order to improve productivity of batch chromatography, a continuous chromatography design namely Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) concept have been proposed. The SMB concept has interested for continuous commercial scale separation of binary system (oryzanol and rice bran oil), and rice bran oil still obtained as side product. Design of SMB chromatography for oryzanol separation requires quantification of its equilibrium. In this study, equilibrium of oryzanol separation conducted in batch adsorption using silica as the adsorbent and n-hexane/acetone (9:1) as the eluent. Three isotherm models, namely the Henry, Langmuir, and Freundlich equations, have been applied and modified for the experimental data to establish appropriate correlation for each sample. It turned out that the model quantitatively describe the equilibrium experimental data and will directed for design of SMB chromatography.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Adsorption, rice bran oil, oryzanol, simulated moving bed

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7 MHD Equilibrium Study in Alborz Tokamak

Authors: Reza Amrollahi, Maryamosadat Ghasemi


Plasma equilibrium geometry has a great influence on the confinement and magnetohydrodynamic stability in tokamaks. The poloidal field (PF) system of a tokamak should be able to support this plasma equilibrium geometry. In this work the prepared numerical code based on radial basis functions are presented and used to solve the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation for the axisymmetric equilibrium of tokamak plasma. The radial basis functions (RBFs) which is a kind of numerical meshfree method (MFM) for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) has appeared in the last decade and is developing significantly in the last few years. This technique is applied in this study to obtain the equilibrium configuration for Alborz Tokamak. The behavior of numerical solution convergences show the validation of this calculations.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Radial Basis Functions, grad–shafranov, Alborz Tokamak

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6 Equilibrium Modeling of a Two Stage Downdraft Gasifier Using Different Gasification Fluids

Authors: F. R. M. Nascimento, E. E. S. Lora, J. C. E. Palácio


A mathematical model to investigate the performance of a two stage fixed bed downdraft gasifier operating with air, steam and oxygen mixtures as the gasifying fluid has been developed. The various conditions of mixtures for a double stage fluid entry, have been performed. The model has been validated through a series of experimental tests performed by NEST – The Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation of the Federal University of Itajubá. Influence of mixtures are analyzed through the Steam to Biomass (SB), Equivalence Ratio (ER) and the Oxygen Concentration (OP) parameters in order to predict the best operating conditions to obtain adequate output gas quality, once is a key parameter for subsequent gas processing in the synthesis of biofuels, heat and electricity generation. Results show that there is an optimal combination in the steam and oxygen content of the gasifying fluid which allows the user find the best conditions to design and operate the equipment according to the desired application.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Equilibrium, Air, mixtures, downdraft, fixed bed gasification, oxygen steam

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5 Bifurcation and Stability Analysis of the Dynamics of Cholera Model with Controls

Authors: C. E. Madubueze, S. C. Madubueze, S. Ajama


Cholera is a disease that is predominately common in developing countries due to poor sanitation and overcrowding population. In this paper, a deterministic model for the dynamics of cholera is developed and control measures such as health educational message, therapeutic treatment, and vaccination are incorporated in the model. The effective reproduction number is computed in terms of the model parameters. The existence and stability of the equilibrium states, disease free and endemic equilibrium states are established and showed to be locally and globally asymptotically stable when R0 < 1 and R0 > 1 respectively. The existence of backward bifurcation of the model is investigated. Furthermore, numerical simulation of the model developed is carried out to show the impact of the control measures and the result indicates that combined control measures will help to reduce the spread of cholera in the population

Keywords: Dynamics, Stability, Equilibrium, Cholera, backward bifurcation

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4 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Maurice S. Onyango, Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Christian Wolkersdorfer, Taile Y. Leswfi


This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, mine water

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3 Heat Capacity of a Soluble in Water Protein: Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: A. Rajabpour, A. Hadizadeh Kheirkhah


Heat transfer is of great importance to biological systems in order to function properly. In the present study, specific heat capacity as one of the most important heat transfer properties is calculated for a soluble in water Lysozyme protein. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, specific heat capacities of pure water, dry lysozyme, and lysozyme-water solution are calculated at 300K for different weight fractions. It is found that MD results are in good agreement with ideal binary mixing rule at small weight fractions. Results of all simulations have been validated with experimental data.

Keywords: Equilibrium, molecular dynamics simulation, specific heat capacity, lysozyme protein

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2 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation

Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono


The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: Equilibrium, Adsorption, activated carbon, lead, kinetic, mangrove propagule

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1 Removal of Basic Yellow 28 Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Plastic Wastes

Authors: Samira Amokrane, Djamel Nibou, Nadjib Dahdouh, Elhadj Mekatel


The removal of Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) from aqueous solutions by plastic wastes PMMA was investigated. The characteristics of plastic wastes PMMA were determined by SEM, FTIR and chemical composition analysis. The effects of solution pH, initial Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) concentration C, solid/liquid ratio R, and temperature T were studied in batch experiments. The Freundlich and the Langmuir models have been applied to the adsorption process, and it was found that the equilibrium followed well Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of BY28 on the PMMA was evaluated for the pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. It was found that used models were correlated with the experimental data. Intraparticle diffusion model was also used in these experiments. The thermodynamic parameters namely the enthalpy ∆H°, entropy ∆S° and free energy ∆G° of adsorption of BY28 on PMMA were determined. From the obtained results, the negative values of Gibbs free energy ∆G° indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of BY28 by PMMA. The negative values of ∆H° revealed the exothermic nature of the process and the negative values of ∆S° suggest the stability of BY28 on the surface of SW PMMA.

Keywords: Equilibrium, removal, kinetic study, Waste PMMA, BY28 dye, thermodynamic study

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