Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

EPR Related Abstracts

6 Antibacterial Property of ZnO Nanoparticles: Effect of Intrinsic Defects

Authors: Mrutyunjay Suar, Suresh Kumar Verma, Jugal Kishore Das, Ealisha Jha, SKS Parashar


In recent years nanoforms of inorganic metallic oxides has attracted a lot of interest due to their small size and significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties compared to their molecular precursor. Some of the inorganic materials such as TiO2, ZnO, MgO, CaO, Al2O3 have been extensively used in biological applications. Zinc Oxide is a Wurtzite-type semiconductor and piezo-electric material exhibiting excellent electrical, optical and chemical properties with a band energy gap of 3.1-3.4 eV. Nanoforms of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) are increasingly recognised for their utility in biological application. The significant physical parameters such as surface area, particle size, surface charge and Zeta potential of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles makes it suitable for the uptake, persistance, biological, and chemical activities inside the living cells. The present study shows the effect of intrinsic defects of ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by high energy ball milling (HEBM) technique in their antibacterial activities. Bulk Zinc oxide purchased from market were ball milled for 7 h, 10 h, and 15 h respectively to produce nanosized Zinc Oxide. The structural and optical modification of such synthesized particles were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antibacterial property of synthesized Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was tested using well diffusion, minimum inhibitory Concentration, minimum bacteriocidal concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) estimation and membrane potential determination methods. In this study we observed that antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles is because of the intrinsic defects that exist as a function of difference in size and milling time.

Keywords: EPR, high energy ball milling, ZnO nanoparticles, Antibacterial properties

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5 Synthesized Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts for Mineralization of Quinalphos from Aqueous Streams

Authors: Dhiraj Sud, Nidhi Sharotri


Water pollution by pesticides constitutes a serious ecological problem due to their potential toxicity and bioaccumulation. The widespread use of pesticides in industry and agriculture along with their resistance to natural decomposition, biodegradation, chemical and photochemical degradation under typical environmental conditions has resulted in the emergence of these chemicals and their transformed products in natural water. Among AOP’s, heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 as photocatalyst appears as the most emerging destructive technology for mineralization of the pollutant in aquatic streams. Among the various semiconductors (TiO2, ZnO, CdS, FeTiO3, MnTiO3, SrTiO2 and SnO2), TiO2 has proven to be the most efficient photocatalyst for environmental applications due to its biological and chemical inertness, high photo reactivity, non-toxicity, and photo stability. Semiconductor photocatalysts are characterized by an electronic band structure in which valence band and conduction band are separated by a band gap, i.e. a region of forbidden energy. Semiconductor based photocatalysts produces e-/h+ pairs which have been employed for degradation of organic pollutants. The present paper focuses on modification of TiO2 photocatalyst in order to shift its absorption edge towards longer wavelength to make it active under natural light. Semiconductor TiO2 photocatalysts was prepared by doping with anion (N), cation (Mn) and double doped (Mn, N) using greener approach. Titanium isopropoxide is used as titania precursor and ethanedithiol, hydroxyl amine hydrochloride, manganous chloride as sulphur, nitrogen and manganese precursors respectively. Synthesized doped TiO2 nanomaterials are characterized for surface morphology (SEM, TEM), crystallinity (XRD) and optical properties (absorption spectra and band gap). EPR data confirms the substitutional incorporation of Mn2+ in TiO2 lattice. The doping influences the phase transformation of rutile and anatase phase crystal and thereby the absorption spectrum changes were observed. The effect of variation of reaction parameters such as solvent, reaction time and calcination temperature on the yield, surface morphology and optical properties was also investigated. The TEM studies show the particle size of nanomaterials varies from 10-50 nm. The calculated band gap of nanomaterials varies from 2.30-2.60 eV. The photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant organophosphate pesticide (Quinalphos) has been investigated by studying the changes in UV absorption spectrum and the promising results were obtained under visible light. The complete mineralization of quinalphos has occurred as no intermediates were recorded after 8 hrs of degradation confirmed from the HPLC studies.

Keywords: EPR, Mineralization, quinalphos, doped-TiO2

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4 Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential

Authors: A. Haddad, N. Ullah, F. Van Der Linde


This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.

Keywords: System, Integrity, EPR, Bonding, earthing

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3 Electronic Patient Record (EPR) System in South Africa: Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Temitope O. Tokosi, Visvanathan Naicker


Patient health records contain sensitive information for which an electronic patient record (EPR) system can safely secure and transmit amongst clinicians for use in improving health delivery. Clinician’s use of the behaviour of these systems is under scrutiny to assess their attributes towards health technology. South Africa (SA) clinicians responded to a pilot study survey to assess their understanding of EPR, what attributes are important towards technology use and more importantly streamlining the survey for a larger study. Descriptive statistics using mean scores was used because of the small sample size of 11 clinicians who completed the survey. Nine (9) constructs comprising 62 items were used and a Cronbach alpha score of 0.883 was obtained. Limitations and discussions conclude the study.

Keywords: EPR, clinicians, South Africa, pilot study

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2 Investigation of Fumaric Acid Radiolysis Using Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Wafa Jahouach-Rabai, Khouloud Ouerghi, Zohra Azzouz-Berriche, Faouzi Hosni


Widely used organic products in the pharmaceutical industry have been detected in environmental systems, essentially carboxylic acids. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of these contaminants was evaluated using an advanced oxidation process (AOP), namely ionization process as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. This process permitted the generation of radical reactions to directly degrade organic pollutants in wastewater. In fact, gamma irradiation of aqueous solutions produces several reactive radicals, essentially hydroxyl radical (OH), to destroy recalcitrant pollutants. Different concentrations of aqueous solutions of Fumaric acid (FA) were considered in this study (0.1-1 mmol/L), which were treated by irradiation doses from 1 to 15 kGy with 6.1 kGy/h rate by ionizing system in pilot scale (⁶⁰Co irradiator). Variations of main parameters influencing degradation efficiency versus absorbed doses were released in the aim to optimize total mineralization of considered pollutants. Preliminary degradation pathway until complete mineralization into CO₂ has been suggested based on detection of residual degradation derivatives using different techniques, namely high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Results revealed total destruction of treated compound, which improve the efficiency of this process in water remediation. We investigated the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals generated by irradiation on dicarboxylic acid (FA) in aqueous solutions, leading to its degradation into other smaller molecules. In fact, gamma irradiation of FA leads to the formation of hydroxylated intermediates such as hydroxycarbonyl radical which were identified by EPR spectroscopy. Finally, pilot plant irradiation facilities improved the applicability of radiation technology on large scale.

Keywords: EPR, HPLC, gamma irradiation, hydroxyl radical, AOP, radiolysis, fumaric acid

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1 Degradation of Emerging Pharmaceuticals by Gamma Irradiation Process

Authors: W. Jahouach-Rabai, J. Aribi, Z. Azzouz-Berriche, R. Lahsni, F. Hosni


Gamma irradiation applied in removing pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater is an effective advanced oxidation process (AOP), considered as an alternative to conventional water treatment technologies. In this purpose, the degradation efficiency of several detected contaminants under gamma irradiation was evaluated. In fact, radiolysis of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions produces powerful reactive species, essentially hydroxyl radical ( ·OH), able to destroy recalcitrant pollutants in water. Pharmaceuticals considered in this study are aqueous solutions of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac at different concentrations 0.1-1 mmol/L, which were treated with irradiation doses from 3 to 15 kGy. The catalytic oxidation of these compounds by gamma irradiation was investigated using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as a convenient oxidant. Optimization of the main parameters influencing irradiation process, namely irradiation doses, initial concentration and oxidant volume (H₂O₂) were investigated, in the aim to release high degradation efficiency of considered pharmaceuticals. Significant modifications attributed to these parameters appeared in the variation of degradation efficiency, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and concentration of radio-induced radicals, confirming them synergistic effect to attempt total mineralization. Pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics could be used to depict the degradation process of these compounds. A sophisticated analytical study was released to quantify the detected radio-induced radicals (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)). All results showed that this process is effective for the degradation of many pharmaceutical products in aqueous solutions due to strong oxidative properties of generated radicals mainly hydroxyl radical. Furthermore, the addition of an optimal amount of H₂O₂ was efficient to improve the oxidative degradation and contribute to the high performance of this process at very low doses (0.5 and 1 kGy).

Keywords: Pharmaceuticals, EPR, HPLC, gamma irradiation, hydroxyl radical, COD, AOP

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