Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

epoxy Related Abstracts

26 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of MWCNTs-Modified Epoxy Resin

Authors: M. Dehghan, R. Al-Mahaidi, I. Sbarski


An industrial epoxy adhesive used in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP)-strengthening systems was modified by dispersing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocomposites were fabricated using solvent-assisted dispersion method and ultrasonic mixing. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and tensile tests were conducted to study the effect of nanotubes dispersion on the thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy composite. Experimental results showed a substantial enhancement in the decomposition temperature and tensile properties of epoxy composite, while, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was slightly reduced due to the solvent effect. The morphology of the epoxy nanocomposites was investigated by SEM. It was proved that using solvent improves the nanotubes dispersion. However, at contents higher than 2 wt. %, nanotubes started to re-bundle in the epoxy matrix which negatively affected the final properties of epoxy composite.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer, epoxy, multi-walled carbon nanotube, DMA, glass transition temperature

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25 Formation and Characterization of the Epoxy Resin-Porous Glass Interphases

Authors: Aleksander Ostrowski, Hugh J. Byrne, Roland Sanctuary


Investigation of the polymer interphases is an emerging field nowadays. In many cases interphases determine the functionality of a system. There is a great demand for exploration of fundamental understanding of the interphases and elucidation of their formation, dimensions dependent on various influencing factors, change of functional properties, etc. The epoxy applied on porous glass penetrates its pores with an extent dependent on the pore size, temperature and epoxy components mixing ratio. Developed over the recent time challenging sample preparation procedure allowed to produce very smooth epoxy-porous glass cross-sections. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the epoxy-porous glass interphases. It allowed for chemical differentiation between different regions at the cross-section and determination of the degree of cure of epoxy system in the porous glass.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, epoxy, interphases, porous glass

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24 Sandwich Structure Composites: Effect of Kenaf on Mechanical Properties

Authors: Maizatulnisa Othman, Mohamad Bukhari, Zahurin Halim, Souad A. Muhammad, Khalisani Khalid


Sandwich structure composites produced by epoxy core and aluminium skin were developed as potential building materials. Interface bonding between core and skin was controlled by varying kenaf content. Five different weight percentage of kenaf loading ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt% were employed in the core manufacturing in order to study the mechanical properties of the sandwich composite. Properties of skin aluminium with epoxy were found to be affected by drying time of the adhesive. Mechanical behavior of manufactured sandwich composites in relation with properties of constituent materials was studied. It was found that 30 wt% of kenaf loading contributed to increase the flexural strength and flexural modulus up to 102 MPa and 32 Gpa, respectively. Analysis were done on the flatwise and edgewise compression test. For flatwise test, it was found that 30 wt% of fiber loading could withstand maximum force until 250 kN, with compressive strength results at 96.94 MPa. However, at edgewise compression test, the sandwich composite with same fiber loading only can withstand 31 kN of the maximum load with 62 MPa of compressive strength results.

Keywords: Aluminium, epoxy, kenaf fiber, sandwich structure composite

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23 Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Hazizan Md Akil


In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNTs-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on ratio 30:70 were studies. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by two method; (a) muscovite-MWCNTs hybrids were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing of muscovite with MWCNTs. The effect of different preparations of the composites and filler loading was evaluated. It is revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher compared to MIXED epoxy composites. It is also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increases the MWCNTs filler loading.

Keywords: epoxy, hybrid composite, dielectric properties, muscovite

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22 In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites

Authors: Aiswarea Mathew, Smita Mohanty, Jr., S. K. Nayak


Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.

Keywords: montmorillonite, epoxy, polyurethane, castor oil

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21 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki


This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber, epoxy, CNT, RC columns

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20 Adhesive Connections in Timber: A Comparison between Rough and Smooth Wood Bonding Surfaces

Authors: Valentina Di Maria, Anton Ianakiev


The use of adhesive anchors for wooden constructions is an efficient technology to connect and design timber members in new timber structures and to rehabilitate the damaged structural members of historical buildings. Due to the lack of standard regulation in this specific area of structural design, designers’ choices are still supported by test analysis that enables knowledge, and the prediction, of the structural behavior of glued in rod joints. The paper outlines an experimental research activity aimed at identifying the tensile resistance capacity of several new adhesive joint prototypes made of epoxy resin, steel bar and timber, Oak and Douglas Fir species. The development of new adhesive connectors has been carried out by using epoxy to glue stainless steel bars into pre-drilled holes, characterized by smooth and rough internal surfaces, in timber samples. The realization of a threaded contact surface using a specific drill bit has led to an improved bond between wood and epoxy. The applied changes have also reduced the cost of the joints’ production. The paper presents the results of this parametric analysis and a Finite Element analysis that enables identification and study of the internal stress distribution in the proposed adhesive anchors.

Keywords: Timber, epoxy, glued in rod joints, adhesive anchors, rough contact surface, threaded hole shape

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19 Boron Nitride Nanoparticle Enhanced Prepreg Composite Laminates

Authors: Qiong Tian, Lifeng Zhang, Demei Yu, Ajit D. Kelkar


Low specific weight and high strength is the basic requirement for aerospace materials. Fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites are attractive materials for this purpose. Boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs) have good radiation shielding capacity, which is very important to aerospace materials. Herein a processing route for an advanced hybrid composite material is demonstrated by introducing dispersed BNNPs in standard prepreg manufacturing. The hybrid materials contain three parts: E-fiberglass, an aerospace-grade epoxy resin system, and BNNPs. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was utilized in this processing. Two BNNP functionalization approaches are presented in this study: (a) covalent functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550); (b) non-covalent functionalization with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The functionalized BNNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that BN powder was successfully functionalized via the covalent and non-covalent approaches without any crystal structure change and big agglomerate particles were broken into platelet-like nanoparticles (BNNPs) after functionalization. Compared to pristine BN powder, surface modified BNNPs could result in significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strength and modulus. CTAB functionalized BNNPs (CTAB-BNNPs) showed higher tensile and flexural strength but lower compressive strength than KH-550 functionalized BNNPs (KH550-BNNPs). These reinforcements are mainly attributed to good BNNPs dispersion and interfacial adhesion between epoxy matrix and BNNPs. This study reveals the potential in improving mechanical properties of BNNPs-containing composites laminates through surface functionalization of BNNPs.

Keywords: Composite, functionalization, Boron Nitride, epoxy, prepreg

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18 Effect of the Poisson’s Ratio on the Behavior of Epoxy Microbeam

Authors: Mohammad Tahmasebipour, Hosein Salarpour


Researchers suggest that variations in Poisson’s ratio affect the behavior of Timoshenko micro beam. Therefore, in this study, two epoxy Timoshenko micro beams with different dimensions were modeled using the finite element method considering all boundary conditions and initial conditions that govern the problem. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on the resonant frequency, maximum deflection, and maximum rotation of the micro beams was examined. The analyses suggest that an increased Poisson’s ratio reduces the maximum rotation and the maximum rotation and increases the resonant frequency. Results were consistent with those obtained using the couple stress, classical, and strain gradient elasticity theories.

Keywords: Dynamic Behavior, Finite Element Method, epoxy, static behavior, microbeam, microsensor, poisson’s ratio

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17 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal


In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: Nano, Composite, Clay, epoxy, fillers

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16 Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

Authors: H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, I. Ozsoy


In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.

Keywords: Composites, Mechanical Properties, epoxy, fillers

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15 Performance of Modified Wedge Anchorage System for Pre-Stressed FRP Bars

Authors: Othman S. Alsheraida, Sherif El-Gamal


Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a composite material with exceptional properties that are capable of replacing conventional steel reinforcement in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete structures. However, the main obstacle for their wide use in the pre-stressed concrete application is the anchorage system. Due to the weakness of FRP in the transverse direction, the pre-stressing capacity of FRP bars is limited. This paper investigates the modification of the conventional wedge anchorage system to be used for stressing of FRP bars in pre-stressed applications. Epoxy adhesive material with glass FRP (GFRP) bars and conventional steel wedge were used in this paper. The GFRP bars are encased with epoxy at the anchor zone and the wedge system was used in the pull-out test. The results showed a loading capacity of 47.6 kN which is 69% of the bar ultimate capacity. Additionally, nylon wedge was made with the same dimensions of the steel wedge and tested for GFRP bars without epoxy layer. The nylon wedge showed a loading capacity of 19.7 kN which is only 28.5% of the ultimate bar capacity.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, epoxy, anchorage, pre-stressed

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14 Syntheses of Biobased Hybrid Poly(epoxy-hydroxyurethane) Polymers

Authors: Adrien Cornille, Sylvain Caillol, Bernard Boutevon


The development of polyurethanes began in 1937 at I. G. Farbenindustrie where Bayer with coworkers discovered the addition polymerization reaction between diisocyanates and diols. Since their discovery, the demand in PU has continued to increase and it will attain in 2016 a production of 18 million tons. However, isocyanates compounds are harmful to human and environment. Methylene diphenyl 4,4’-diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI), the most widely used isocyanates in PU industry, are classified as CMR (Carcinogen, Mutagen, and Reprotoxic). In order to design isocyanate-free materials, an interesting alternative is the use of Polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) by reaction between cyclic carbonate and polyfunctional amines. The main problem concerning PHUs synthesis relates to the low reactivity of carbonate/amine reaction. To solve this issue, many studies in the literature have been conducted to design PHU from more reactive cyclic-carbonates, bearing electro-withdrawing substituent or by using six-membered, seven-membered or thio-cyclic carbonate. The main drawback of all these systems remains the low molar masses obtained for the synthesized PHUs, which hinders their use for material applications. Therefore, we developed another strategy to afford new hybrid PHU with high conversion. This very innovative two-step approach consists in the first step in the synthesis of aminotelechelic PHU oligomers with different chain length from bis-cyclic carbonate with different excess of primary amine functions. In the second step, these aminotelechelic PHU oligomers were used in formulation with biobased epoxy monomers (from cashew nut shell liquid and tannins) to synthesize hybrid polyepoxyurethane polymers. These materials were then characterized by thermal and mechanical analyses.

Keywords: carbonates, epoxy, polyurethane, amine, polyhydroxyurethane, aminotelechelic NIPU oligomers, epoxyurethane polymers, hybrid polymers

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13 New Platform of Biobased Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymers

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Maxence Fache, Bernard Boutevin


Recent years have witnessed an increasing demand on renewable resource-derived polymers owing to increasing environmental concern and restricted availability of petrochemical resources. Thus, a great deal of attention was paid to renewable resources-derived polymers and to thermosetting materials especially, since they are crosslinked polymers and thus cannot be recycled. Also, most of thermosetting materials contain aromatic monomers, able to confer high mechanical and thermal properties to the network. Therefore, the access to biobased, non-harmful, and available aromatic monomers is one of the main challenges of the years to come. Starting from phenols available in large volumes from renewable resources, our team designed platforms of chemicals usable for the synthesis of various polymers. One of these phenols, vanillin, which is readily available from lignin, was more specifically studied. Various aromatic building blocks bearing polymerizable functions were synthesized: epoxy, amine, acid, carbonate, alcohol etc. These vanillin-based monomers can potentially lead to numerous polymers. The example of epoxy thermosets was taken, as there is also the problematic of bisphenol A substitution for these polymers. Materials were prepared from the biobased epoxy monomers obtained from vanillin. Their thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and the effect of the monomer structure was discussed. The properties of the materials prepared were found to be comparable to the current industrial reference, indicating a potential replacement of petrosourced, bisphenol A-based epoxy thermosets by biosourced, vanillin-based ones. The tunability of the final properties was achieved through the choice of monomer and through a well-controlled oligomerization reaction of these monomers. This follows the same strategy than the one currently used in industry, which supports the potential of these vanillin-derived epoxy thermosets as substitutes of their petro-based counterparts.

Keywords: Lignin, epoxy, carbonate, amine, vanillin

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12 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol


Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: epoxy, emulsion, latex, cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, vinyl ester

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11 Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cellulose Fibers/HNT Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites

Authors: H. Alamri


Natural fiber reinforced composites have attracted researchers for their desirable properties of toughness, high modulus, low density, recyclability, and renewability. In fact, the use of natural fibers in polymer composites has the potential to produce materials with higher specific strength and specific modulus due of their low density. Likewise, polymer-nano-filler composites have been widely investigated for their unique and significant improvement in strength, modulus, impact strength, barrier properties, heat resistance and thermal stability. In this paper, The addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with three different weight percentages (1%, 3% and 5%) on enhancing barrier and flexural strength and modulus of cellulose-fiber (CF) /epoxy composites after water treatment for six months was studied. Results indicated that water uptake decreased as HNT content increased. The presence of HNT improved flexural strength and flexural modulus of CF/epoxy composites. SEM results showed damages in fiber-matrix interfacial bonding due to water absorption. The addition of HNTs was found to enhance to adhesion between fibers and matrix.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Mechanical Properties, epoxy, halloysite nanotubes

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10 Influence of High Temperature and Humidity on Polymer Composites Used in Relining of Sewage

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk


Some of the main causes for degradation of polymeric materials are thermal aging, hydrolysis, oxidation or chemical degradation by acids, alkalis or water. The first part of this paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and specification of composite materials for relining as a rehabilitation technique for sewage systems. The second part summarizes an investigation on frequently used composite materials for relining in Sweden, the rubber filled epoxy composite and reinforced polyester composite when they were immersed in deionized water or in dry conditions, and elevated temperatures up to 80°C in the laboratory. The tests were conducted by visual inspection, microscopy, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as well as mechanical testing, three point bending and tensile testing.

Keywords: Composite, Sewage, epoxy, polyester, relining

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9 Mechanical Properties of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: C. Tezara, H. Y. Lim, M. H. Yazdi, J. W. Lim, J. P. Siregar


Natural fibre has become an element in human lives. A lot of researchers have conducted research about natural fibre reinforced polymer. Malaysian government has spent a lot of money on the research funding for researchers and academician especially research on kenaf fibre due to exclusion of tobacco from AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) list. This work is to investigate the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite where short kenaf fibre was applied and the mechanical properties of 5%, 10% and 15% wt. of kenaf fibre were added into the mixture of epoxy resin. Hand lay-up process was selected in the fabrication of the specimen for testing. The tensile, flexural and impact test were conducted following ASTM D3039, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 accordingly. From the experiment result, the effect of different fiber loading of the specimen on its mechanical properties would be analyzed and compared in the result and discussion.

Keywords: Composite, epoxy, fibre, kenaf fibre

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8 The Effect of Interfacial Chemistry on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Containing Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Grafted Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Prajakta Katti, Suryasarathi Bose, S. Kumar


In this work, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (a-MWNTs) covalently grafted with hydroxylated functionalized poly (ether ether ketone), HPEEK, which is miscible with the pre-polymer (epoxy) through the esterification reaction. The functionalized MWNTs were systematically characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The epoxy composites containing a-MWNTs and HPEEK grafted multiwall carbon nanotubes (HPEEK-g-MWNTs) were formulated using mechanical stirring coupled with a bath sonicator to improve the dispersion property of the nanoparticles and were subsequently cured at 80 ̊C and post cured at 180 ̊C. With the addition of 0.5 wt% of HPEEK-g-MWNTs, an impressive 44% enhancement in the storage modulus, 22% increase in tensile strength and 38% increase in fracture toughness was observed with respect to neat epoxy. In addition to these mechanical properties, the epoxy composites displayed significant enhancement in the hardness without reducing thermal stability. These improved properties were attributed to the tailored interface between HPEEK-MWNTs and epoxy matrix.

Keywords: Nanoindentation, epoxy, tensile properties, fracture toughness, MWNTs, HPEEK-g-MWNTs

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7 Self-Assembling Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on β-FeOOH Nanorods for Reducing Fire Hazards of Epoxy Resin

Authors: Wei Wang, Yuan Hu


Epoxy resins (EP), one of the most important thermosetting polymers, is widely applied in various fields due to its desirable properties, such as excellent electrical insulation, low shrinkage, outstanding mechanical stiffness, satisfactory adhesion and solvent resistance. However, like most of the polymeric materials, EP has the fatal drawbacks including inherent flammability and high yield of toxic smoke, which restricts its application in the fields requiring fire safety. So, it is still a challenge and an interesting subject to develop new flame retardants which can not only remarkably improve the flame retardancy, but also render modified resins low toxic gases generation. In recent work, polymer nanocomposites based on nanohybrids that contain two or more kinds of nanofillers have drawn intensive interest, which can realize performance enhancements. The realization of previous hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and molybdenum disulfide provides us a novel route to decorate layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets on the surface of β-FeOOH nanorods; the deposited LDH nanosheets can fill the network and promote the work efficiency of β-FeOOH nanorods. Moreover, the synergistic effects between LDH and β-FeOOH can be anticipated to have potential applications in reducing fire hazards of EP composites for the combination of condense-phase and gas-phase mechanism. As reported, β-FeOOH nanorods can act as a core to prepare hybrid nanostructures combining with other nanoparticles through electrostatic attraction through layer-by-layer assembly technique. In this work, LDH nanosheets wrapped β-FeOOH nanorods (LDH-β-FeOOH) hybrids was synthesized by a facile method, with the purpose of combining the characteristics of one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D), to improve the fire resistance of epoxy resin. The hybrids showed a well dispersion in EP matrix and had no obvious aggregation. Thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests confirmed that LDH-β-FeOOH hybrids into EP matrix with a loading of 3% could obviously improve the fire safety of EP composites. The plausible flame retardancy mechanism was explored by thermogravimetric infrared (TG-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reasons were concluded: condense-phase and gas-phase. Nanofillers were transferred to the surface of matrix during combustion, which could not only shield EP matrix from external radiation and heat feedback from the fire zone, but also efficiently retard transport of oxygen and flammable pyrolysis.

Keywords: Self-Assembly, epoxy, fire hazards, toxic gases

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6 Monitoring the Production of Large Composite Structures Using Dielectric Tool Embedded Capacitors

Authors: Galatee Levadoux, Trevor Benson, Chris Worrall


With the rise of public awareness on climate change comes an increasing demand for renewable sources of energy. As a result, the wind power sector is striving to manufacture longer, more efficient and reliable wind turbine blades. Currently, one of the leading causes of blade failure in service is improper cure of the resin during manufacture. The infusion process creating the main part of the composite blade structure remains a critical step that is yet to be monitored in real time. This stage consists of a viscous resin being drawn into a mould under vacuum, then undergoing a curing reaction until solidification. Successful infusion assumes the resin fills all the voids and cures completely. Given that the electrical properties of the resin change significantly during its solidification, both the filling of the mould and the curing reaction are susceptible to be followed using dieletrometry. However, industrially available dielectrics sensors are currently too small to monitor the entire surface of a wind turbine blade. The aim of the present research project is to scale up the dielectric sensor technology and develop a device able to monitor the manufacturing process of large composite structures, assessing the conformity of the blade before it even comes out of the mould. An array of flat copper wires acting as electrodes are embedded in a polymer matrix fixed in an infusion mould. A multi-frequency analysis from 1 Hz to 10 kHz is performed during the filling of the mould with an epoxy resin and the hardening of the said resin. By following the variations of the complex admittance Y*, the filling of the mould and curing process are monitored. Results are compared to numerical simulations of the sensor in order to validate a virtual cure-monitoring system. The results obtained by drawing glycerol on top of the copper sensor displayed a linear relation between the wetted length of the sensor and the complex admittance measured. Drawing epoxy resin on top of the sensor and letting it cure at room temperature for 24 hours has provided characteristic curves obtained when conventional interdigitated sensor are used to follow the same reaction. The response from the developed sensor has shown the different stages of the polymerization of the resin, validating the geometry of the prototype. The model created and analysed using COMSOL has shown that the dielectric cure process can be simulated, so long as a sufficient time and temperature dependent material properties can be determined. The model can be used to help design larger sensors suitable for use with full-sized blades. The preliminary results obtained with the sensor prototype indicate that the infusion and curing process of an epoxy resin can be followed with the chosen configuration on a scale of several decimeters. Further work is to be devoted to studying the influence of the sensor geometry and the infusion parameters on the results obtained. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a larger scale sensor able to monitor the flow and cure of large composite panels industrially.

Keywords: wind turbine blades, epoxy, composite manufacture, dieletrometry, resin infusion

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5 Properties of Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Amorphous and Crystalline Silica from Rice Husk

Authors: Norul Hisham Hamid, Amir Affan, Ummi Hani Abdullah, Paridah Md. Tahir, Khairul Akmal Azhar, Rahmat Nawai, W. B. H. Wan Sulwani Izzati


The dimensional stability and static bending properties of epoxy composite reinforced with amorphous and crystalline silica were investigated. The amorphous and crystalline silica was obtained by the precipitation method from carbonisation process of the rice husk at a temperature of 600 °C and 1000 °C for 7 hours respectively. The epoxy resin was mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations of amorphous and crystalline silica. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and cured at 28 °C for 72 hours and oven dried at 80 °C for 72 hours. The scanning electron microscope image showed the silica sized of 10-30nm was obtained. The water absorption and thickness swelling of epoxy/amorphous silica composite was not significantly different with silica concentration ranged from 0.08% to 0.09% and 0.17% to 0.20% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (85 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (3284 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. For epoxy/crystalline silica composite; the water absorption and thickness swelling were also not significantly different with silica concentration, ranged from 0.08% to 0.11% and 0.16% to 0.18% respectively. The maximum modulus of rupture (47.9 MPa) and modulus of elasticity (2760 MPa) were achieved for 10% silica concentration. Overall, the water absorption and thickness swelling were almost identical for epoxy composite made from either amorphous or crystalline silica. The epoxy composite made from amorphous silica was stronger than crystalline silica.

Keywords: Composite, epoxy, dimensional stability, silica, static bending

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4 Friction Coefficient of Epiphen Epoxy System Filled with Powder Resulting from the Grinding of Pine Needles

Authors: I. Graur, V. Bria, C. Muntenita


Recent ecological interests have resulted in scientific concerns regarding natural-organic powder composites. Because natural-organic powders are cheap and biodegradable, green composites represent a substantial contribution in polymer science area. The aim of this study is to point out the effect of natural-organic powder resulting from the grinding of pine needles used as a modifying agent for Epiphen epoxy resin and is focused on friction coefficient behavior. A pin-on-disc setup is used for friction coefficient experiments. Epiphen epoxy resin was used with the different ratio of organic powder from the grinding of pine needles. Because of the challenges of natural organic powder, more and more companies are looking at organic composite materials.

Keywords: epoxy, friction coefficient, organic powder, pine needles

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3 Compression Strength of Treated Fine-Grained Soils with Epoxy or Cement

Authors: M. Mlhem


Geotechnical engineers face many problematic soils upon construction and they have the choice for replacing these soils with more appropriate soils or attempting to improve the engineering properties of the soil through a suitable soil stabilization technique. Mostly, improving soils is environmental, easier and more economical than other solutions. Stabilization soils technique is applied by introducing a cementing agent or by injecting a substance to fill the pore volume. Chemical stabilizers are divided into two groups: traditional agents such as cement or lime and non-traditional agents such as polymers. This paper studies the effect of epoxy additives on the compression strength of four types of soil and then compares with the effect of cement on the compression strength for the same soils. Overall, the epoxy additives are more effective in increasing the strength for different types of soils regardless its classification. On the other hand, there was no clear relation between studied parameters liquid limit, passing No.200, unit weight and between the strength of samples for different types of soils.

Keywords: Additives, Stabilization, Clay, epoxy, compression strength

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2 Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface

Authors: Pujan Sarkar


Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.

Keywords: Composite, glass fiber, epoxy, friction, Al powder

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1 Solvent-Aided Dispersion of Tannic Acid to Enhance Flame Retardancy of Epoxy

Authors: Matthew Korey, Jeffrey Youngblood, John Howarter


Background and Significance: Tannic acid (TA) is a bio-based high molecular weight organic, aromatic molecule that has been found to increase thermal stability and flame retardancy of many polymer matrices when used as an additive. Although it is biologically sourced, TA is a pollutant in industrial wastewater streams, and there is a desire to find applications in which to downcycle this molecule after extraction from these streams. Additionally, epoxy thermosets have revolutionized many industries, but are too flammable to be used in many applications without additives which augment their flame retardancy (FR). Many flame retardants used in epoxy thermosets are synthesized from petroleum-based monomers leading to significant environmental impacts on the industrial scale. Many of these compounds also have significant impacts on human health. Various bio-based modifiers have been developed to improve the FR of the epoxy resin; however, increasing FR of the system without tradeoffs with other properties has proven challenging, especially for TA. Methodologies: In this work, TA was incorporated into the thermoset by use of solvent-exchange using methyl ethyl ketone, a co-solvent for TA, and epoxy resin. Samples were then characterized optically (UV-vis spectroscopy and optical microscopy), thermally (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry), and for their flame retardancy (mass loss calorimetry). Major Findings: Compared to control samples, all samples were found to have increased thermal stability. Further, the addition of tannic acid to the polymer matrix by the use of solvent greatly increased the compatibility of the additive in epoxy thermosets. By using solvent-exchange, the highest loading level of TA found in literature was achieved in this work (40 wt%). Conclusions: The use of solvent-exchange shows promises for circumventing the limitations of TA in epoxy.

Keywords: Sustainable, epoxy, flame retardant, tannic acid

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