Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

epidemic Related Abstracts

4 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos


This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: Mathematical Models, epidemic, food-borne disease, sanitary inspection

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3 Effects of Dust Storm Events on Tuberculosis Incidence Rate in Northwest of China

Authors: Yun Wang, Ruoyu Wang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Guodong Chen, Wei Zhang


Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in China. China has the world's second largest tuberculosis epidemic (after India). Xinjiang almost has the highest annual attendance rate of TB in China, and the province is also famous because of its severe dust storms. The epidemic timing starts in February and ends in July, and the dust storm mainly distribute throughout the spring and early summer, which strongly indicate a close linkage between causative agent of TB and dust storm events. However, mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns are still not clearly indentified. By comparing the information on cases of TB from Centers for Disease Control of China annual reports with dust storm atmosphere datasets, we constructed the relationship between the large scale annual occurrence of TB in Xinjiang, a Northwest province of China, and dust storm occurrence. Regional atmospheric indexes of dust storm based on surface wind speed show a clear link between population dynamics of the disease and the climate disaster: the onset of epidemics and the dust storm defined by the atmospheric index share the same mean year. This study is the first that provides a clear demonstration of connections that exist between TB epidemics and dust storm events in China. The development of this study will undoubtedly help early warning for tuberculosis epidemic onset in China and help nationwide and international public health institutions and policy makers to better control TB disease in Norwest China.

Keywords: Tuberculosis, epidemic, dust storm, Xinjiang province

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2 Climate Change and Dengue Transmission in Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sadia Imran, Zenab Naseem


Dengue fever is one of the most alarming mosquito-borne viral diseases. Dengue virus has been distributed over the years exponentially throughout the world be it tropical or sub-tropical regions of the world, particularly in the last ten years. Changing topography, climate change in terms of erratic seasonal trends, rainfall, untimely monsoon early or late and longer or shorter incidences of either summer or winter. Globalization, frequent travel throughout the world and viral evolution has lead to more severe forms of Dengue. Global incidence of dengue infections per year have ranged between 50 million and 200 million; however, recent estimates using cartographic approaches suggest this number is closer to almost 400 million. In recent years, Pakistan experienced a deadly outbreak of the disease. The reason could be that they have the maximum exposure outdoors. Public organizations have observed that changing climate, especially lower average summer temperature, and increased vegetation have created tropical-like conditions in the city, which are suitable for Dengue virus growth. We will conduct a time-series analysis to study the interrelationship between dengue incidence and diurnal ranges of temperature and humidity in Pakistan, Lahore being the main focus of our study. We have used annual data from 2005 to 2015. We have investigated the relationship between climatic variables and dengue incidence. We used time series analysis to describe temporal trends. The result shows rising trends of Dengue over the past 10 years along with the rise in temperature & rainfall in Lahore. Hence this seconds the popular statement that the world is suffering due to Climate change and Global warming at different levels. Disease outbreak is one of the most alarming indications of mankind heading towards destruction and we need to think of mitigating measures to control epidemic from spreading and enveloping the cities, countries and regions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Globalization, Dengue, epidemic

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1 Predictors for Success in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Clinic: 24 Years of Experience

Authors: Einat E. Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Miriam Adelson


Background: Since established more than 50 years ago, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the most effective treatment for opioid addiction, a chronic relapsing brain disorder that became an epidemic in western societies. Treatment includes daily individual optimal medication methadone dose (a long acting mu opioid receptor full agonist), accompanied with psychosocial therapy. It is well established that the longer retention in treatment the better outcome and survival occur. It reduces the likelihood to infectious diseases and overdose death that associated with drug injecting, enhanced social rehabilitation and eliminate criminal activity, and lead to healthy productive life. Aim: To evaluate predictors for long term retention in treatment we analyzed our prospective follow up of a major MMT clinic affiliated to a big tertiary medical center. Population Methods: Between June 25, 1993, and June 24, 2016, all 889 patients ( ≥ 18y) who ever admitted to the clinic were prospectively followed-up until May 2017. Duration in treatment from the first admission until the patient quit treatment or until the end of follow-up (24 years) was taken for calculating cumulative retention in treatment using survival analyses (Kaplan Meier) with log-rank and Cox regression for multivariate analyses. Results: Of the 889 patients, 25.2% were females who admitted to treatment at younger age (35.0 ± 7.9 vs. 40.6 ± 9.8, p < .0005), but started opioid usage at same age (22.3 ± 6.9). In addition to opioid use, on admission to MMT 58.5% had positive urine for benzodiazepines, 25% to cocaine, 12.4% to cannabis and 6.9% to amphetamines. Hepatitis C antibody tested positive in 55%, and HIV in 7.8% of the patients and 40%. Of all patients, 75.7% stayed at least one year in treatment, and of them, 67.7% stopped opioid usage (based on urine tests), and a net reduction observed in all other substance abuse (proportion of those who stopped minus proportion of those who have started). Long term retention up to 24 years was 8.0 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 7.4-8.6). Predictors for longer retention in treatment (Cox regression) were being older on admission ( ≥ 30y) Odds Ratio (OR) =1.4 (CI 1.1-1.8), not abusing opioids after one year OR=1.8 (CI 1.5-2.1), not abusing benzodiazepine after one year OR=1.7 (CI 1.4-2.1) and treating with methadone dose ≥ 100mg/day OR =1.8 (CI 1.5-2.3). Conclusions: Treating and following patients over 24 years indicate success of two main outcomes, high rate of retention after one year (75.7%) and high proportion of opiate abuse cessation (67.7%). As expected, longer cumulative retention was associated with patients treated with high adequate methadone dose that successfully result in opioid cessation. Based on these findings, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality, we find the establishment of more MMT clinics within a general hospital, a most urgent necessity.

Keywords: Opioids, epidemic, Retention, methadone maintenance treatment

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