Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

enzyme Related Abstracts

18 Effect of Multi-Enzyme Supplementation on Growth Performance of Broiler

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Abdur Rahman, Saima, T. N. Pasha, Yassar Abbas, Shahid Jaleel

Abstract:

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) are not completely digested by broiler endogenous enzymes and consequently the soluble NSPs in feed results in high digesta viscosity and poor retention of nutrients. Supplementation of NSPs digesting enzymes may release the nutrients from feed and reduce the anti-nutritional effects of NSP’s. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of NSPs digesting enzymes (Zympex) in broiler chicks. A total of 120 day old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were categorized into 3 treatments and each treatment was having four replicates with 10 birds in each. Dietary treatments comprised of Basal diet (2740 KCal/Kg) as control-1 (T1), low energy diet (2630 KCal/kg) control-2 (T2) and low energy diet with 0.5 gm/Kg enzyme as T3. Multi-enzymes supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) positive effect on weight gain (last three weeks), feed intake (last two weeks), FCR (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th) and nutrient retention in T3 when compared with control-2. Weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in low caloric feed group C when compared with control-1 in all weeks except last week (P > 0.05), feed consumption was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in 5th week and results showed significantly poor FCR (P < 0.05) in 2nd, 3rd and 4th week but non-significant effect in 1st and 5th week when compared with control-1 group, which revealed the positive effect of enzyme supplementation in low energy diet. These results revealed that enzyme supplementation releases more energy from low energy diets and results in equal performance to normal diet.

Keywords: enzyme, body weight, FCR, feed intake, non-starch polysaccharides

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17 Production, Extraction and Purification of Fungal Chitosan and Its Modification for Medical Applications

Authors: Debajyoti Bose

Abstract:

Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Chitosan is a positively charged natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4 linked monomers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Chitosan can be mainly obtained from fungal sources during large fermentation process. In this study,three different fungal strains Aspergillus niger NCIM 1045, Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 645 and Mucor indicus MTCC 3318 were used for the production of chitosan. The growth mediums were optimized for maximum fungal production. The produced chitosan was characterized by determining degree of deacetylation. Chitosan possesses one reactive amino at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, and these amines confer important functional properties to chitosan which can be exploited for biofabrication to generate various chemically modified derivatives and explore their potential for pharmaceutical field. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The major effect on encapsulation and release of protein (e.g. enzyme diastase) in chitosan-TPP nanoparticles was investigated in order to control the loading and release efficiency. It was noted that the chitosan loading and releasing efficiency as a nanocapsule, obtained from different fungal sources was almost near to initial enzyme activity(12026 U/ml) with a negligible loss. This signify, chitosan can be used as a polymeric drug as well as active component or protein carrier material in dosage by design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. Based upon these initial experiments, studies were also carried out on modification of chitosan based nanocapsules incorporated with physiologically important enzymes and nutraceuticals for target delivery.

Keywords: enzyme, Fungi, chitosan, nanocapsule

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16 Enzyme Immobilization on Functionalized Polystyrene Nanofibersfor Bioprocessing Applications

Authors: Mailin Misson, Bo Jin, Sheng Dai, Hu Zhang

Abstract:

Advances in biotechnology have witnessed a growing interest in enzyme applications for the development of green and sustainable bio processes. While known as powerful bio catalysts, enzymes are no longer of economic value when extended to large commercialization. Alternatively, immobilization technology allows enzyme recovery and continuous reuse which subsequently compensates high operating costs. Employment of enzymes on nano structured materials has been recognized as a promising approach to enhance enzyme catalytic performances. High porosity, inter connectivity and self-assembling behaviors endow nano fibers as exciting candidate for enzyme carrier in bio reactor systems. In this study, nano fibers were successfully fabricated via electro spinning system by optimizing the polymer concentration (10-30 %, w/v), applied voltage (10-30 kV) and discharge distance (11-26 cm). Microscopic images have confirmed the quality as homogeneous and good fiber alignment. The nano fibers surface was modified using strong oxidizing agent to facilitate bio molecule binding. Bovine serum albumin and β-galactosidase enzyme were employed as model bio catalysts and immobilized onto the oxidized surfaces through covalent binding. Maximum enzyme adsorption capacity of the modified nano fibers was 3000 mg/g, 3-fold higher than the unmodified counterpart (1000 mg/g). The highest immobilization yield was 80% and reached the saturation point at 2 mg/ml of enzyme concentration. The results indicate a significant increase of activity retention by the enzyme-bound modified nano fibers (80%) as compared to the nascent one (60%), signifying excellent enzyme-nano carrier bio compatibility. The immobilized enzyme was further used for the bio conversion of dairy wastes into value-added products. This study demonstrates great potential of acid-modified electrospun polystyrene nano fibers as enzyme carriers.

Keywords: enzyme, Nanofibers, immobilization, nanocarrier

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15 Effect of a Muscarinic Antagonist Drug on Extracellular Lipase Activityof Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Zohreh Bayat, Dariush Minai-Tehrani

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, rode shape and aerobic bacterium that has shown to be resistance to many antibiotics. This resistance makes the bacterium very harmful in some diseases. It can also generate diseases in any part of the gastrointestinal tract from oropharynx to rectum. P. aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. One of the most important reasons that make P. aeruginosa an emerging opportunistic pathogen in patients is its ability to use various compounds as carbon sources. Lipase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids. Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of lipid substrate. Some lipases are expressed and secreted by pathogenic organisms during the infection. Muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. The drug has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms. Aim: In this study the inhibitory effect of a muscarinic antagonist on lipase of P. aeruginosa was investigated. Methods: P. aeruginosa was cultured in minimal salt medium with 1% olive oil as carbon source. The cells were harvested and the supernatant, which contained lipase, was used for enzyme assay. Results: Our results showed that the drug can inhibit P. aeruginosa lipase by competitive manner. In the presence of different concentrations of the drug, the Vmax (2 mmol/min/mg protein) of enzyme did not change, while the Km raised by increasing the drug concentration. The Ki (inhibition constant) and IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) value of drug was estimated to be about 30 uM and 60 uM which determined that the drug binds to enzyme with high affinity. Maximum activity of the enzyme was observed at pH 8 in the absence and presence of muscarinic antagonist, respectively. The maximum activity of lipase was observed at 600C and the enzyme became inactive at 900C. Conclusion: The muscarinic antagonist drug could inhibit lipase of P. aeruginosa and changed the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. The drug binded to enzyme with high affinity and did not chang the optimum pH of the enzyme. Temperature did not affect the binding of drug to musmuscarinic antagonist.

Keywords: enzyme, Drug, inhibition, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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14 Effect of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Parameters on the Moringa oleifera Oil Yield and Formation of Emulsion

Authors: Masni Mat Yusoff, Michael H. Gordon, Keshavan Niranjan

Abstract:

The study reports on the effect of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) parameters on the Moringa oleifera (MO) oil yield and the formation of emulsion at the end of the process. A mixture of protease and cellulase enzymes was used at 3:1 (w/w) ratio. The highest oil yield of 19% (g oil/g sample) was recovered with the use of a mixture of pH 6, 1:4 material/moisture ratio, and incubation temperature, time, and shaking speed of 50 ⁰C, 12.5 hr, and 300 stroke/min, respectively. The use of pH 6 and 8 resulted in grain emulsions, while solid-intact emulsion was observed at pH 4. Upon fixing certain parameters, higher oil yield was extracted with the use of lower material/moisture ratio and higher shaking speed. Longer incubation time of 24 hr resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) similar oil yield with that of 12.5 hr, and an incubation temperature of 50 ⁰C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher oil yield than that of 60 ⁰C. In overall, each AEE parameter showed significant effects on both the MO oil yields and the emulsions formed. One of the major disadvantages of an AEE process is the formation of emulsions which require further de-emulsification step for higher oil recovery. Therefore, critical studies on the effect of each AEE parameter may assist in minimizing the amount of emulsions formed whilst extracting highest total MO oil yield possible.

Keywords: enzyme, oil yield, Moringa oleifera, emulsion

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13 Energetics of Photosynthesis with Respect to the Environment and Recently Reported New Balanced Chemical Equation

Authors: Sushil Pradhan, Suprit Pradhan

Abstract:

Photosynthesis is a physiological process where green plants prepare their food from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water being absorbed from the soil in presence of sun light and chlorophyll. From this definition it is clear that four reactants (Carbon Dioxide, Water, Light and Chlorophyll) are essential for the process to proceed and the product is a sugar or carbohydrate ultimately stored as starch. The entire process has “Light Reaction” (Photochemical) and “Dark Reaction” (Biochemical). Biochemical reactions are very much complicated being catalysed by various enzymes and the path of carbon is known as “Calvin Cycle” according to the name of its discover. The overall reaction which is now universally accepted can be explained like this. Six molecules of carbon dioxide react with twelve molecules of water in presence of chlorophyll and sun light to give only one molecule of sugar (Carbohydrate) six molecules of water and six molecules of oxygen is being evolved in gaseous form. This is the accepted equation and also chemically balanced. However while teaching the subject the author came across a new balanced equation from among the students who happened to be the daughter of the author. In the new balanced equation in place of twelve water molecules in the reactant side seven molecules can be expressed and accordingly in place of six molecules of water in the product side only one molecule of water is produced. The energetics of the photosynthesis as related to the environment and the newly reported balanced chemical equation has been discussed in detail in the present research paper presentation in this international conference on energy, environmental and chemical engineering.

Keywords: Biochemistry, enzyme, Photosynthesis, Isotope

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12 Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Increases Resistance to Salt of Carthamus tinctorius

Authors: Banu Aytül Ekmekçi

Abstract:

Salinity stress has negative effects on agricultural yield throughout the world, affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. This study investigates the inductive role of vitamin C and its application mode in mitigating the detrimental effects of irrigation with diluted (10, 20 and 30 %) NaCl + water on carthamus tinctorius plants. The results show that 10% of salt water exhibited insignificant changes, while the higher levels impaired growth by reducing seed germination, dry weights of shoot and root, water status and chlorophyll contents. However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone or in combination with 30% NaCl water increased the intensity of protein bands as well as synthesized additional new proteins with molecular weights of 205, 87, 84, 65 and 45 kDa. This could increase tolerance mechanisms of treated plants towards water salinity.

Keywords: enzyme, stress, Salinity, NaCl, antioxidant, vitamin C

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11 Point-Mutation in a Rationally Engineered Esterase Inverts its Enantioselectivity

Authors: Mohamed Ismail, Yasser Gaber, Serena Bisagni, Mohamad Takwa, Rajni Hatti-Kaul

Abstract:

Enzymes are safe and selective catalysts. They skillfully catalyze chemical reactions; however, the native form is not usually suitable for industrial applications. Enzymes are therefore engineered by several techniques to meet the required catalytic task. Clopidogrel is recorded among the five best selling pharmaceutical in 2010 under the brand name Plavix. The commonly used route for production of the drug on an industrial scale is the synthesis of the racemic mixture followed by diastereomeric resolution to obtain the pure S isomer. The process consumes a lot of solvents and chemicals. We have evaluated a biocatalytic cleaner approach for asymmetric hydrolysis of racemic clopidogrel. Initial screening of a selected number of hydrolases showed only one enzyme EST to exhibit activity and selectivity towards the desired stereoisomer. As the crude EST is a mixture of several isoenzymes, a homology model of EST-1 was used in molecular dynamic simulations to study the interaction of the enzyme with R and S isomers of clopidogrel. Analysis of the geometric hindrances of the tetrahedral intermediates revealed a potential site for mutagenesis in order to improve the activity and the selectivity. Single point mutation showed dramatic increase in activity and inversion of the enantioselectivity (400 fold change in E value).

Keywords: Biotechnology, Biocatalysis, enzyme, Protein Engineering, Molecular Modeling

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10 Isolation and Screening of Fungal Strains for β-Galactosidase Production

Authors: RUPINDER KAUR, Parmjit S. Panesar, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Enzymes are the biocatalysts which catalyze the biochemical processes and thus have a wide variety of applications in the industrial sector. β-Galactosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.23) also known as lactase, is one of the prime enzymes, which has significant potential in the dairy and food processing industries. It has the capability to catalyze both the hydrolytic reaction for the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and transgalactosylation reaction for the synthesis of prebiotics such as lactulose and galactooligosaccharides. These prebiotics have various nutritional and technological benefits. Although, the enzyme is naturally present in almonds, peaches, apricots and other variety of fruits and animals, the extraction of enzyme from these sources increases the cost of enzyme. Therefore, focus has been shifted towards the production of low cost enzyme from the microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. As compared to yeast and bacteria, fungal β-galactosidase is generally preferred as being extracellular and thermostable in nature. Keeping the above in view, the present study was carried out for the isolation of the β-galactosidase producing fungal strain from the food as well as the agricultural wastes. A total of more than 100 fungal cultures were examined for their potential in enzyme production. All the fungal strains were screened using X-gal and IPTG as inducers in the modified Czapek Dox Agar medium. Among the various isolated fungal strains, the strain exhibiting the highest enzyme activity was chosen for further phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The strain was identified as Rhizomucor pusillus on the basis of 5.8s RNA gene sequencing data.

Keywords: enzyme, Isolation, fungal, beta-galactosidase

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9 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract

Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han

Abstract:

Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).

Keywords: enzyme, Extraction, antioxidant activity, ginger

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8 Effect of Enzymatic Modification on the Crystallinity of Cellulose Pulps

Authors: J. Janicki, M. Rom, C. Slusarczyk, J. Fabia, M. Siika-aho, K. Marjamaa, K. Kruus, K. Langfelder, C. Steel, M. Paloheimo, T. Puranen, S. Mäkinen, D. Wawro

Abstract:

The cellulose is one of the most abundant polymers in the world, however, its application in the high-end value products such as films or fibres, it triggered by the cellulose properties. The noticeable presence of hydrogen bonding reflected with partially crystalline structure makes the cellulose insoluble in common solvents and not meltable. The existing technologies, such as viscose process, suffer from environmental and economical problems, because of the risk of harmful chemicals liberation during the spinning process. The enzymatic modification of cellulose with endoglucanase makes it directly alkali soluble in NaOH solution, giving the opportunities for film and fibers formation. As the effect of enzymatic treatment, there are observed changes in crystalline structure and accompanying changes of the affinity of cellulose to water, demonstrated by water retention value. The objective of the project ELMO - Novel carbohydrate modifying enzymes for fibre modification is is to develop new enzyme products for modification of dissolving grade pulps. The aim is to increase the reactivity of dissolving grade pulps and remove residual hemicellulose. The scientific aim of this paper is to present the effect of enzymatic treatment on the crystallinity and affinity to water of cellulose pulps modified with enzymes.

Keywords: enzyme, Crystallinity, Cellulose, WAXS

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7 Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Istvan Szilagyi, Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster

Abstract:

Antioxidant enzymes are the most efficient defense systems against reactive oxygen species, which cause severe damage in living organisms and industrial products. However, their supplementation is problematic due to their high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. Immobilization on carrier nanoparticles is a promising research direction towards the improvement of their functional and colloidal stability. In that way, their applications in biomedical treatments and manufacturing processes in the food, textile and cosmetic industry can be extended. The main goal of the present research was to prepare and formulate antioxidant bionanocomposites composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme, anionic clay (layered double hydroxide, LDH) nanoparticle and heparin (HEP) polyelectrolyte. To characterize the structure and the colloidal stability of the obtained compounds in suspension and solid state, electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. LDH-SOD composite was synthesized by enzyme immobilization on the clay particles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in a strong adsorption of the SOD on the LDH surface, i.e., no enzyme leakage was observed once the material was suspended in aqueous solutions. However, the LDH-SOD showed only limited resistance against salt-induced aggregation and large irregularly shaped clusters formed during short term interval even at lower ionic strengths. Since sufficiently high colloidal stability is a key requirement in most of the applications mentioned above, the nanocomposite was coated with HEP polyelectrolyte to develop highly stable suspensions of primary LDH-SOD-HEP particles. HEP is a natural anticoagulant with one of the highest negative line charge density among the known macromolecules. The experimental results indicated that it strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged LDH-SOD surface leading to charge inversion and to the formation of negatively charged LDH-SOD-HEP. The obtained hybrid materials formed stable suspension even under extreme conditions, where classical colloid chemistry theories predict rapid aggregation of the particles and unstable suspensions. Such a stabilization effect originated from electrostatic repulsion between the particles of the same sign of charge as well as from steric repulsion due to the osmotic pressure raised during the overlap of the polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the SOD enzyme kept its structural and functional integrity during the immobilization and coating processes and hence, the LDH-SOD-HEP bionanocomposite possessed excellent activity in decomposition of superoxide radical anions, as revealed in biochemical test reactions. In conclusion, due to the improved colloidal stability and the good efficiency in scavenging superoxide radical ions, the developed enzymatic system is a promising antioxidant candidate for biomedical or other manufacturing processes, wherever the aim is to decompose reactive oxygen species in suspensions.

Keywords: enzyme, Formulation, Clay, polyelectrolyte

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6 Molecular Characterization and Determination of Bioremediation Potentials of Some Bacteria Isolated from Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Mechanic Workshops in Kaduna Metropolis

Authors: David D. Adams, Ibrahim B. Bello

Abstract:

Spent oil contaminated Soil from ten selected mechanic workshops were investigated for their bacteria and bioremediation potentials. The bacterial isolates were morphologically and molecularly identified as Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella flexneri , Wesiella cibaria, Lactobacillus planetarium. The singles and a consortium of these bacteria incubated in the minimal salt medium incorporated with 1% engine oil exhibited various biodegradation rates, with the mixed consortium exhibiting the highest for this oil. The gene for the hydrocarbon enzyme Catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase (C2,30) was detected and amplified in Enterobacter hormaechei, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri using PCR and Agarose gel electrophoresis. The detection of the (C2,30) enzyme gene in, and the spent oil biodegradation activity exhibited by these bacteria suggest their possible possession of bioremediating potentials for the spent engine oil. It is therefore suggested that a pilot study on the field application of these bacteria for bioremediation and restoration of spent oil polluted environment should be done in mechanic workshops.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Pollution, enzyme, Bacteria, spent engine oil, mechanic workshop

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5 The Strategy for Detection of Catecholamines in Body Fluids: Optical Sensor

Authors: Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha, Sylwia Baluta, Kamila Drzozga

Abstract:

Catecholamines are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are induced in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Changeable neurotransmitters level in biological fluids can be a marker of several neurological disorders. Because of its significance in analytical techniques and diagnostics, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters is increasingly attracting a lot of attention in different areas of bio-analysis or biomedical research. Recently, fluorescent techniques for detection of catecholamines have attracted interests due to their reasonable cost, convenient control, as well as maneuverability in biological environments. Nevertheless, with the observed need for a sensitive and selective catecholamines sensor, the development of a convenient method for this neurotransmitter is still at its basic level. The manipulation of nanostructured materials in conjunction with biological molecules has led to the development of a new class of hybrid modified biosensors in which both enhancement of charge transport and biological activity preservation may be obtained. Immobilization of biomaterials on electrode surfaces is the crucial step in fabricating electrochemical as well as optical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Continuing systematic investigation in the manufacturing of enzyme–conducting sensitive systems, here is presented a convenient fluorescence sensing strategy for catecholamines detection based on FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) phenomena observed for, i.e., complexes of Fe²⁺ and epinephrine. The biosensor was constructed using low temperature co-fired ceramics technology (LTCC). This sensing system used the catalytical oxidation of catecholamines and quench of the strong luminescence of obtained complexes due to FRET. The detection process was based on the oxidation of substrate in the presence of the enzyme–laccase/tyrosinase.

Keywords: Biosensor, enzyme, conducting polymer, FRET, LTCC

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4 Determination of the Inhibitory Effects of N-Methylpyrrole Derivatives on Glutathione Reductase Enzyme

Authors: Esma Kocaoglu, Oktay Talaz, Huseyin Cavdar, Murat Senturk, Deniz Eki̇nci̇

Abstract:

Glutathione reductase (GR) is a crucial antioxidant enzyme which is responsible for the maintenance of the antioxidant GSH (glutathione) molecule. Antimalarial effects of some chemical molecules are attributed to their inhibition of GR; thus inhibitors of this enzyme are expected to be promising candidates for the treatment of malaria. In this work, GR inhibitory properties of N-Methylpyrrole derivatives are reported. Firstly, GR was purified by means of affinity chromatography using 2’,5’-ADP-Sepharose 4B as ligand. Enzymatic activity was measured by Beutler’s method. Synthesis of the compounds was approved by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Different inhibitor concentrations were used and all compounds were tested in triplicate at each concentration used. It was found that all compounds have better inhibitory activity than the strong GR inhibitor N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, especially three molecules, 8m, 8n, and 8q, are the best among them with low micromolar I₅₀ values. Findings of our study indicate that these Schiff base derivatives are strong GR inhibitors which can be used as leads for designation of novel antimalaria candidates.

Keywords: enzyme, glutathione reductase, inhibitor, antimalaria

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3 An Enzyme Technology - Metnin™ - Enables the Full Replacement of Fossil-Based Polymers by Lignin in Polymeric Composites

Authors: Joana Antunes, Thomas Levée, Barbara Radovani, Anu Suonpää, Paulina Saloranta, Liji Sobhana, Petri Ihalainen

Abstract:

Lignin is an important component in the exploitation of lignocellulosic biomass. It has been shown that within the next years, the yield of added-value lignin-based chemicals and materials will generate renewable alternatives to oil-based products (e.g. polymeric composites, resins and adhesives) and enhance the economic feasibility of biorefineries. In this paper, a novel technology for lignin valorisation (METNIN™) is presented. METNIN™ is based on the oxidative action of an alkaliphilic enzyme in aqueous alkaline conditions (pH 10-11) at mild temperature (40-50 °C) combined with a cascading membrane operation, yielding a collection of lignin fractions (from oligomeric down to mixture of tri-, di- and monomeric units) with distinct molecular weight distribution, low polydispersity and favourable physicochemical properties. The alkaline process conditions ensure the high processibility of crude lignin in an aqueous environment and the efficiency of the enzyme, yielding better compatibility of lignin towards targeted applications. The application of a selected lignin fraction produced by METNIN™ as a suitable lignopolyol to completely replace a commercial polyol in polyurethane rigid foam formulations is presented as a prototype. Liquid lignopolyols with a high lignin content were prepared by oxypropylation and their full utilization in the polyurethane rigid foam formulation was successfully demonstrated. Moreover, selected technical specifications of different foam demonstrators were determined, including closed cell count, water uptake and compression characteristics. These specifications are within industrial standards for rigid foam applications. The lignin loading in the lignopolyol was a major factor determining the properties of the foam. In addition to polyurethane foam demonstrators, other examples of lignin-based products related to resins and sizing applications will be presented.

Keywords: enzyme, polyol, polyurethane foam, lignin valorisation

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2 Characterization of a Lipolytic Enzyme of Pseudomonas nitroreducens Isolated from Mealworm's Gut

Authors: Jung-En Kuan, Whei-Fen Wu

Abstract:

In this study, a symbiotic bacteria from yellow mealworm's (Tenebrio molitor) mid-gut was isolated with characteristics of growth on minimal-tributyrin medium. After a PCR-amplification of its 16s rDNA, the resultant nucleotide sequences were then analyzed by schemes of the phylogeny trees. Accordingly, it was designated as Pseudomonas nitroreducens D-01. Next, by searching the lipolytic enzymes in its protein data bank, one of those potential lipolytic α/β hydrolases was identified, again using PCR-amplification and nucleotide-sequencing methods. To construct an expression of this lipolytic gene in plasmids, the target-gene primers were then designed, carrying the C-terminal his-tag sequences. Using the vector pET21a, a recombinant lipolytic hydrolase D gene with his-tag nucleotides was successfully cloned into it, of which the lipolytic D gene is under a control of the T7 promoter. After transformation of the resultant plasmids into Eescherichia coli BL21 (DE3), an IPTG inducer was used for the induction of the recombinant proteins. The protein products were then purified by metal-ion affinity column, and the purified proteins were found capable of forming a clear zone on tributyrin agar plate. Shortly, its enzyme activities were determined by degradation of p-nitrophenyl ester(s), and the substantial yellow end-product, p-nitrophenol, was measured at O.D.405 nm. Specifically, this lipolytic enzyme efficiently targets p-nitrophenyl butyrate. As well, it shows the most reactive activities at 40°C, pH 8 in potassium phosphate buffer. In thermal stability assays, the activities of this enzyme dramatically drop when the temperature is above 50°C. In metal ion assays, MgCl₂ and NH₄Cl induce the enzyme activities while MnSO₄, NiSO₄, CaCl₂, ZnSO₄, CoCl₂, CuSO₄, FeSO₄, and FeCl₃ reduce its activities. Besides, NaCl has no effects on its enzyme activities. Most organic solvents decrease the activities of this enzyme, such as hexane, methanol, ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. However, its enzyme activities increase when DMSO exists. All the surfactants like Triton X-100, Tween 80, Tween 20, and Brij35 decrease its lipolytic activities. Using Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal methods, the function of the enzyme kinetics were determined such as Km = 0.488 (mM), Vmax = 0.0644 (mM/min), and kcat = 3.01x10³ (s⁻¹), as well the total efficiency of kcat/Km is 6.17 x10³ (mM⁻¹/s⁻¹). Afterwards, based on the phylogenetic analyses, this lipolytic protein is classified to type IV lipase by its homologous conserved region in this lipase family.

Keywords: enzyme, esterase, lipotic hydrolase, type IV

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1 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: Energy, enzyme, Bile acids, Growth

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