Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Enzyme Activities Related Abstracts

3 Comparative Analysis of Enzyme Activities Concerned in Decomposition of Toluene

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

In recent years, pollutions of the environment by toxic substances become a serious problem. While there are many methods of environmental clean-up, the methods by microorganisms are considered to be reasonable and safety for environment. Compost is known that it catabolize the meladorous substancess in its production process, however the mechanism of its catabolizing system is not known yet. In the catabolization process, organic matters turn into inorganic by the released enzymes from lots of microorganisms which live in compost. In other words, the cooperative of activated enzymes in the compost decomposes malodorous substances. Thus, clarifying the interaction among enzymes is important for revealing the catabolizing system of meladorous substance in compost. In this study, we utilized statistical method to infer the interaction among enzymes. We developed a method which combined partial correlation with cross correlation to estimate the relevance between enzymes especially from time series data of few variables. Because of using cross correlation, we can estimate not only the associative structure but also the reaction pathway. We applied the developed method to the enzyme measured data and estimated an interaction among the enzymes in decomposition mechanism of toluene.

Keywords: Enzyme Activities, Comparative Analysis, compost, toluene

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2 Comparative Analysis of Soil Enzyme Activities between Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Soil enzyme activities in Kasuga-yama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan) were examined to determine levels of mineralization and metabolism. Samples were selected from the soil surrounding laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Carpinus japonica (BB-2 and Pw) trees for analysis. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and protease activities were higher in BB-1 samples those in BB-2 samples. These activity levels corresponded to the distribution of cellulose and hemicellulose in the soil horizons. Cellulase, β-xylosidase, and chymotrypsin activities were higher in soil from the Pw forest than in that from the BB-2 forest. The relationships between the soil enzymes calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation indicate that the interactions between enzymes in BB-2 samples were more complex than those in Pw samples.

Keywords: Enzyme Activities, Forest Soil, Comparative Analysis, Spearman's rank correlation

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1 Effect of Maturation on the Characteristics and Physicochemical Properties of Banana and Its Starch

Authors: Chien-Chun Huang, P. W. Yuan

Abstract:

Banana is one of the important fruits which constitute a valuable source of energy, vitamins and minerals and an important food component throughout the world. The fruit ripening and maturity standards vary from country to country depending on the expected shelf life of market. During ripening there are changes in appearance, texture and chemical composition of banana. The changes of component of banana during ethylene-induced ripening are categorized as nutritive values and commercial utilization. The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana during ethylene-induced ripening. Green bananas were harvested and ripened by ethylene gas at low temperature (15℃) for seven stages. At each stage, banana was sliced and freeze-dried for banana flour preparation. The changes of total starch, resistant starch, chemical compositions, physicochemical properties, activity of amylase, polyphenolic oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) of banana were analyzed each stage during ripening. The banana starch was isolated and analyzed for gelatinization properties, pasting properties and microscopic appearance each stage of ripening. The results indicated that the highest total starch and resistant starch content of green banana were 76.2% and 34.6%, respectively at the harvest stage. Both total starch and resistant starch content were significantly declined to 25.3% and 8.8%, respectively at the seventh stage. Soluble sugars content of banana increased from 1.21% at harvest stage to 37.72% at seventh stage during ethylene-induced ripening. Swelling power of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage, but solubility increased. These results strongly related with the decreases of starch content of banana flour during ethylene-induced ripening. Both water insoluble and alcohol insoluble solids of banana flour decreased with the progress of ripening stage. Both activity of PPO and PAL increased, but the total free phenolics content decreased, with the increases of ripening stages. As ripening stage extended, the gelatinization enthalpy of banana starch significantly decreased from 15.31 J/g at the harvest stage to 10.55 J/g at the seventh stage. The peak viscosity and setback increased with the progress of ripening stages in the pasting properties of banana starch. The highest final viscosity, 5701 RVU, of banana starch slurry was found at the seventh stage. The scanning electron micrograph of banana starch showed the shapes of banana starch appeared to be round and elongated forms, ranging in 10-50 μm at the harvest stage. As the banana closed to ripe status, some parallel striations were observed on the surface of banana starch granular which could be caused by enzyme reaction during ripening. These results inferred that the highest resistant starch was found in the green banana could be considered as a potential application of healthy foods. The changes of chemical composition and physicochemical properties of banana could be caused by the hydrolysis of enzymes during the ethylene-induced ripening treatment.

Keywords: Texture, Enzyme Activities, resistant starch, soluble sugars, appearance, maturation of banana, physicochemical properties of banana starch

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