Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Environmental protection Related Abstracts

10 Synthesis and Properties of Nanosized Mixed Oxide Systems for Environmental Protection

Authors: I. Yordanova, H. Kolev, S. Todorova, Z. Cherkezova-Zheleva

Abstract:

Catalysis plays a key role in solving many environmental problems by establishing efficient catalytic systems for environmental protection and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from industry. Volatile organic compounds are major air pollutants. There are several ways to dispose of emissions like - adsorption, condensation, absorption, bio-filtration, thermal, catalytic, plasma and ultraviolet oxidation. The catalytic oxidation has more advantages over other methods. For example - lower energy consumption; the concentration of the organic contaminant may be low or may vary within wide limits. Catalysts for complete oxidation of VOCs can be classified into three categories: noble metal, metal oxides or supported metal oxides and mixture of noble metals and metal oxides. Most of the catalysts for the complete catalytic oxidation are based on Pt, Pd, Rh or a combination thereof. The oxides of the transition metal are one of the alternatives to noble metal catalysts for these reactions. They are less active at low temperatures, but at higher - their activity is similar. The properties of the catalyst depend on the distribution of the active phase, the medium type of the pre-treatment, the interaction between the active phase and the support and the interaction between the active phase and the reaction medium. Supported mono-component Mn and bi-component Mn-Co systems are examined in present study. The samples are prepared using co-precipitation method. SiO2 (Aerosil) is used as a support. The studied samples were precipitated by NH4OH. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR and tested in the catalytic reaction of complete oxidation of n-hexane, propane, methanol, ethanol and propanol.

Keywords: Environmental protection, catalytic oxidation, Co-Mn oxide, oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols

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9 Property Rights and Trade Specialization

Authors: Sarma Binti Aralas

Abstract:

The relationship between property rights and trade specialization is examined for developing and developed countries using panel data analysis. Property rights is measured using the international property rights index while trade specialization is measured using the comparative advantage index. Cross country differences in property rights are hypothesized to lead to differences in trade specialization. Based on the argument that a weak protection of natural resources implies greater trade in resource-intensive goods, developing countries with less defined property rights are hypothesized to have a comparative advantage in resource-based exports while countries with more defined property rights will not have an advantage in resource-intensive goods. Evidence suggests that developing countries with weaker environmental protection index but are rich in natural resources do specialize in the trade of resource-intensive goods. The finding suggests that institutional frameworks to increase the stringency of environmental protection of resources may be needed to diversify exports away from the trade of resource-intensive goods.

Keywords: Environmental protection, Renewable Resources, panel data, trade specialization

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8 Implementing Bioremediation Technologies to Degrade Chemical Warfare Agents and Explosives from War Affected Regions in Sri Lanka

Authors: Elackiya Sithamparanathan

Abstract:

Chemical agents used during the Sri Lankan civil war continue to threaten human and environmental health as affected areas are re-settled. Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to degrading chemical agents, and has greater public acceptance than chemical degradation. Baseline data on contaminant distribution, environmental parameters, and indigenous microbes are required before bioremediation can commence. The culture and isolate of suitable microbes and enzymes should be followed by laboratory trials, before field application and long-term monitoring of contaminant concentration, soil parameters, microbial ecology, and public health to monitor environmental and public health. As local people are not aware of the persistence of warfare chemicals and do not understand the potential impacts on human health, community awareness programs are required. Active community participation, and collaboration with international and local agencies, would contribute to the success of bioremediation and the effective removal of chemical agents in war affected areas of Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environmental protection, Human Health, war affected regions in Sri Lanka

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7 European Standardization in Nanotechnologies and Relation with International Work: The Standardization Can Help Industry and Regulators in Developing Safe Products

Authors: Patrice Conner

Abstract:

Nanotechnologies have enormous potential to contribute to human flourishing in responsible and sustainable ways. They are rapidly developing field of science, technology and innovation. As enabling technologies, their full scope of applications is potentially very wide. Major implications are expected in many areas, e.g. healthcare, information and communication technologies, energy production and storage, materials science/chemical engineering, manufacturing, environmental protection, consumer products, etc. However, nanotechnologies are unlikely to realize their full potential unless their associated societal and ethical issues are adequately attended. Namely nanotechnologies and nanoparticles may expose humans and the environment to new health risks, possibly involving quite different mechanisms of interference with the physiology of human and environmental species. One of the building blocks of the ‘safe, integrated and responsible’ approach is standardization. Both the Economic and Social Committee and the European Parliament have highlighted the importance to be attached to standardization as a means to accompany the introduction on the market of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, and a means to facilitate the implementation of regulation. ISO and CEN have respectively started in 2005 and 2006 to deal with selected topics related to this emerging and enabling technology. In the beginning of 2010, EC DG ‘Enterprise and Industry’ addressed the mandate M/461 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI for standardization activities regarding nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Thus CEN/TC 352 ‘Nanotechnologies’ has been asked to take the leadership for the coordination in the execution of M/461 (46 topics to be standardized) and to contact relevant European and International Technical committees and interested stakeholders as appropriate (56 structures have been identified). Prior requests from M/461 deal with characterization and exposure of nanomaterials and any matters related to Health, Safety and Environment. Answers will be given to: - What are the structures and how they work? - Where are we right now and how work is going from now onwards? - How CEN’s work and targets deal with and interact with global matters in this field?

Keywords: Characterization, Nanotechnologies, Safety, Environmental protection, exposure, Health Risks, responsible and sustainable ways

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6 The Concentration of Natural Alpha Emitters Radionuclides in Fish and Their Contribution to the Internal Dose

Authors: Wagner Pereira, Alphonse Kelecom

Abstract:

Mining can impact the environment, and the major impact of some mining activities is the radiological impact. In human populations, such impact is well studied and regulated. For biota, this assessment always had as focus the protection of human food chain. The protection of biota itself is a new approach, still developing. In order to contribute to this new approach, fish collecting was carried out in areas of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), where a uranium mine is in decommissioning phase. The activity concentrations were analyzed, in Bq/kg wet weight, for Uranium (Unat), Th-232 and Ra-226 in the lambari fish Astyanax bimaculatus L. (omnivorous fish) and in the traíra fish Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794 (carnivorous fish). Seven composite samples (that is: a sufficient number of individuals to reach at least 2 kg of fresh weight) were collected every six months between 2013 and 2015. The mean activity concentrations (AC) for uranium ranged from 1.12 (lambari) to 0.60 (lungfish). For Th, variations ranged from 0.30 to 0.05 (lambari and traíra, respectively). Finally, the Ra-226 means ranged between 0.08 and 0.03. No temporal trends of accumulation could be identified. Systematically, the AC values of radionuclides were higher in omnivorous fish when compared to the carnivore ones.

Keywords: Environmental protection, Fish, norm, biota dose

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5 An Introduction to the Concept of Environmental Audit: Indian Context

Authors: Pradip Kumar Das

Abstract:

Phenomenal growth of population and industry exploits the environment in varied ways. Consequently, the greenhouse effect and other allied problems are threatening mankind the world over. Protection and up gradation of environment have, therefore, become the prime necessity all of mankind for the sustainable development of environment. People in humbler walks of life including the corporate citizens have become aware of the impacts of environmental pollution. Governments of various nations have entered the picture with laws and regulations to correct and cure the effects of present and past violations of environmental practices and to obstruct future violations of good environmental disciplines. In this perspective, environmental audit directs verification and validation to ensure that the various environmental laws are complied with and adequate care has been taken towards environmental protection and preservation. The discipline of environmental audit has experienced expressive development throughout the world. It examines the positive and negative effects of the activities of an enterprise on environment and provides an in-depth study of the company processes any growth in realizing long-term strategic goals. Environmental audit helps corporations assess its achievement, correct deficiencies and reduce risk to the health and improving safety. Environmental audit being a strong management tool should be administered by industry for its own self-assessment. Developed countries all over the globe have gone ahead in environment quantification; but unfortunately, there is a lack of awareness about pollution and environmental hazards among the common people in India. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of this study is concerned with the rationale of environmental audit on the industry and the society as a whole and highlights the emerging dimensions in the auditing theory and practices. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the recent development in environmental audit in developing nations like India and the problems associated with the implementation of environmental audit. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different obstacles, environmental audit is becoming an increasing aspect within the corporate sectors in India and lastly, conclusions along with suggestions have been offered to improve the current scenario.

Keywords: Environmental protection, Environmental Hazards, Environmental Laws, environmental preservation, environmental audit

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4 Environmental Aspects in the Job Performed by Supervisors Working in Industries

Authors: Mahesh Chandra Paliwal, Ajay Kumar Jain

Abstract:

Supervisors working in the industries must have the knowledge and skills for performing their job for environmental protection and sustainable development. A survey of thirty industries was conducted to know the roles of supervisors related to environmental protection and sustainable development. A questionnaire was prepared based on the discussion with the environmental experts. The findings of the study show that supervisors must be aware of practices followed for good housekeeping, water management, waste management, maintenance of effluent treatment plants, monitoring pollution control level to perform their job to save the environment. These aspects must be incorporated in diploma curriculum so that the diploma pass outs may use this knowledge and skills in the industries.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water management, Waste Management, Environmental protection, Curriculum

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3 Compensation Mechanism Applied to Eco-Tourism Development in China

Authors: Min Wei

Abstract:

With the rapid development eco-tourism resources exploitation, the conflict between economy development and ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The environmental protection laws, however, are lack of necessary legal support to use market mechanism and economic means to carry out ecological compensation and promote the environmental protection. In order to protect the sustainable utilization of eco-tourism resources and the benign development of the interests of various stakeholders, protection of ecological compensation balance should be put on schedule. The main role of institutional guarantee in eco-tourism resources' value compensation mechanism is to solve the question 'how to guarantee compensation'. The evaluation of the game model in this paper reveals that interest balance of stakeholders is an important cornerstone to obtain the sustainable development. The findings result in constructing a sustainable development pattern of eco- tourism industry based on tripartite game equilibrium among government, tourism enterprises and tourists. It is important that the social, economic and ecological environment should be harmonious development during the pursuit of eco-tourism growth.

Keywords: Environmental protection, Eco-Tourism, ecological compensation, market mechanism

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2 Method for Controlling the Groundwater Polluted by the Surface Waters through Injection Wells

Authors: Victorita Radulescu

Abstract:

Introduction: The optimum exploitation of agricultural land in the presence of an aquifer polluted by the surface sources requires close monitoring of groundwater level in both periods of intense irrigation and in absence of the irrigations, in times of drought. Currently in Romania, in the south part of the country, the Baragan area, many agricultural lands are confronted with the risk of groundwater pollution in the absence of systematic irrigation, correlated with the climate changes. Basic Methods: The non-steady flow of the groundwater from an aquifer can be described by the Bousinesq’s partial differential equation. The finite element method was used, applied to the porous media needed for the water mass balance equation. By the proper structure of the initial and boundary conditions may be modeled the flow in drainage or injection systems of wells, according to the period of irrigation or prolonged drought. The boundary conditions consist of the groundwater levels required at margins of the analyzed area, in conformity to the reality of the pollutant emissaries, following the method of the double steps. Major Findings/Results: The drainage condition is equivalent to operating regimes on the two or three rows of wells, negative, as to assure the pollutant transport, modeled with the variable flow in groups of two adjacent nodes. In order to obtain the level of the water table, in accordance with the real constraints, are needed, for example, to be restricted its top level below of an imposed value, required in each node. The objective function consists of a sum of the absolute values of differences of the infiltration flow rates, increased by a large penalty factor when there are positive values of pollutant. In these conditions, a balanced structure of the pollutant concentration is maintained in the groundwater. The spatial coordinates represent the modified parameters during the process of optimization and the drainage flows through wells. Conclusions: The presented calculation scheme was applied to an area having a cross-section of 50 km between two emissaries with various levels of altitude and different values of pollution. The input data were correlated with the measurements made in-situ, such as the level of the bedrock, the grain size of the field, the slope, etc. This method of calculation can also be extended to determine the variation of the groundwater in the aquifer following the flood wave propagation in envoys.

Keywords: Environmental protection, numerical modeling, infiltrations, pollutant transport through soils

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1 Industrial and Environmental Safety in the Integrated Security Policy of the Industry: A Corporation and an Enterprise

Authors: Vladimir A. Grachev

Abstract:

Today, in the context of rapidly developing technosphere and hourly emerging new technologies, the industrial and environmental safety issue is ever more pressing. The article is devoted to the relationship of social, environmental, and industrial policies with industrial safety, occupational health and safety, environmental safety, and environmental protection. The author assesses the up-to-day situation through system analysis and on the basis of the existing practices. A complex system of the policies implementation without "gaps" and missing links ensures preservation of human lives, health and a favorable living environment. The author demonstrates that absence of an "environmental safety" high-priority link can lead to a significant loss of human lives and health and the global changes in the environment. The role of implementing the environmental policy of enterprises and organizations, and of economic sectors in the implementation of national environmental policy is shown. It was established that the system for implementing environmental policy should be based on a system analysis.

Keywords: Environmental safety, Environmental protection, Occupational Health and Safety, Industrial Safety

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