Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Environmental Pollution Related Abstracts

24 Support Systems for Vehicle Use

Authors: G. González, J. Ramírez, A. Rubiano

Abstract:

This article describes different patented systems for safe use in vehicles based on GPS technology, speed sensors, gyroscopes, maps, communication systems, and monitors, that inform the driver about traffic jam, obstruction in the road, speed limits, among others. Once the information is analyzed and contrasted to final propose new technical needs to be solved.

Keywords: Information Technology, Communication Networks, Telecommunications, Environmental Pollution, GPS, gyroscope

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23 Poor Medical Waste Management (MWM) Practices and Its Risks to Human Health and the Environment

Authors: Babanyara Y. Y., Ibrahim D. B., Garba T., Bogoro A. G., Abubakar, M. Y.

Abstract:

Medical care is vital for our life, health, and well-being. However, the waste generated from medical activities can be hazardous, toxic, and even lethal because of their high potential for diseases transmission. The hazardous and toxic parts of waste from healthcare establishments comprising infectious, medical, and radioactive material as well as sharps constitute a grave risks to mankind and the environment, if these are not properly treated/disposed or are allowed to be mixed with other municipal waste. In Nigeria, practical information on this aspect is inadequate and research on the public health implications of poor management of medical wastes is few and limited in scope. Findings drawn from Literature particularly in the third world countries highlights financial problems, lack of awareness of risks involved in MWM, lack of appropriate legislation and lack of specialized MWM staff. The paper recommends how MWM practices can be improved in medical facilities.

Keywords: Management, Environmental Pollution, Public Health, Infectious, medical waste

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22 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda UZAL SEYFI, Levent Seyfi

Abstract:

The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm

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21 Environmental Pollution and Health Risks of Residents Living near Ewekoro Cement Factory, Ewekoro, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ajide Oyinloye

Abstract:

The natural environment is made up of air, water and soil. The release of emission of industrial waste into anyone of the components of the environment causes pollution. Industrial pollution significantly threatens the inherent right of people, to the enjoyment of a safe and secure environment. The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of environmental pollution and health risks of residents living near Ewekoro Cement factory. The research made use of IKONOS imagery for Geographical Information System (GIS) to buffer and extract buildings that are less than 1 km to the plant, within 1 km to 5 km and above 5 km to the factory. Also, a questionnaire was used to elicit information on the socio-economic factors, the effect of environmental pollution on residents and measures adopted to control industrial pollution on the residents. Findings show that most buildings that between less than 1 km and 1 km to 5 km to the factory have high health risk in the study area. The study recommended total relocation for the residents of the study area to reduce risk health problems.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, GIS, health risk, Satellite Imagery, Ewekoro

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20 Integrative System of GDP, Emissions, Health Services and Population Health in Vietnam: Dynamic Panel Data Estimation

Authors: Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, Ha Hai Duong, Amnon Levy Livermore, Oleg Yerokhin

Abstract:

The issues of economic development, the environment and human health have been investigated since 1990s. Previous researchers have found different empirical evidences of the relationship between income and environmental pollution, health as determinant of economic growth, and the effects of income and environmental pollution on health in various regions of the world. This paper concentrates on integrative relationship analysis of GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, and health services and population health in context of Vietnam. We applied the dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation on datasets of Vietnam’s sixty-three provinces for the years 2000-2010. Our results show the significant positive effect of GDP on emissions and the dependence of population health on emissions and health services. We find the significant relationship between population health and GDP. Additionally, health services are significantly affected by population health and GDP. Finally, the population size too is other important determinant of both emissions and GDP.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Economic Development, Health, Emissions

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19 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis

Authors: Aditi Acharya

Abstract:

Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Environmental Pollution, Nanotechnology, Water pollution

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18 Analysis of Land Use, Land Cover Changes in Damaturu, Nigeria: Using Satellite Images

Authors: Isa Muhammad Zumo, Musa Lawan

Abstract:

This study analyzes the land use/land cover changes in Damaturu metropolis from 1986 to 2005. LandSat TM Images of 1986, 1999, and 2005 were used. Built-up lands, agric lands, water body and other lands were created as themes within ILWIS 3.4 software. The images were displayed in False Colour Composite (FCC) for a better visualization and identification of the themes created. Training sample sets were collected based on the ground truth data during field the checks. Statistical data were then extracted from the classified sample set. Area in hectares for each theme was calculated for each year and the result for each land use/land cover types for each study year was compared. From the result, it was found out that built-up areas have a considerable increase from 37.71 hectares in 1986 to 1062.72 hectares in 2005. It has an annual increase rate of approximately 0.34%. The results also reveal that there is a decrease of 5829.66 hectares of other lands (vacant lands) from 1986 to 2005.

Keywords: Analysis, Environmental Pollution, Land Use, changes

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17 Do the Health Benefits of Oil-Led Economic Development Outweigh the Potential Health Harms from Environmental Pollution in Nigeria?

Authors: Marian Emmanuel Okon

Abstract:

Introduction: The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has a vast reserve of oil and gas, which has globally positioned the nation as the sixth largest exporter of crude oil. Production rapidly rose following oil discovery. In most oil producing nations of the world, the wealth generated from oil production and export has propelled economic advancement, enabling the development of industries and other relevant infrastructures. Therefore, it can be assumed that majority of the oil resource such as Nigeria’s, has the potential to improve the health of the population via job creation and derived revenues. However, the health benefits of this economic development might be offset by the environmental consequences of oil exploitation and production. Objective: This research aims to evaluate the balance between the health benefits of oil-led economic development and harmful environmental consequences of crude oil exploitation in Nigeria. Study Design: A pathway has been designed to guide data search and this study. The model created will assess the relationship between oil-led economic development and population health development via job creation, improvement of education, development of infrastructure and other forms of development as well as through harmful environmental consequences from oil activities. Data/Emerging Findings: Diverse potentially suitable datasets which are at different geographical scales have been identified, obtained or applied for and the dataset from the World Bank has been the most thoroughly explored. This large dataset contains information that would enable the longitudinal assessment of both the health benefits and harms from oil exploitation in Nigeria as well as identify the disparities that exist between the communities, states and regions. However, these data do not extend far back enough in time to capture the start of crude oil production. Thus, it is possible that the maximum economic benefits and health harms could be missed. To deal with this shortcoming, the potential for a comparative study with countries like United Kingdom, Morocco and Cote D’ivoire has also been taken into consideration, so as to evaluate the differences between these countries as well as identify the areas of improvement in Nigeria’s environmental and health policies. Notwithstanding, these data have shown some differences in each country’s economic, environmental and health state over time as well as a corresponding summary statistics. Conclusion: In theory, the beneficial effects of oil exploitation to the health of the population may be substantial as large swaths of the ‘wider determinants’ of population heath are influenced by the wealth of a nation. However, if uncontrolled, the consequences from environmental pollution and degradation may outweigh these benefits. Thus, there is a need to address this, in order to improve environmental and population health in Nigeria.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Health Benefits, oil-led economic development, petroleum exploitation

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16 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition

Authors: Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola M. Enitan, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

With the competing demand on water resources and water reuse, discharge of industrial effluents into the aquatic environment has become an important issue. Much attention has been placed on the impact of industrial wastewater on water bodies worldwide due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic matter in the receiving water bodies. The scope of the present work is to assess the physic-chemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of the peak period of beer production on the water usage.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Industrial Effluents, brewery wastewater, physic-chemical composition

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15 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Kübra Yazici

Abstract:

The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation

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14 A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Yüksel Ardalı, Nükhet Konuk, N. Gamze Turan

Abstract:

Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, developing countries, Environmental Degradation, urban environmental problems

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13 A Study of Sources and Control of Environmental Noise Pollution on Selected Areas of Osogbo, Capital of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulrazaq Adepoju

Abstract:

Climate change and its negative environmental challenges to humanity has for decades, taken the centre stage globally receiving attention on ways to take care of the menace and keep the damaging effects to manageable and tolerable level. However, noise pollution, another major environmental hazard militating against human habitation particularly in the developing countries of the world, is not receiving enough attention by the concerned authorities at all tiers of governance. A good knowledge of the major sources of environmental noise pollution will go a long way in assisting relevant stakeholders in planning, designing, and management of problems associated with noise pollution. This paper seeks to identify the major sources of noise in the built environment on selected areas of Osogbo, Nigeria. The paper adopted a survey research method of collecting data from surveys carried out on buildings around old Garage-Okefia axis, Old garage-Oja Oba axis, and Okefia-Olaiya junction axis, all within Osogbo metropolis using sound surveying metre. It was discovered that noise from vehicular and pedestrian traffic, commercial activities such as advertising vendors and religious buildings (churches and mosques) constitute major causes of noise in the study area. The paper recommends some measures to the affected stakeholders particularly government agencies on means of reducing noise pollution to a tolerable level in the study areas and places of the same industrial layout.

Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Pollution, Built Environment, Noise

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12 Influence of Protein Malnutrition and Different Stressful Conditions on Aluminum-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats: Focus on the Possible Protection Using Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh, Asmaa Abdelaty, Mona G. Khalil

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is known as a neurotoxin environmental pollutant that can cause certain diseases as Dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinsonism. It is widely used in antacid drugs as well as in food additives and toothpaste. Stresses have been linked to cognitive impairment; Social isolation (SI) may exacerbate memory deficits while protein malnutrition (PM) increases oxidative damage in cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. The risk of cognitive decline may be lower by maintaining social connections. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects as well as health-promoting effects in CNS. Objective: To study the influence of different stressful conditions as social isolation, electric shock (EC) and inadequate Nutritional condition as PM on neurotoxicity induced by Al in rats as well as to investigate the possible protective effect of EGCG in these stressful and PM conditions. Methods: Rats were divided into two major groups; protected group which was daily treated during three weeks of the experiment by EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) or non-treated. Protected and non-protected groups included five subgroups as following: One normal control received saline and four Al toxicity groups injected daily for three weeks by ALCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP). One of them served as Al toxicity model, two groups subjected to different stresses either by isolation as mild stressful condition (SI-associated Al toxicity model) or by electric shock as high stressful condition (EC- associated Al toxicity model). The last was maintained on 10% casein diet (PM -associated Al toxicity model). Isolated rats were housed individually in cages covered with black plastic. Biochemical changes in the brain as acetyl cholinesterase (ACHE), Aβ, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β), oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC) were estimated for all groups. Histopathological changes in different brain regions were also evaluated. Results: Rats exposed to Al for three weeks showed brain neurotoxicity and neuronal degenerations. Both mild (SI) and high (EC) stressful conditions as well as inadequate nutrition (PM) enhanced Al-induced neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations; the enhancement induced by stresses especially in its higher conditions (ES) was more pronounced than that of inadequate nutritional conditions (PM) as indicated by the significant increase in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the significant decrease in SOD, TAC, BDNF. On the other hand, EGCG showed more pronounced protection against hazards of Al in both stressful conditions (SI and EC) rather than in PM .The protective effects of EGCG were indicated by the significant decrease in Aβ, ACHE, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β together with the increase in SOD, TAC, BDNF and confirmed by brain histopathological examinations. Conclusion: Neurotoxicity and brain neuronal degenerations induced by Al were more severe with stresses than with PM. EGCG can protect against Al-induced brain neuronal degenerations in all conditions. Consequently, administration of EGCG together with socialization as well as adequate protein nutrition is advised especially on excessive Al-exposure to avoid the severity of its neuronal toxicity.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, rats, Aluminum, social isolation, neuronal degeneration, protein malnutrition, epigallocatechin-3-gallate

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11 Studies on the Mechanical Behavior of Bottom Ash for a Sustainable Environment

Authors: B. A. Mir, Asim Malik

Abstract:

Bottom ash is a by-product of the combustion process of coal in furnaces in the production of electricity in thermal power plants. In India, about 75% of total power is produced by using pulverized coal. The coal of India has a high ash content which leads to the generation of a huge quantity of bottom ash per year posing the dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use this industry by-product effectively and efficiently. However, its large-scale utilization is possible only in geotechnical applications, either alone or with soil. In the present investigation, bottom ash was collected from National Capital Power Station Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Test samples of bottom ash admixed with 20% clayey soil were prepared and treated with different cement content by weight and subjected to various laboratory tests for assessing its suitability as an engineered construction material. This study has shown that use of 10% cement content is a viable chemical additive to enhance the mechanical properties of bottom ash, which can be used effectively as an engineered construction material in various geotechnical applications. More importantly, it offers an interesting potential for making use of an industrial waste to overcome challenges posed by bottom ash for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Sustainable Environment, Solid Waste, Waste Utilization, bottom ash

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10 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Indian Cities

Authors: Vaibhav Rathi, Soumen Maity, Achu R. Sekhar, Abhijit Banerjee

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Construction sector in India is extremely resource and carbon intensive. It contributes to significantly to national greenhouse emissions. At the resource end the industry consumes significant portions of the output from mining. Resources such as sand and soil are most exploited and their rampant extraction is becoming constant source of impact on environment and society. Cement is another resource that is used in abundance in building and construction and has a direct impact on limestone resources. Though India is rich in cement grade limestone resource, efforts have to be made for sustainable consumption of this resource to ensure future availability. Use of these resources in high volumes in India is a result of rapid urbanization. More cities have grown to a population of million plus in the last decade and million plus cities are growing further. To cater to needs of growing urban population of construction activities are inevitable in the coming future thereby increasing material consumption. Increased construction will also lead to substantial increase in end of life waste generation from Construction and Demolition (C&D). Therefore proper management of C&D waste has the potential to reduce environmental pollution as well as contribute to the resource efficiency in the construction sector. The present study deals with estimation, characterisation and documenting current management practices of C&D waste in 10 Indian cities of different geographies and classes. Based on primary data the study draws conclusions on the potential of C&D waste to be used as an alternative to primary raw materials. The estimation results show that India generates 716 million tons of C&D waste annually, placing the country as second largest C&D waste generator in the world after China. The study also aimed at utilization of C&D waste in to building materials. The waste samples collected from various cities have been used to replace 100% stone aggregates in paver blocks without any decrease in strength. However, management practices of C&D waste in cities still remains poor instead of notification of rules and regulations notified for C&D waste management. Only a few cities have managed to install processing plant and set up management systems for C&D waste. Therefore there is immense opportunity for management and reuse of C&D waste in Indian cities.

Keywords: Building materials, Environmental Pollution, cities, Resource Efficiency, Construction and demolition waste

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9 Murine Pulmonary Responses after Sub-Chronic Exposure to Environmental Ultrafine Particles

Authors: Yara Saleh, Sebastien Antherieu, Romain Dusautoir, Jules Sotty, Laurent Alleman, Ludivine Canivet, Esperanza Perdrix, Pierre Dubot, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Guillaume Garcon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice

Abstract:

Air pollution is one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk factor, through the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancers. They are composed of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1 respectively). Ultrafine particles are emerging unregulated pollutants that might have greater toxicity than larger particles, since they are more abundant and consequently have higher surface area per unit of mass. Our project aims to develop a relevant in vivo model of sub-chronic exposure to atmospheric particles in order to elucidate the specific respiratory impact of ultrafine particles compared to fine particulate matter. Quasi-ultrafine (PM0.18) and fine (PM2.5) particles have been collected in the urban industrial zone of Dunkirk in north France during a 7-month campaign, and submitted to physico-chemical characterization. BALB/c mice were then exposed intranasally to 10µg of PM0.18 or PM2.5 3 times a week. After 1 or 3-month exposure, broncho alveolar lavages (BAL) were performed and lung tissues were harvested for histological and transcriptomic analyses. The physico-chemical study of the collected particles shows that there is no major difference in elemental and surface chemical composition between PM0.18 and PM2.5. Furthermore, the results of the cytological analyses carried out show that both types of particulate fractions can be internalized in lung cells. However, the cell count in BAL and preliminary transcriptomic data suggest that PM0.18 could be more reactive and induce a stronger lung inflammation in exposed mice than PM2.5. Complementary studies are in progress to confirm these first data and to identify the metabolic pathways more specifically associated with the toxicity of ultrafine particles.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, mice, ultrafine particles, lung affect

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8 The Security Challenges of Urbanization and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria

Authors: Gloria Ogungbade, Ogaba Oche, Moses Duruji, Chris Ehiobuche, Lady Ajayi

Abstract:

Human’s continued sustenance on earth and the quality of living are heavily dependent on the environment. The major components of the environment being air, water and land are the supporting pillars of the human existence, which they depend on directly or indirectly for survival and well-being. Unfortunately, due to some of the human activities on the environment, there seems to be a war between humans and the environment, which is evident in his over-exploitation and inadequate management of the basic components of the environment. Since the discovery of crude oil in the Niger Delta, the region has experienced various forms of degradation caused by pollution from oil spillage, gas flaring and other forms of environmental pollution, as a result of reckless way and manner with which oil is being exploited by the International Oil Corporations (IOCs) operating within the region. The Nigerian government on the other, not having strong regulations guiding the activities of the operations of these IOCs, has done almost nothing to curtail the activities of these IOCs because of the revenue generated the IOCs, as such the region is deprived of the basic social amenities and infrastructures. The degree of environmental pollution suffered within the region affects their major sources of livelihood – being fishing and farming, and has also left the region in poverty, which has led to a large number of people migrating to the urban areas to escape poverty. This paper investigates how environment degradation impact urbanization and security in the region.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Environmental Degradation, Urbanization, oil spillage, gas flaring

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7 Green Marketing and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Guru P. S. Rangasamy

Abstract:

In the cutting edge period of globalization, it has turned into a test to keep the clients and also shoppers in overlay and even keep our regular habitat safe and that is the greatest need of the time. Purchasers are likewise mindful of the ecological issues like a dangerous atmospheric deviation and the effect of natural contamination. Green showcasing is a marvel which has created specific critical in the present day advertise and has risen as an imperative idea in India, as in different parts of the creating and created world and is viewed as an essential procedure of encouraging practical improvement. In this exploration paper, primary accentuation has been made of idea, need, and significance of green promoting. It investigates the principle issues in reception of green showcasing hones. The paper portrays the present situation of Indian market and investigates the difficulties and openings organizations have with green advertising, why organizations are receiving it and eventual fate of green promoting and presumes that green showcasing is something that will consistently develop in both practice and request.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Environmental Pollution, Global Warming, Globalization, Green Marketing

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6 A Close Study on the Nitrate Fertilizer Use and Environmental Pollution for Human Health in Iran

Authors: Saeed Rezaeian, M. Rezaee Boroon

Abstract:

Nitrogen accumulates in soils during the process of fertilizer addition to promote the plant growth. When the organic matter decomposes, the form of available nitrogen produced is in the form of nitrate, which is highly mobile. The most significant health effect of nitrate ingestion is methemoglobinemia in infants under six months of age (blue baby syndrome). The mobile nutrients, like nitrate nitrogen, are not stored in the soil as the available forms for the long periods and in large amounts. It depends on the needs for the crops such as vegetables. On the other hand, the vegetables will compete actively for nitrate nitrogen as a mobile nutrient and water. The mobile nutrients must be shared. The fewer the plants, the larger this share is for each plant. Also, this nitrate nitrogen is poisonous for the people who use these vegetables. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by the existing bacteria in the stomach and the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. When nitrite is entered into the blood cells, it converts the hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which causes the anoxemia and cyanosis. The increasing use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, especially the fertilizers with nitrates compounds, which have been common for the increased production of agricultural crops, has caused the nitrate pollution in the (soil, water, and environment). They have caused a lot of damage to humans and animals. In this research, the nitrate accumulation in different kind of vegetables such as; green pepper, tomatoes, egg plants, watermelon, cucumber, and red pepper were observed in the suburbs of Mashhad, Neisabour, and Sabzevar cities. In some of these cities, the information forms of agronomical practices collected were such as; different vegetable crops fertilizer recommendations, varieties, pesticides, irrigation schedules, etc., which were filled out by some of our colleagues in the research areas mentioned above. Analysis of the samples was sent to the soil and water laboratory in our department in Mashhad. The final results from the chemical analysis of samples showed that the mean levels of nitrates from the samples of the fruit crops in the mentioned cities above were all lower than the critical levels. These fruit crop samples were in the order of: 35.91, 8.47, 24.81, 6.03, 46.43, 2.06 mg/kg dry matter, for the following crops such as; tomato, cucumber, eggplant, watermelon, green pepper, and red pepper. Even though, this study was conducted with limited samples and by considering the mean levels, the use of these crops from the nutritional point of view will not cause the poisoning of humans.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Human Health, nitrate accumulations, nitrate fertilizers

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5 Early Biological Effects in Schoolchildren Living in an Area of Salento (Italy) with High Incidence of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: The IMP.AIR. Study

Authors: Alessandra Panico, Francesco Bagordo, Tiziana Grassi, Adele Idolo, Marcello Guido, Francesca Serio, Mattia De Giorgi, Antonella De Donno

Abstract:

In the Province of Lecce (Southeastern Italy) an area with unusual high incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, was recently identified. The causes of this health emergency are still not entirely clear. In order to determine the risk profile of children living in five municipalities included in this area an epidemiological-molecular study was performed in the years 2014-2016: the IMP.AIR. (Impact of air quality on health of residents in the Municipalities of Sternatia, Galatina, Cutrofiano, Sogliano Cavour and Soleto) study. 122 children aged 6-8 years attending primary school in the study area were enrolled to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in their buccal exfoliated cells. The samples were collected in May 2015 by rubbing the oral mucosa with a soft bristle disposable toothbrush. At the same time, a validated questionnaire was administered to parents to obtain information about health, lifestyle and eating habits of the children. In addition, information on airborne pollutants, routinely detected by the Regional Environmental Agency (ARPA Puglia) in the study area, was acquired. A multivariate analysis was performed to detect any significant association between frequency of MNs (dependent variable) and behavioral factors (independent variables). The presence of MNs was highlighted in the buccal exfoliated cells of about 42% of recruited children with a mean frequency of 0.49 MN/1000 cells, greater than in other areas of Salento. The survey on individual characteristics and lifestyles showed that one in three children was overweight and that most of them had unhealthy eating habits with frequent consumption of foods considered ‘risky’. Moreover many parents (40% of fathers and 12% of mothers) were smokers and about 20% of them admitted to smoking in the house where the children lived. Information regarding atmospheric contaminants was poor. Of the few substances routinely detected by the only one monitoring station located in the study area (PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) only ozone showed high concentrations exceeding the limits set by the legislation for 67 times in the year 2015. The study showed that the level of early biological effect markers in children was not negligible. This critical condition could be related to some individual factors and lifestyles such as overweight, unhealthy eating habits and exposure to passive smoking. At present, no relationship with airborne pollutants can be established due to the lack of information on many substances. Therefore, it would be advisable to modify incorrect behaviors and to intensify the monitoring of airborne pollutants (e.g. including detection of PM10, heavy metals, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, benzene) given the epidemiology of chronic respiratory diseases registered in this area.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Lifestyle, micronuclei, chronic respiratory diseases

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4 Investigations of Heavy Metals Pollution in Sediments of Small Urban Lakes in Karelia Republic

Authors: Aleksandr Medvedev, Zakhar Slukovsii

Abstract:

Waterbodies, which are located either within urban areas or nearby towns, permanently undergo anthropogenic load. The extent of the load can be determined via investigations of chemical composition of both water and sediments. Lakes, as a rule, are considered as a landscape depressions, hence they are capable of natural material accumulating, which has been delivered from the catchment area through rivers as well as temporary flows. As a result, lacustrine sediments (especially closed-basin lakes sediments) are considered as perfect archives, which are served for reconstructing past sedimentation process, assessment of the modern contamination level, and prognostication of possible ways of changing in the future. The purposes of the survey are to define a heavy metals content in lake sediments cores, which were retrieved from four urban lakes located in the southern part of Karelia Republic, and to ascertain the main sources of heavy metals input to these waterbodies. It is really crucial to be aware of heavy metals content in environment, because chemical composition of a landscape may have a significant effect on living organisms and people’s health. Sediment columns were sampled in a field with 2-cm intervals by a gravitational corer called «Limnos». The sediment samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP MS) for 8 chemical elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, V). The highest concentrations of trace elements were established in the upper and middle layers of the cores. It has also been ascertained that the extent of contamination mostly depends on a remoteness of a lake from various pollution sources and features of the sources.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Heavy Metals, Lakes, bottom sediments

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3 Metal Contents in Bird Feathers (Columba livia) from Mt Etna Volcano: Volcanic Plume Contribution and Biological Fractionation

Authors: Cinzia Federico, Edda E. Falcone, Sergio Bellomo, Lorenzo Brusca, Manfredi Longo, Walter D’Alessandro

Abstract:

Although trace metals are an essential element for living beings, they can become toxic at high concentrations. Their potential toxicity is related not only to the total content in the environment but mostly upon their bioavailability. Volcanoes are important natural metal emitters and they can deeply affect the quality of air, water and soils, as well as the human health. Trace metals tend to accumulate in the tissues of living organisms, depending on the metal contents in food, air and water and on the exposure time. Birds are considered as bioindicators of interest, because their feathers directly reflects the metals uptake from the blood. Birds are exposed to the atmospheric pollution through the contact with rainfall, dust, and aerosol, and they accumulate metals over the whole life cycle. We report on the first data combining the rainfall metal content in three different areas of Mt Etna, variably fumigated by the volcanic plume, and the metal contents in the feathers of pigeons, collected in the same areas. Rainfall samples were collected from three rain gauges placed at different elevation on the Eastern flank of the volcano, the most exposed to airborne plume, filtered, treated with HNO₃ Suprapur-grade and analyzed for Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Zn, Cu, Sr, Ba, Cd and As by ICP-MS technique, and major ions by ion chromatography. Feathers were collected from single individuals, in the same areas where the rain gauges were installed. Additionally, some samples were collected in an urban area, poorly interested by the volcanic plume. The samples were rinsed in MilliQ water and acetone, dried at 50°C until constant weight and digested in a mixture of 2:1 HNO₃ (65%) - H₂O₂ (30%) Suprapur-grade for 25-50 mg of sample, in a bath at near-to-boiling temperature. The solutions were diluted up to 20 ml prior to be analyzed by ICP-MS. The rainfall samples most contaminated by the plume were collected at close distance from the summit craters (less than 6 km), and show lower pH values and higher concentrations for all analyzed metals relative to those from the sites at lower elevation. Analyzed samples are enriched in both metals directly emitted by the volcanic plume and transported by acidic gases (SO₂, HCl, HF), and metals leached from the airborne volcanic ash. Feathers show different patterns in the different sites related to the exposure to natural or anthropogenic pollutants. They show abundance ratios similar to rainfall for lithophile elements (Ba, Sr), whereas are enriched in Zn and Se, known for their antioxidant properties, probably as adaptive response to oxidative stress induced by toxic metal exposure. The pigeons revealed a clear heterogeneity of metal uptake in the different parts of the volcano, as an effect of volcanic plume impact. Additionally, some physiological processes can modify the fate of some metals after uptake and this offer some insights for translational studies.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Bioindicators, Trace Metals, feathers, volcanic plume

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2 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola

Abstract:

The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Heavy Metals, Oxidative Stress, Clarias gariepinus, Araromi River

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1 Regeneration of Urban Precincts of Okhla Waste Management Zone

Authors: Samreen Sultan

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the mismatch between diffused urbanization pattern and the mainly centralized infrastructural systems which support their daily operations. Illustrated by the case of Okhla Waste Management Zone, landlocked between heavy residential settlements on all sides is emblematic of a larger issue. The waste management area, although serving the greater purpose of tackling the city’s waste, has a different impact on the site, at the local scale-its local condition and its people. The thesis is an attempt to reformulate the setting of a waste management area to blur the line between the waste management zone and the immediate residential setup. The Okhla waste management zone is one of the oldest and largest waste management areas of Delhi. Back in the 1940s at the time of British, the Okhla drainage zone was selected, and an effluent wastewater treatment plant was set up in the then Delhi’s fringe area. Initially, it had rudimentary technology and few settlements around it. As time passed, the population density increased and currently it is surrounded by a population of 10 lakhs. There were alterations in the waste management zone as well. Okhla compost plant and waste to energy plant are recent additions, and it was transformed into an ‘Integrated Waste Management Zone’. In the present scenario, it has become a concentrated site of all forms of pollution, i.e., a result of unsustainable planning and development. This further has an impact on public health and real estate value. Therefore, an attempt is made to reduce environmental/health concerns in the sphere of influence by measuring and later managing the impact of the waste management area in South Delhi. A need for the amelioration of the waste management zone is established, and possible design interventions are given to create a better-used public space.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Mitigation, Regeneration, public realm

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