Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Environmental Impacts Related Abstracts

24 A Multicriteria Model for Sustainable Management in Agriculture

Authors: Basil Manos, Thomas Bournaris, Christina Moulogianni


The European agricultural policy supports all member states to apply agricultural development plans for the development of their agricultural sectors. A specific measure of the agricultural development plans refers to young people in order to enter into the agricultural sector. This measure helps the participating young farmers in achieving maximum efficiency, using methods and environmentally friendly practices, by altering their farm plans. This study applies a Multicriteria Mathematical Programming (MCDA) model for the young farmers to find farm plans that achieve the maximum gross margin and the minimum environmental impacts (less use of fertilizers and irrigation water). The analysis was made in the region of Central Macedonia, Greece, among young farmers who have participated in the “Setting up Young Farmers” measure during 2007-2010. The analysis includes the implementation of the MCDA model for the farm plans optimization and the comparison of selected environmental indicators with those of the existent situation.

Keywords: Sustainable management, Environmental Impacts, multicriteria, optimum farm plans

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23 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho


With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, biofuel, Energy policy, Environmental Impacts

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22 Application of Life Cycle Assessment “LCA” Approach for a Sustainable Building Design under Specific Climate Conditions

Authors: Djeffal Asma, Zemmouri Noureddine


In order for building designer to be able to balance environmental concerns with other performance requirements, they need clear and concise information. For certain decisions during the design process, qualitative guidance, such as design checklists or guidelines information may not be sufficient for evaluating the environmental benefits between different building materials, products and designs. In this case, quantitative information, such as that generated through a life cycle assessment, provides the most value. LCA provides a systematic approach to evaluating the environmental impacts of a product or system over its entire life. In the case of buildings life cycle includes the extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, transporting and installing building components or products, operating and maintaining the building. By integrating LCA into building design process, designers can evaluate the life cycle impacts of building design, materials, components and systems and choose the combinations that reduce the building life cycle environmental impact. This article attempts to give an overview of the integration of LCA methodology in the context of building design, and focuses on the use of this methodology for environmental considerations concerning process design and optimization. A multiple case study was conducted in order to assess the benefits of the LCA as a decision making aid tool during the first stages of the building design under specific climate conditions of the North East region of Algeria. It is clear that the LCA methodology can help to assess and reduce the impact of a building design and components on the environment even if the process implementation is rather long and complicated and lacks of global approach including human factors. It is also demonstrated that using LCA as a multi objective optimization of building process will certainly facilitates the improvement in design and decision making for both new design and retrofit projects.

Keywords: Sustainability, Buildings, Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Impacts, elementary schools

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21 Case study of Environmental Impact Assessment of Quarrying Activities

Authors: Hocine Benabid, M. F. Ghorab


The exploration of open pit mines and quarries has always been important resources that provide many valuable needed minerals but very often accompanied by large amounts of dust rejected into the air and also many other negative environmental impacts. The dust remains suspended in the atmosphere before being deposited on soils, on forest trees, on plants and also on water, causing at long term allergic and respiratory diseases for residents living in the vicinity or even far away from the mines and quarries. As a consequence of this activity, dust can also disturb the photosynthetic activity of plants and affect water quality. It is for these reasons and because of the intensification of these activities that our motivations have become larger to deal with this kind of topic, which is becoming nowadays an environmental and health concern for almost every country in the world.

Keywords: Dust, Environmental Impacts, Mines, environmental concern

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20 Environmental Impacts and Ecological Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta Fresh Ecosystem

Authors: Seiyaboh E. I.


Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was introduced into many parts of the world, including Africa, as an ornamental garden pond plant because of its beauty. However, it is considered a dangerous pest today because when not controlled, water hyacinth will cover rivers, lakes and ponds entirely; this dramatically impacts water flow, blocks sunlight from reaching native aquatic plants, and starves the water of oxygen, often killing fish and other aquatic organisms. In the Niger Delta region, water hyacinth is considered a nuisance because of its very obvious devastating environmental impacts in the region. However, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes a very important part of an aquatic ecosystem. It possesses specialized growth habits, physiological characteristics and reproductive strategies that allow for rapid growth and spread in freshwater environments and this explains its very rapid spread in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem. This paper therefore focuses on the environmental consequences of the proliferation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Niger Delta freshwater ecosystem, extent of impact, and options available for its ecological utilization which will help mitigate proliferation, restore effective freshwater ecosystem utilization and balance. It concludes by recommending sustainable practices outlining the beneficial uses of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) rather than control.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, Niger Delta, ecological utilization, water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes

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19 Economic and Ecological Implications in Agricultural Production Within the Strong and Weak Sustainability Framework

Authors: Mauricio Quintero Angel, Andrés A. Duque Nivia, Carlos H. Fajardo Toro


This paper analyzes two approaches of sustainability, the weak and strong, considering a case of study of oil palm production for an industry of biodegradable detergent. In this case, a company demand the oil palm as the active element for washing and through its trademark aims to supply 10% of the Colombian market of washing powders. Under each approach the economic and ecological implications of the palm oil production and especially the implications for crop management are described. The crop production under the weak sustainability implies plantations, intensive use of agrochemicals and the inclusion of new areas of cultivation as the market grows. Under the strong sustainability the production system is limited by the productive vocation of the ecosystem, so that new approaches and creativity for making viable the nature conservancy and the business development are require.

Keywords: Agriculture, Environmental Impacts, oil palm, strong sustainability, weak sustainability

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18 Life-Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: Addressing the Influence of Commuting

Authors: J. Bastos, P. Marques, S. Batterman, F. Freire


Due to demands of a growing urban population, it is crucial to manage urban development and its associated environmental impacts. While most of the environmental analyses have addressed buildings and transportation separately, both the design and location of a building affect environmental performance and focusing on one or the other can shift impacts and overlook improvement opportunities for more sustainable urban development. Recently, several life-cycle (LC) studies of residential buildings have integrated user transportation, focusing exclusively on primary energy demand and/or greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, most papers considered only private transportation (mainly car). Although it is likely to have the largest share both in terms of use and associated impacts, exploring the variability associated with mode choice is relevant for comprehensive assessments and, eventually, for supporting decision-makers. This paper presents a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a residential building in Lisbon (Portugal), addressing building construction, use and user transportation (commuting with private and public transportation). Five environmental indicators or categories are considered: (i) non-renewable primary energy (NRE), (ii) greenhouse gas intensity (GHG), (iii) eutrophication (EUT), (iv) acidification (ACID), and (v) ozone layer depletion (OLD). In a first stage, the analysis addresses the overall life-cycle considering the statistical model mix for commuting in the residence location. Then, a comparative analysis compares different available transportation modes to address the influence mode choice variability has on the results. The results highlight the large contribution of transportation to the overall LC results in all categories. NRE and GHG show strong correlation, as the three LC phases contribute with similar shares to both of them: building construction accounts for 6-9%, building use for 44-45%, and user transportation for 48% of the overall results. However, for other impact categories there is a large variation in the relative contribution of each phase. Transport is the most significant phase in OLD (60%); however, in EUT and ACID building use has the largest contribution to the overall LC (55% and 64%, respectively). In these categories, transportation accounts for 31-38%. A comparative analysis was also performed for four alternative transport modes for the household commuting: car, bus, motorcycle, and company/school collective transport. The car has the largest results in all impact categories. When compared to the overall LC with commuting by car, mode choice accounts for a variability of about 35% in NRE, GHG and OLD (the categories where transportation accounted for the largest share of the LC), 24% in EUT and 16% in ACID. NRE and GHG show a strong correlation because all modes have internal combustion engines. The second largest results for NRE, GHG and OLD are associated with commuting by motorcycle; however, for ACID and EUT this mode has better performance than bus and company/school transport. No single transportation mode performed best in all impact categories. Integrated assessments of buildings are needed to avoid shifts of impacts between life-cycle phases and environmental categories, and ultimately to support decision-makers.

Keywords: Transport, Environmental Impacts, Lisbon, LCA

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17 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq


Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce a large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH is found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Residential Buildings, Environmental Impacts, building simulation, life cycle energy analysis

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16 Environmental Issues in Construction Projects in India

Authors: Gurbir Singh Khaira, Anmoldeep Singh Kang


Exposures to environmental pollution remain a major source of health risk throughout the world, though risks are generally higher in developing countries, where poverty, lack of investment in modern technology and weak environmental legislation combine to cause high pollution levels. This paper will tell us about the environment is threatened severely by so many problems, some of which are caused by the activities of Construction Projects. The research reveals major environmental impacts of building construction projects to include environmental pollution, resource depletion and habitat destruction causing Destruction of ecosystem, Desertification, Soil Erosion and increasing Material Wastage. Construction is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollution in the world, the level of knowledge and awareness of project participants, especially project managers, with regards to environmental impacts of construction processes needs to be enhanced. It was found that ‘Transportation Resource’, ‘Noise Pollution’, and ‘Dust Generation with Construction Machinery’ are the greatest environmental impacts in INDIA respectively. The results of this study are useful for construction managers and other participants in construction sites to become aware of construction processes impacts on the environment.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, awareness, Construction Projects, material waste age

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15 Environmental Evaluation of Two Kind of Drug Production (Syrup and Pomade Form) Using Life Cycle Assessment Methodology

Authors: H. Aksas, S. Boughrara, K. Louhab


The goal of this study was the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impact of pharmaceutical product (four kinds of syrup form and tree kinds of pomade form), which are produced in one leader manufactory in Algeria town that is SAIDAL Company. The impacts generated have evaluated using SimpaPro7.1 with CML92 Method for syrup form and EPD 2007 for pomade form. All impacts evaluated have compared between them, with determination of the compound contributing to each impacts in each case. Data needed to conduct Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) came from this factory, by the collection of theoretical data near the responsible technicians and engineers of the company, the practical data are resulting from the assay of pharmaceutical liquid, obtained at the laboratories of the university. This data represent different raw material imported from European and Asian country necessarily to formulate the drug. Energy used is coming from Algerian resource for the input. Outputs are the result of effluent analysis of this factory with different form (liquid, solid and gas form). All this data (input and output) represent the ecobalance.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, pharmaceutical product, drug residues, LCA methodology

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14 Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) Study of Shrimp Fishery in the South East Coast of Arabian Sea

Authors: Leela Edwin, Rithin Joseph, P. H. Dhiju Das, K. A. Sayana, P. S. Muhammed Sherief


The shrimp trawl fishery is considered one of the more valuable fisheries from the South east Coast of Arabian Sea. Inventory data for the shrimp were collected over 1 year period and used to carry out a life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA was performed to assess and compare the environmental impacts associated with the fishing operations related to shrimp fishery. This analysis included the operation of the vessels, together with major inputs related to the production of diesel, trawl nets, or anti-fouling paints. Data regarding vessel operation was obtained from the detailed questionnaires filled out by 180 trawlers. The analysis on environmental impacts linked to shrimp extraction on a temporal scale, showed that varying landings enhanced the environmental burdens mainly associated with activities related to diesel production, transport and consumption of the fishing vessels. Discard rates for trawlers were also identified as a major environmental impact in this fishery.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, shrimp trawling, life cycle assesment (LCA), Arabian sea

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13 The Emerging Multi-Species Trap Fishery in the Red Sea Waters of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nabeel M. Alikunhi, Zenon B. Batang, Aymen Charef, Abdulaziz M. Al-Suwailem


Saudi Arabia has a long history of using traps as a traditional fishing gear for catching commercially important demersal, mainly coral reef-associated fish species. Fish traps constitute the dominant small-scale fisheries in Saudi waters of Arabian Gulf (eastern seaboard of Saudi Arabia). Recently, however, traps have been increasingly used along the Saudi Red Sea coast (western seaboard), with a coastline of 1800 km (71%) compared to only 720 km (29%) in the Saudi Gulf region. The production trend for traps indicates a recent increase in catches and percent contribution to traditional fishery landings, thus ascertaining the rapid proliferation of trap fishing along the Saudi Red Sea coast. Reef-associated fish species, mainly groupers (Serranidae), emperors (Lethrinidae), parrotfishes (Scaridae), scads and trevallies (Carangidae), and snappers (Lutjanidae), dominate the trap catches, reflecting the reef-dominated shelf zone in the Red Sea. This ongoing investigation covers following major objectives (i) Baseline studies to characterize trap fishery through landing site visit and interview surveys (ii) Stock assessment by fisheries and biological data obtained through monthly landing site monitoring using fishery operational model by FLBEIA, (iii) Operational impacts, derelict traps assessment and by-catch analysis through bottom-mounted video camera and onboard monitoring (iv) Elucidation of fishing grounds and derelict traps impacts by onboard monitoring, Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle surveys; and (v) Analysis of gear design and operations which covers colonization and deterioration experiments. The progress of this investigation on the impacts of the trap fishery on fish stocks and the marine environment in the Saudi Red Sea region is presented.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, fish trap, stock assessment

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12 Nuclear Safety and Security in France in the 1970s: A Turning Point for the Media

Authors: Jandot Aurélia


In France, in the main media, the concern about nuclear safety and security has not really appeared before the beginning of the 1970s. The gradual changes in its perception are studied here through the arguments given in the main French news magazines, linked with several parameters. As this represents a considerable amount of copies and thus of information, are selected here the main articles as well as the main “mental images” aiming to persuade the readers and which have led the public awareness to evolve. Indeed, in the 1970s, in France, these evolutions were not made in one day. Indeed, over the period, many articles were still in favor of nuclear power plants and promoted the technological advances that were made in this field. They had to be taken into account. But, gradually, grew up arguments and mental images discrediting the perception of nuclear technology. Among these were the environmental impacts of this industry, as the question of pollution progressively appeared. So, between 1970 and 1979, the language has changed, as the perceptible objectives of the communication, allowing to discern the deepest intentions of the editorial staffs of the French news magazines. This is all these changes that are emphasized here, over a period when the safety and security concern linked to the nuclear technology, to there a field for specialists, has become progressively a social issue seemingly open to all.

Keywords: Nuclear Security, Environmental Impacts, media discourse, public awareness

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11 The Human Right to a Safe, Clean and Healthy Environment in Corporate Social Responsibility's Strategies: An Approach to Understanding Mexico's Mining Sector

Authors: Thalia Viveros-Uehara


The virtues of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) are explored widely in the academic literature. However, few studies address its link to human rights, per se; specifically, the right to a safe, clean and healthy environment. Fewer still are the research works in this area that relate to developing countries, where a number of areas are biodiversity hotspots. In Mexico, despite the rise and evolution of CSR schemes, grave episodes of pollution persist, especially those caused by the mining industry. These cases set up the question of the correspondence between the current CSR practices of mining companies in the country and their responsibility to respect the right to a safe, clean and healthy environment. The present study approaches precisely such a bridge, which until now has not been fully tackled in light of Mexico's 2011 constitutional human rights amendment and the United Nation's Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN Guiding Principles), adopted by the Human Rights Council in 2011. To that aim, it initially presents a contextual framework; it then explores qualitatively the adoption of human rights’ language in the CSR strategies of the three main mining companies in Mexico, and finally, it examines their standing with respect to the UN Guiding Principles. The results reveal that human rights are included in the RSE strategies of the analysed businesses, at least at the rhetoric level; however, they do not embrace the right to a safe, clean and healthy environment as such. Moreover, we conclude that despite the finding that corporations publicly express their commitment to respect human rights, some operational weaknesses that hamper the exercise of such responsibility persist; for example, the systematic lack of human rights impact assessments per mining unit, the denial of actual and publicly-known negative episodes on the environment linked directly to their operations, and the absence of effective mechanisms to remediate adverse impacts.

Keywords: Human Rights, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental Impacts, mining industry, right to a safe, clean and healthy environment

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10 Status of Hazardous Waste Generation and Its Impacts on Environment and Human Health: A Study in West Bengal

Authors: Sk Ajim Ali


The present study is an attempt to overview on the major environmental and health impacts due to hazardous waste generation and poor management. In present scenario, not only hazardous waste, but as a common term ‘Waste’ is one of the acceptable and thinkable environmental issues. With excessive increasing population, industrialization and standardization of human’s life style heap in extra waste generation which is directly or indirectly related with hazardous waste generation. Urbanization and population growth are solely responsible for establishing industrial sector and generating various Hazardous Waste (HW) and concomitantly poor management practice arising adverse effect on environment and human health. As compare to other Indian state, West Bengal is not too much former in HW generation. West Bengal makes a rank of 7th in HW generation followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. During the last 30 years, the industrial sectors in W.B have quadrupled in size, during 1995 there were only 440 HW generating Units in West Bengal which produced 129826 MTA hazardous waste but in 2011, it rose up into 609 units and it produced about 259777 MTA hazardous waste. So, the notable thing is that during a 15 year interval there increased 169 waste generating units but it produced about 129951 MTA of hazardous waste. Major chemical industries are the main sources of HW and causes of adverse effect on the environment and human health. HW from industrial sectors contains heavy metals, cyanides, pesticides, complex aromatic compounds (i.e. PCB) and other chemical which are toxic, flammable, reactive, and corrosive and have explosive properties which highly affect the surrounding environment and human health in and around he disposal sites. The main objective of present study is to highlight on the sources and components of hazardous waste in West Bengal and impacts of improper HW management on health and environment. This study is carried out based on a secondary source of data and qualitative method of research. The secondary data has been collected annual report of WBPCB, WHO’s report, research paper, article, books and so on. It has been found that excessive HW generation from various sources and communities has serious health hazards that lead to the spreading of infectious disease and environmental change.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, health impacts, existing HW generation and management practice, hazardous waste (HW), recommendation and planning

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9 A Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Edible and Non-Edible Oil Crops in Biodiesel Production

Authors: Ömer Eren, Halit Tutar, Oguz Parlakay


The demand for food and energy of mankind has been increasing every passing day. Renewable energy sources have been pushed to forefront since fossil fuels will be run out in the near future and their negative effects to the environment. As in every sector, the transport sector benefits from biofuel (biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel) one of the renewable energy sources as well. The edible oil crops are used in production of biodiesel. Utilizing edible oil crops as renewable energy source may raise a debate in the view of that there is a shortage in raw material of edible oil crops in Turkey. Researches related to utilization of non-edible oil crops as biodiesel raw materials have been recently increased, and especially studies related to their vegetative production and adaptation have been accelerated in Europe. In this review edible oil crops are compared to non-edible oil crops for biodiesel production in the sense of biodiesel production, some features of non-edible oil crops and their harmful emissions to environment are introduced. The data used in this study, obtained from articles, thesis, reports relevant to edible and non edible oil crops in biodiesel.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Biodiesel, Environmental Impacts, edible oil crops

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8 Life Cycle Assessment of Todays and Future Electricity Grid Mixes of EU27

Authors: Johannes Gantner, Michael Held, Matthias Fischer, Rafael Horn


At the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2015 a global agreement on the reduction of climate change was achieved stating CO₂ reduction targets for all countries. For instance, the EU targets a reduction of 40 percent in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990. In order to achieve this ambitious goal, the environmental performance of the different European electricity grid mixes is crucial. First, the electricity directly needed for everyone’s daily life (e.g. heating, plug load, mobility) and therefore a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity grid mix reduces the overall environmental impacts of a country. Secondly, the manufacturing of every product depends on electricity. Thereby a reduction of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix results in a further decrease of environmental impacts of every product. As a result, the implementation of the two-degree goal highly depends on the decarbonization of the European electricity mixes. Currently the production of electricity in the EU27 is based on fossil fuels and therefore bears a high GWP impact per kWh. Due to the importance of the environmental impacts of the electricity mix, not only today but also in future, within the European research projects, CommONEnergy and Senskin, time-dynamic Life Cycle Assessment models for all EU27 countries were set up. As a methodology, a combination of scenario modeling and life cycle assessment according to ISO14040 and ISO14044 was conducted. Based on EU27 trends regarding energy, transport, and buildings, the different national electricity mixes were investigated taking into account future changes such as amount of electricity generated in the country, change in electricity carriers, COP of the power plants and distribution losses, imports and exports. As results, time-dynamic environmental profiles for the electricity mixes of each country and for Europe overall were set up. Thereby for each European country, the decarbonization strategies of the electricity mix are critically investigated in order to identify decisions, that can lead to negative environmental effects, for instance on the reduction of the global warming of the electricity mix. For example, the withdrawal of the nuclear energy program in Germany and at the same time compensation of the missing energy by non-renewable energy carriers like lignite and natural gas is resulting in an increase in global warming potential of electricity grid mix. Just after two years this increase countervailed by the higher share of renewable energy carriers such as wind power and photovoltaic. Finally, as an outlook a first qualitative picture is provided, illustrating from environmental perspective, which country has the highest potential for low-carbon electricity production and therefore how investments in a connected European electricity grid could decrease the environmental impacts of the electricity mix in Europe.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Impacts, scenario analysis, electricity grid mixes, EU27 countries, future trends

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7 Energy Options and Environmental Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Utilization Pathways

Authors: Evar C. Umeozor, Experience I. Nduagu, Ian D. Gates


The energy requirements of carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) technologies/processes are diverse, so also are their environmental footprints. This paper explores the energy and environmental impacts of systems for CO₂ conversion to fuels, chemicals, and materials. Energy needs of the technologies and processes deployable in CO₂ conversion systems are met by one or combinations of hydrogen (chemical), electricity, heat, and light. Likewise, the environmental footprint of any CO₂ utilization pathway depends on the systems involved. So far, evaluation of CDU systems has been constrained to particular energy source/type or a subset of the overall system needed to make CDU possible. This introduces limitations to the general understanding of the energy and environmental implications of CDU, which has led to various pitfalls in past studies. A CDU system has an energy source, CO₂ supply, and conversion units. We apply a holistic approach to consider the impacts of all components in the process, including various sources of energy, CO₂ feedstock, and conversion technologies. The electricity sources include nuclear power, renewables (wind and solar PV), gas turbine, and coal. Heat is supplied from either electricity or natural gas, and hydrogen is produced from either steam methane reforming or electrolysis. The CO₂ capture unit uses either direct air capture or post-combustion capture via amine scrubbing, where applicable, integrated configurations of the CDU system are explored. We demonstrate how the overall energy and environmental impacts of each utilization pathway are obtained by aggregating the values for all components involved. Proper accounting of the energy and emission intensities of CDU must incorporate total balances for the utilization process and differences in timescales between alternative conversion pathways. Our results highlight opportunities for the use of clean energy sources, direct air capture, and a number of promising CO₂ conversion pathways for producing methanol, ethanol, synfuel, urea, and polymer materials.

Keywords: Processes, Environmental Impacts, Carbon Dioxide Utilization, energy options

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6 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Jr., Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana


Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: Tourism, Environmental Impacts, Leisure, Brazil

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5 Technical and Economic Analysis of Smart Micro-Grid Renewable Energy Systems: An Applicable Case Study

Authors: M. A. Badr, M. M. Ibrahim, M. A. Fouad, Z. S. Abd El-Rehim, Taher Halawa, Mahmoud Bayoumi


Renewable energy-based micro-grids are presently attracting significant consideration. The smart grid system is presently considered a reliable solution for the expected deficiency in the power required from future power systems. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal components sizes of a micro-grid, investigating technical and economic performance with the environmental impacts. The micro grid load is divided into two small factories with electricity, both on-grid and off-grid modes are considered. The micro-grid includes photovoltaic cells, back-up diesel generator wind turbines, and battery bank. The estimated load pattern is 76 kW peak. The system is modeled and simulated by MATLAB/Simulink tool to identify the technical issues based on renewable power generation units. To evaluate system economy, two criteria are used: the net present cost and the cost of generated electricity. The most feasible system components for the selected application are obtained, based on required parameters, using HOMER simulation package. The results showed that a Wind/Photovoltaic (W/PV) on-grid system is more economical than a Wind/Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery (W/PV/D/B) off-grid system as the cost of generated electricity (COE) is 0.266 $/kWh and 0.316 $/kWh, respectively. Considering the cost of carbon dioxide emissions, the off-grid will be competitive to the on-grid system as COE is found to be (0.256 $/kWh, 0.266 $/kWh), for on and off grid systems.

Keywords: Modeling and simulation, Renewable Energy Sources, Environmental Impacts, micro-grid system, on/off grid system

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4 Life Cycle Assessment of Rare Earth Metals Production: Hotspot Analysis of Didymium Electrolysis Process

Authors: Sandra H. Fukurozaki, Andre L. N. Silva, Joao B. F. Neto, Fernando J. G. Landgraf


Nowadays, the rare earth (RE) metals play an important role in emerging technologies that are crucial for the decarbonisation of the energy sector. Their unique properties have led to increasing clean energy applications, such as wind turbine generators, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Despite the substantial media coverage that has recently surrounded the mining and processing of rare earth metals, very little quantitative information is available concerning their subsequent life stages, especially related to the metallic production of didymium (Nd-Pr) in fluoride molten salt system. Here we investigate a gate to gate scale life cycle assessment (LCA) of the didymium electrolysis based on three different scenarios of operational conditions. The product system is modeled with SimaPro Analyst 8.0.2 software, and IMPACT 2002+ was applied as an impact assessment tool. In order to develop a life cycle inventories built in software databases, patents, and other published sources together with energy/mass balance were utilized. Analysis indicates that from the 14 midpoint impact categories evaluated, the global warming potential (GWP) is the main contributors to the total environmental burden, ranging from 2.7E2 to 3.2E2 kg CO2eq/kg Nd-Pr. At the damage step assessment, the results suggest that slight changes in materials flows associated with enhancement of current efficiency (between 2.5% and 5%), could lead a reduction up to 12% and 15% of human health and climate change damage, respectively. Additionally, this paper highlights the knowledge gaps and future research efforts needing to understand the environmental impacts of Nd-Pr electrolysis process from the life cycle perspective.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Impacts, Rare Earth Metals, didymium electrolysis

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3 Analysis of Environmental Impacts Generated in the Seasons of Holidays from Praia Dos Buritis in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Alana C. M. Santana


T Sustainable development is very important for the existence of life on the planet. The use of any space without planning can cause impacts on the environment, which depending on the proportion may be irreversible. Buritis beach is very frequented by visitors, but it has no information on use and does not have enough infrastructure to collaborate with the preservation of the environment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to adopt a simple control list of environmental impacts in river beaches, in order to identify the environmental impacts generated in the post-holiday seasons of Buritis beach and to characterize the beach in terms of infrastructure. The holidays that carried out the analyzes were the nationals of the second half of 2017, as well as the universal fraternization holiday of 2018. The results show that the beach needs investments in its infrastructure and educational campaigns to minimize environmental impacts caused by anthropic action.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Environmental Impacts, Brazil, Buritis Beach

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2 Environmental Management Accounting Practices and Policies within the Higher Education Sector: An Exploratory Study of the University of KwaZulu Natal

Authors: Kiran Baldavoo, Mishelle Doorasamy


Universities have a role to play in the preservation of the environment, and the study attempted to evaluate the environmental management accounting (EMA) processes at UKZN. UKZN, a South African university, generates the same direct and indirect environmental impacts as the higher education sector worldwide. This is significant within the context of the South African environment which is constantly plagued by having to effectively manage the already scarce resources of water and energy, evident through the imposition of water and energy restrictions over the recent years. The study’s aim is to increase awareness of having a structured approach to environmental management in order to achieve the strategic environmental goals of the university. The research studied the experiences of key managers within UKZN, with the purpose of exploring the potential factors which influence the decision to adopt and apply EMA within the higher education sector. The study comprised two objectives, namely understanding the current state of accounting practices for managing major environmental costs and identifying factors influencing EMA adoption within the university. The study adopted a case study approach, comprising semi-structured interviews of key personnel involved in Management Accounting, Environmental Management, and Academic Schools within the university. Content analysis was performed on the transcribed interview data. A Theoretical Framework derived from literature was adopted to guide data collection and focus the study. Contingency and Institutional theory was the resultant basis of the derived framework. The findings of the first objective revealed that there was a distinct lack of EMA utilization within the university. There was no distinct policy on EMA, resulting in minimal environmental cost information being brought to the attention of senior management. The university embraced the principles of environmental sustainability; however, efforts to improve internal environmental accountability primarily from an accounting perspective was absent. The findings of the second objective revealed that five key barriers contributed to the lack of EMA utilization within the university. The barriers being attitudinal, informational, institutional, technological, and lack of incentives (financial). The results and findings of this study supported the use and application of EMA within the higher education sector. Participants concurred that EMA was underutilized and if implemented, would realize significant benefits for both the university and environment. Environmental management accounting is being widely acknowledged as a key management tool that can facilitate improved financial and environmental performance via the concept of enhanced environmental accountability. Historically research has been concentrated primarily on the manufacturing industry, due to it generating the greatest proportion of environmental impacts. Service industries are also an integral component of environmental management as they contribute significant environmental impacts, both direct and indirect. Educational institutions such as universities form part of the service sector and directly impact on the environment through the consumption of paper, energy, and water and solid waste generated, with the associated demands.

Keywords: Higher Education, Environmental Impacts, environmental management accounting, Southern Africa

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1 Non-parametric Linear Technique for Measuring the Efficiency of Winter Road Maintenance in the Arctic Area

Authors: Mahshid Hatamzad, Geanette Polanco


Improving the performance of Winter Road Maintenance (WRM) can increase the traffic safety and reduce the cost as well as environmental impacts. This study evaluates the efficiency of WRM technique, named salting, in the Arctic area by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric linear method to measure the efficiencies of decision-making units (DMUs) based on handling multiple inputs and multiple outputs at the same time that their associated weights are not known. Here, roads are considered as DMUs for which the efficiency must be determined. The three input variables considered are traffic flow, road area and WRM cost. In addition, the two output variables included are level of safety in the roads and environment impacts resulted from WRM, which is also considered as an uncontrollable factor in the second scenario. The results show the performance of DMUs from the most efficient WRM to the inefficient/least efficient one and this information provides decision makers with technical support and the required suggested improvements for inefficient WRM, in order to achieve a cost-effective WRM and a safe road transportation during wintertime in the Arctic areas.

Keywords: Environmental Impacts, DEA, WRM, risk and safety

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