Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Environmental Impact Related Abstracts

26 Evaluation of a 50MW Two-Axis Tracking Photovoltaic Power Plant for Al-Jagbob, Libya: Energetic, Economic, and Environmental Impact Analysis

Authors: Yasser Aldali, Farag Ahwide


This paper investigates the application of large scale (LS-PV) two-axis tracking photovoltaic power plant in Al-Jagbob, Libya. A 50MW PV-grid connected (two-axis tracking) power plant design in Al-Jagbob, Libya has been carried out presently. A hetero-junction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) type PV module has been selected and modeled. A Microsoft Excel-VBA program has been constructed to compute slope radiation, dew-point, sky temperature, and then cell temperature, maximum power output and module efficiency for this system, for tracking system. The results for energy production show that the total energy output is 128.5 GWh/year. The average module efficiency is 16.6%. The electricity generation capacity factor (CF) and solar capacity factor (SCF) were found to be 29.3% and 70.4% respectively. A 50MW two axis tracking power plant with a total energy output of 128.5 GWh/year would reduce CO2 pollution by 85,581 tonnes of each year. The payback time for the proposed LS-PV photovoltaic power plant was found to be 4 years.

Keywords: Solar energy, Environmental Impact, large PV power plant, dual-axis tracking system

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25 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba


In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: Simulation, Environmental Impact, Helicopter, Diesel Engine

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24 Effects of Coastal Structure Construction on Ecosystem

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Hossein Basser, Keyvan Kimiaei


Coastal defense structures were built to protect part of shore from beach erosion and flooding by sea water. Effects of coastal defense structures can be negative or positive. Some of the effects are beneficial in socioeconomic aspect, but environment matters should be given more concerns because it can bring bad consequences to the earth landscape and make the ecosystem be unbalanced. This study concerns on the negative impacts as they are dominant. Coastal structures can extremely impact the shoreline configuration. Artificial structures can influence sediment transport, split the coastal space, etc. This can result in habitats loss and lead to noise and visual disturbance of birds. There are two types of coastal defense structures, hard coastal structure and soft coastal structure. Both coastal structures have their own impacts. The impacts are induced during the construction, maintaining, and operation of the structures.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Environmental Impact, hard coastal structures, soft coastal structures

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23 Environmental Performance of Olive Oil Production in Greece

Authors: P. Tsarouhas, Ch. Achillas, D. Aidonis, D. Folinas, V. Maslis, N. Moussiopoulos


Agricultural production is a sector with high socioeconomic significance and key implications on employment and nutritional security. However, the impacts of agrifood production and consumption patterns on the environment are considerable, mainly due to the demand of large inputs of resources. This paper presents a case study of olive oil production in Greece, an important agri-product especially for countries in the Mediterranean basin. Life Cycle Analysis has been used to quantify the environmental performance of olive oil production. All key parameters that are associated with the life cycle of olive oil production are studied and environmental “hotspots” are diagnosed.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Greece, Case study, LCA, olive oil production

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22 CO2 Mitigation by Promoting Solar Heating in Housing Sector

Authors: M. Zelmat, M. Madani, F. Sahnoune, M. Belhamel


Home heating and generation of domestic hot water are nowadays important items of expenditure and energy consumption. These are also a major source of pollution and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Algeria, like other countries of the southern shore of the Mediterranean has an enormous solar potential (more than 3000 hours of sunshine/year). This potential can be exploited in reducing GHG emissions and contribute to climate change adaptation. This work presents the environmental impact of introduction of solar heating in an individual house in Algerian climate conditions. For this purpose, we determined energy needs for heating and domestic hot water taking into account the thermic heat losses of the no isolated house. Based on these needs, sizing of the solar system was carried out. To compare the performances of solar and classic systems, we conducted also an economic evaluation what is very important for countries like Algeria where conventional energy is subsidized. The study clearly show that environmental and economic benefits are in favor of solar heating development in particular in countries where the thermal insulation of the building and energy efficiency are poorly developed.

Keywords: Solar energy, Environmental Impact, Solar Heating, CO2 mitigation

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21 A Review of the Environmental Impact of Physical Expansion of Shandiz City

Authors: Foruzan Taheri, Seyedeh Negar Hosseinian, Katayoon Alizadeh


The small countryside city of Shandiz, with a population of about 13.297 is located 35 km to the west of the Mashhad metropolitan. Due to Shandiz’s natural beauty, suitable climate, and its close proximity to Mashhad which is the largest city in the eastern half of the country, many people own second houses in this area. In addition to this, Shandiz hosts millions of visitors annually. Its economic role, which is parallel and complementary to Mashhad, has caused population growth, the increase of activities, and physical expansion, all of which exceed the city’s capacity. The aim of this descriptive and analytical study was to evaluate the impact of city expansion on the environment and aid in preventing further harm to the natural environment of this perimeter. Data were collected from population and housing statistics during a different period of time-based on GIS. Results show that the existence of an integrated environmental management system in order to coordinate development projects and the expansion of tourism programs that meet environmental conditions are necessary and achieving sustainable development with quality of life in this area without considering environmental limitations and capabilities cannot be sustained.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Tourism, Physical Development, population growth, Shandiz City

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20 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of an Extensive Green Roof with a Traditional Gravel-Asphalted Roof: An Application for the Lebanese Context

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Makram El Bachawati, Rima Manneh, Thomas Dandres, Carla Nassab, Rafik Belarbi


A vegetative roof, also called a garden roof, is a "roofing system that endorses the growth of plants on a rooftop". Garden roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as embellishing the roofing system, enhancing the water management, and reducing the energy consumption and heat island effects. Lebanon is a Middle East country that lacks the use of a sustainable energy system. It imports 98% of its non-renewable energy from neighboring countries and suffers flooding during heavy rains. The objective of this paper is to determine if the implementation of vegetative roofs is effectively better than the traditional roofs for the Lebanese context. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in order to compare an existing extensive green roof to a traditional gravel-asphalted roof. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was established and modeled using the SimaPro 8.0 software, while the environmental impacts were classified using the IMPACT 2002+ methodology. Results indicated that, for the existing extensive green roof, the waterproofing membrane and the growing medium were the highest contributors to the potential environmental impacts. When comparing the vegetative to the traditional roof, results showed that, for all impact categories, the extensive green roof had the less environmental impacts.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Life Cycle Assessment, Green roofs, vegatative roof

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19 Study of Environmental Impact

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


The risks, in general, exist in any project; one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation, and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance, and can have an negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studies the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (-cleansing of water worn-general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial-description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Waste Water Treatment, Waste water, treatment plant

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18 The Sustainable Development for Coastal Tourist Building

Authors: D. Avila


The tourism industry is a phenomenon that has become a growing presence in international socio-economic dynamics, which in most cases exceeds the control parameters in the various environmental regulations and sustainability of existing resources. Because of this, the effects on the natural environment at the regional and national levels represent a challenge, for which a number of strategies are necessary to minimize the environmental impact generated by the occupation of the territory. The hotel tourist building and sustainable development in the coastal zone, have an important impact on the environment and on the physical and psychological health of the inhabitants. Environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources; applied to the hotel architecture this concept involves the incorporation of new demands on all of the constructive process of a building, changing customs of developers and users. The methodology developed provides an initial analysis to determine and rank the different tourist buildings, with the above it will be feasible to establish methods of study and environmental impact assessment. Finally, it is necessary to establish an overview regarding the best way to implement tourism development on the coast, containing guidelines to improve and protect the natural environment. This paper analyzes the parameters and strategies to reduce environmental impacts derived from deployments tourism on the coast, through a series of recommendations towards sustainability, in the context of the Bahia de Banderas, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. The environmental impact caused by the implementation of tourism development, perceived in a coastal environment, forcing a series of processes, ranging from the identification of impacts, prediction and evaluation of them. For this purpose are described below, different techniques and valuation procedures: Identification of impacts. Methods for the identification of damage caused to the environment pursue general purpose to obtain a group of negative indicators that are subsequently used in the study of environmental impact. There are several systematic methods to identify the impacts caused by human activities. In the present work, develops a procedure based and adapted from the Ministry of works public urban reference in studies of environmental impacts, the representative methods are: list of contrast, arrays, and networks, method of transparencies and superposition of maps.

Keywords: Physical Health, Environmental Impact, Sustainability, tourist building

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17 Flowback Fluids Treatment Technology with Water Recycling and Valuable Metals Recovery

Authors: Monika Konieczyńska, Joanna Fajfer, Olga Lipińska


In Poland works related to the exploration and prospection of unconventional hydrocarbons (natural gas accumulated in the Silurian shale formations) started in 2007, based on the experience of the other countries that have created new possibilities for the use of existing hydrocarbons resources. The highly water-consuming process of hydraulic fracturing is required for the exploitation of shale gas which implies a need to ensure large volume of water available. As a result considerable amount of mining waste is generated, particularly liquid waste, i.e. flowback fluid with variable chemical composition. The chemical composition of the flowback fluid depends on the composition of the fracturing fluid and the chemistry of the fractured geological formations. Typically, flowback fluid is highly salinated, can be enriched in heavy metals, including rare earth elements, naturally occurring radioactive materials and organic compounds. The generated fluids considered as the extractive waste should be properly managed in the recovery or disposal facility. Problematic issue is both high hydration of waste as well as their variable chemical composition. Also the limited capacity of currently operating facilities is a growing problem. Based on the estimates, currently operating facilities will not be sufficient for the need of waste disposal when extraction of unconventional hydrocarbons starts. Further more, the content of metals in flowback fluids including rare earth elements is a considerable incentive to develop technology of metals recovery. Also recycling is a key factor in terms of selection of treatment process, which should provide that the thresholds required for reuse are met. The paper will present the study of the flowback fluids chemical composition, based on samples from hydraulic fracturing processes performed in Poland. The scheme of flowback fluid cleaning and recovering technology will be reviewed along with a discussion of the results and an assessment of environmental impact, including all generated by-products. The presented technology is innovative due to the metal recovery, as well as purified water supply for hydraulic fracturing process, which is significant contribution to reducing water consumption.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Management of special waste streams, Shale Gas, flowback fluid, metals recovery

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16 Investigating the Road Maintenance Performance in Developing Countries

Authors: Jamaa Salih, Francis Edum-Fotwe, Andrew Price


One of the most critical aspects of the management of road infrastructure is the type and scale of maintenance systems adopted and the consequences of their inadequacy. The performance of road maintenance systems can be assessed by a number of important indicators such as: cost, safety, environmental impact, and level of complaints by users. A review of practice reveals that insufficient level of expenditure or poor management of the road network often has serious consequences for the economic and social life of a country in terms of vehicle operating costs (VOC), travel time costs, accident costs and environmental impact. Despite an increase in the attention paid by global road agencies to the environmental and the road users’ satisfaction, the overwhelming evidence from the available literature agree on the lack of similar levels of attention for the two factors in many developing countries. While many sources agree that the road maintenance backlog is caused by either the shortage of expenditures or lack of proper management or both, it appears that managing the available assets particularly in the developing countries is the main issue. To address this subject, this paper will concentrate on exposing the various issues related to this field.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Performance Indicators, road maintenance, users’ satisfaction

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15 Rotorcraft Performance and Environmental Impact Evaluation by Multidisciplinary Modelling

Authors: Pierre-Marie Basset, Gabriel Reboul, Binh DangVu, Sébastien Mercier


Rotorcraft provides invaluable services thanks to their Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL), hover and low speed capabilities. Yet their use is still often limited by their cost and environmental impact, especially noise and energy consumption. One of the main brakes to the expansion of the use of rotorcraft for urban missions is the environmental impact. The first main concern for the population is the noise. In order to develop the transversal competency to assess the rotorcraft environmental footprint, a collaboration has been launched between six research departments within ONERA. The progress in terms of models and methods are capitalized into the numerical workshop C.R.E.A.T.I.O.N. “Concepts of Rotorcraft Enhanced Assessment Through Integrated Optimization Network”. A typical mission for which the environmental impact issue is of great relevance has been defined. The first milestone is to perform the pre-sizing of a reference helicopter for this mission. In a second milestone, an alternate rotorcraft concept has been defined: a tandem rotorcraft with optional propulsion. The key design trends are given for the pre-sizing of this rotorcraft aiming at a significant reduction of the global environmental impact while still giving equivalent flight performance and safety with respect to the reference helicopter. The models and methods have been improved for catching sooner and more globally, the relative variations on the environmental impact when changing the rotorcraft architecture, the pre-design variables and the operation parameters.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Rotorcraft, Helicopter, Flight Performance, multi objectives multidisciplinary optimization

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14 Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari


Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Hyperspectral, hyperion eo-1, mine iron oxide pollution, unmixing

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13 Using Life Cycle Assessment in Potable Water Treatment Plant: A Colombian Case Study

Authors: Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez, Raquel A. Villamizar-G, Alexander Araque


There is a total of 1027 municipal development plants in Colombia, 70% of municipalities had Potable Water Treatment Plants (PWTPs) in urban areas and 20% in rural areas. These PWTPs are typically supplied by surface waters (mainly rivers) and resort to gravity, pumping and/or mixed systems to get the water from the catchment point, where the first stage of the potable water process takes place. Subsequently, a series of conventional methods are applied, consisting in a more or less standardized sequence of physicochemical and, sometimes, biological treatment processes which vary depending on the quality of the water that enters the plant. These processes require energy and chemical supplies in order to guarantee an adequate product for human consumption. Therefore, in this paper, we applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental loads of a potable water treatment plant (PWTP) located in northeastern Colombia following international guidelines of ISO 14040. The different stages of the potable water process, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network, were thoroughly assessed. The functional unit was defined as 1 m³ of water treated. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results allowed determining that in the plant, the largest impact was caused by Clarifloc (82%), followed by Chlorine gas (13%) and power consumption (4%). In this context, the company involved in the sustainability of the potable water service should ideally reduce these environmental loads during the potable water process. A strategy could be the use of Clarifloc can be reduced by applying coadjuvants or other coagulant agents. Also, the preservation of the hydric source that supplies the treatment plant constitutes an important factor, since its deterioration confers unfavorable features to the water that is to be treated. By concluding, treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior vary from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operation cycle.

Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental Impact, Life Cycle Assessment, treated water

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12 Environmental Impacts Assessment of Power Generation via Biomass Gasification Systems: Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Approach for Tars Release

Authors: Grâce Chidikofan, François Pinta, A. Benoist, G. Volle, J. Valette


Statement of the Problem: biomass gasification systems may be relevant for decentralized power generation from recoverable agricultural and wood residues available in rural areas. In recent years, many systems have been implemented in all over the world as especially in Cambodgia, India. Although they have many positive effects, these systems can also affect the environment and human health. Indeed, during the process of biomass gasification, black wastewater containing tars are produced and generally discharged in the local environment either into the rivers or on soil. However, in most environmental assessment studies of biomass gasification systems, the impact of these releases are underestimated, due to the difficulty of identification of their chemical substances. This work deal with the analysis of the environmental impacts of tars from wood gasification in terms of human toxicity cancer effect, human toxicity non-cancer effect, and freshwater ecotoxicity. Methodology: A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was adopted. The inventory of tars chemicals substances was based on experimental data from a downdraft gasification system. The composition of six samples from two batches of raw materials: one batch made of tree wood species (oak+ plane tree +pine) at 25 % moisture content and the second batch made of oak at 11% moisture content. The tests were carried out for different gasifier load rates, respectively in the range 50-75% and 50-100%. To choose the environmental impacts assessment method, we compared the methods available in SIMAPRO tool (8.2.0) which are taking into account most of the chemical substances. The environmental impacts for 1kg of tars discharged were characterized by ILCD 2011+ method (V.1.08). Findings Experimental results revealed 38 important chemical substances in varying proportion from one test to another. Only 30 are characterized by ILCD 2011+ method, which is one of the best performing methods. The results show that wood species or moisture content have no significant impact on human toxicity noncancer effect (HTNCE) and freshwater ecotoxicity (FWE) for water release. For human toxicity cancer effect (HTCE), a small gap is observed between impact factors of the two batches, either 3.08E-7 CTUh/kg against 6.58E-7 CTUh/kg. On the other hand, it was found that the risk of negative effects is higher in case of tar release into water than on soil for all impact categories. Indeed, considering the set of samples, the average impact factor obtained for HTNCE varies respectively from 1.64 E-7 to 1.60E-8 CTUh/kg. For HTCE, the impact factor varies between 4.83E-07 CTUh/kg and 2.43E-08 CTUh/kg. The variability of those impact factors is relatively low for these two impact categories. Concerning FWE, the variability of impact factor is very high. It is 1.3E+03 CTUe/kg for tars release into water against 2.01E+01 CTUe/kg for tars release on soil. Statement concluding: The results of this study show that the environmental impacts of tars emission of biomass gasification systems can be consequent and it is important to investigate the ways to reduce them. For environmental research, these results represent an important step of a global environmental assessment of the studied systems. It could be used to better manage the wastewater containing tars to reduce as possible the impacts of numerous still running systems all over the world.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, life cycle analysis, Biomass Gasification, LCA, tars

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11 Environmental Performance Improvement of Additive Manufacturing Processes with Part Quality Point of View

Authors: Olivier Kerbrat, Mazyar Yosofi, Pascal Mognol


Life cycle assessment of additive manufacturing processes has evolved significantly since these past years. A lot of existing studies mainly focused on energy consumption. Nowadays, new methodologies of life cycle inventory acquisition came through the literature and help manufacturers to take into account all the input and output flows during the manufacturing step of the life cycle of products. Indeed, the environmental analysis of the phenomena that occur during the manufacturing step of additive manufacturing processes is going to be well known. Now it becomes possible to count and measure accurately all the inventory data during the manufacturing step. Optimization of the environmental performances of processes can now be considered. Environmental performance improvement can be made by varying process parameters. However, a lot of these parameters (such as manufacturing speed, the power of the energy source, quantity of support materials) affect directly the mechanical properties, surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of a functional part. This study aims to improve the environmental performance of an additive manufacturing process without deterioration of the part quality. For that purpose, the authors have developed a generic method that has been applied on multiple parts made by additive manufacturing processes. First, a complete analysis of the process parameters is made in order to identify which parameters affect only the environmental performances of the process. Then, multiple parts are manufactured by varying the identified parameters. The aim of the second step is to find the optimum value of the parameters that decrease significantly the environmental impact of the process and keep the part quality as desired. Finally, a comparison between the part made by initials parameters and changed parameters is made. In this study, the major finding claims by authors is to reduce the environmental impact of an additive manufacturing process while respecting the three quality criterion of parts, mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Now that additive manufacturing processes can be seen as mature from a technical point of view, environmental improvement of these processes can be considered while respecting the part properties. The first part of this study presents the methodology applied to multiple academic parts. Then, the validity of the methodology is demonstrated on functional parts.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Additive manufacturing, Mechanical Properties, environmental improvement

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10 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, P. Davies, V. Strezov, I. Wright, T. Kan


The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: Environmental Impact, coal mine, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV)

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9 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi, Camila Parodi


The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, cement replacement, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

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8 The Metabolism of Built Environment: Energy Flow and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Nigeria

Authors: Yusuf U. Datti


It is becoming increasingly clear that the consumption of resources now enjoyed in the developed nations will be impossible to be sustained worldwide. While developing countries still have the advantage of low consumption and a smaller ecological footprint per person, they cannot simply develop in the same way as other western cities have developed in the past. The severe reality of population and consumption inequalities makes it contentious whether studies done in developed countries can be translated and applied to developing countries. Additional to this disparities, there are few or no metabolism of energy studies in Nigeria. Rather more contentious majority of energy metabolism studies have been done only in developed countries. While researches in Nigeria concentrate on other aspects/principles of sustainability such as water supply, sewage disposal, energy supply, energy efficiency, waste disposal, etc., which will not accurately capture the environmental impact of energy flow in Nigeria, this research will set itself apart by examining the flow of energy in Nigeria and the impact that the flow will have on the environment. The aim of the study is to examine and quantify the metabolic flows of energy in Nigeria and its corresponding environmental impact. The study will quantify the level and pattern of energy inflow and the outflow of greenhouse emissions in Nigeria. This study will describe measures to address the impact of existing energy sources and suggest alternative renewable energy sources in Nigeria that will lower the emission of greenhouse gas emissions. This study will investigate the metabolism of energy in Nigeria through a three-part methodology. The first step involved selecting and defining the study area and some variables that would affect the output of the energy (time of the year, stability of the country, income level, literacy rate and population). The second step involves analyzing, categorizing and quantifying the amount of energy generated by the various energy sources in the country. The third step involves analyzing what effect the variables would have on the environment. To ensure a representative sample of the study area, Africa’s most populous country, with economy that is the second biggest and that is among the top largest oil producing countries in the world is selected. This is due to the understanding that countries with large economy and dense populations are ideal places to examine sustainability strategies; hence, the choice of Nigeria for the study. National data will be utilized unless where such data cannot be found, then local data will be employed which will be aggregated to reflect the national situation. The outcome of the study will help policy-makers better target energy conservation and efficiency programs and enables early identification and mitigation of any negative effects in the environment.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Built Environment, energy metabolism, greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability

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7 Application of Value Engineering Approach for Improving the Quality and Productivity of Ready-Mixed Concrete Used in Construction and Hydraulic Projects

Authors: Adel Mohamed El-Baghdady, Walid Sayed Abdulgalil, Ahmad Asran, Ibrahim Nosier


This paper studies the effectiveness of applying value engineering to actual concrete mixtures. The study was conducted in the State of Qatar on a number of strategic construction projects with international engineering specifications for the 2022 World Cup projects. The study examined the concrete mixtures of Doha Metro project and the development of KAHRAMAA’s (Qatar Electricity and Water Company) Abu Funtas Strategic Desalination Plant, in order to generally improve the quality and productivity of ready-mixed concrete used in construction and hydraulic projects. The application of value engineering to such concrete mixtures resulted in the following: i) improving the quality of concrete mixtures and increasing the durability of buildings in which they are used; ii) reducing the waste of excess materials of concrete mixture, optimizing the use of resources, and enhancing sustainability; iii) reducing the use of cement, thus reducing CO₂ emissions which ensures the protection of environment and public health; iv) reducing actual costs of concrete mixtures and, in turn, reducing the costs of construction projects; and v) increasing the market share and competitiveness of concrete producers. This research shows that applying the methodology of value engineering to ready-mixed concrete is an effective way to save around 5% of the total cost of concrete mixtures supplied to construction and hydraulic projects, improve the quality according to the technical requirements and as per the standards and specifications for ready-mixed concrete, improve the environmental impact, and promote sustainability.

Keywords: Optimization, Environmental Impact, Sustainability, Performance, Value Management, cost of concrete

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6 Impact Analysis of Cultivation of Jatropha Tree on Fuel Prices and Environment

Authors: Muzaffar Ali, Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif, Burhan Ali, Juntakan Taweekun


Globally transportation sector accounts for around 25% of energy demand and nearly 62% of oil consumed. Therefore, new energy sources are required to introduce for this huge demand replenishment of depleting conventional energy sources. Currently, biofuels such as Jatropha trees as an energy carrier for transportation sector are being utilized effectively round the globe. However, climate conditions at low altitudes with an average annual temperature above 20 degrees Celsius and rainfall of 300-1000mm are considered the most suitable environment for the efficient growth of Jatropha trees. The current study is providing a theoretical survey-based analysis to investigate the effect of rate of cultivation of jatropha trees on the reduction of fuel prices and its environmental benefits. The resulted study shows that jatropha tree’s 100 kg seeds give 80kg oil and the conversion process cost is very small as 890 PKR. Moreover, the extraction of oil from Jatropha tree is tax-free compared to other fuels. The analysis proved very essential for potential assessment of Jatropha regarding future energy fuel for transportation sector at global level. Additionally, it can be very beneficial for increment in the total amount of transportation fuel in Pakistan.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, jatropha tree, energy contents, theoretical survey

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5 Aquatic Environmental Effects of Black Shale in Eastern Kentucky through the Measurement of Chemical and Physical Properties

Authors: Mitchell T. Grothaus, Cory Grigsby, Timothy S. Hare


This study aims to determine if there is a relationship between elevated cancer risks in eastern Kentucky and the environmental effects of black shale. Previous research shows that black shale formations, such as those in eastern Kentucky contain high levels of toxic elements including arsenic and radon compared to average rocks and sediment. Similarly, the population of eastern Kentucky has higher rates of many health conditions, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, than surrounding regions. These poor health outcomes are typically explained in relation to social, economic, behavioral, and healthcare factors. The rates of many conditions, however, have not decreased as these factors improve with regional development. Black shale is known to affect environmental conditions such as by increasing radiation levels and heavy metal toxicity. We are mapping the effects of black shale through monitoring radiation, microbes, and chemical standards of water sources. In this presentation, we report on our measuring pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, conductivity, temperature, and discharge and comparison with water quality standards from the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection. The conditions of water sources combined with an environmental survey of the surrounding areas provide a greater understanding of why the people in eastern Kentucky face the current health issues.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Water Quality, black shale, eastern Kentucky

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4 Level of Sustainability, Environmental Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment of Industrial Technology Research Projects in Carlos Hilado Memorial State College, Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines

Authors: Rene A. Salmingo


In pursuing higher educational institution’s transition to sustainable future, this research initiative was conducted. The study aimed to determine the level of sustainability, environmental impact and life cycle phase assessment of the industrial technology research projects at the Institute of Information Technology, Carlos Hilado Memorial State College (CHMSC), Alijis Campus, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. The research method was descriptive utilizing a researcher made questionnaire to assess the ten (10) industrial technology completed research projects. Mean was used to treat the data and instrument for Good and Scates’ validity through revisions and consultations from the environmental experts, technology specialists; and Cronbach Alpha was used to measure reliability. Results indicated that the level of sustainability and life cycle phase assessment was very high while the environmental impact of the industrial research projects was rated low. Moreover, the current research projects and environmental education courses in the college were relevant to support sustainable industrial technology research projects in the future. Hence, this research initiative will contribute to the transformation of CHMSC as a greening higher educational institution and as a center for sustainable development in the region.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Sustainability, industrial technology research projects, life cycle phase assessment

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3 Environmental Impact of a New-Build Educational Building in England: Life-Cycle Assessment as a Method to Calculate Whole Life Carbon Emissions

Authors: Monkiz Khasreen


In the context of the global trend towards reducing new buildings carbon footprint, the design team is required to make early decisions that have a major influence on embodied and operational carbon. Sustainability strategies should be clear during early stages of building design process, as changes made later can be extremely costly. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) could be used as the vehicle to carry other tools and processes towards achieving the requested improvement. Although LCA is the ‘golden standard’ to evaluate buildings from 'cradle to grave', lack of details available on the concept design makes LCA very difficult, if not impossible, to be used as an estimation tool at early stages. Issues related to transparency and accessibility of information in the building industry are affecting the credibility of LCA studies. A verified database derived from LCA case studies is required to be accessible to researchers, design professionals, and decision makers in order to offer guidance on specific areas of significant impact. This database could be the build-up of data from multiple sources within a pool of research held in this context. One of the most important factors that affects the reliability of such data is the temporal factor as building materials, components, and systems are rapidly changing with the advancement of technology making production more efficient and less environmentally harmful. Recent LCA studies on different building functions, types, and structures are always needed to update databases derived from research and to form case bases for comparison studies. There is also a need to make these studies transparent and accessible to designers. The work in this paper sets out to address this need. This paper also presents life-cycle case study of a new-build educational building in England. The building utilised very current construction methods and technologies and is rated as BREEAM excellent. Carbon emissions of different life-cycle stages and different building materials and components were modelled. Scenario and sensitivity analyses were used to estimate the future of new educational buildings in England. The study attempts to form an indicator during the early design stages of similar buildings. Carbon dioxide emissions of this case study building, when normalised according to floor area, lie towards the lower end of the range of worldwide data reported in the literature. Sensitivity analysis shows that life cycle assessment results are highly sensitive to future assumptions made at the design stage, such as future changes in electricity generation structure over time, refurbishment processes and recycling. The analyses also prove that large savings in carbon dioxide emissions can result from very small changes at the design stage.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Construction, Building, Architecture, Life-cycle assessment, Carbon Dioxide, England, educational buildings

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2 Environmental Impact of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete in Modern Construction: A Case Study from the New Egyptian Administrative Capital

Authors: Esraa A. Khalil, Mohamed N. AbouZeid


Building materials selection is critical for the sustainability of any project. The choice of building materials has a huge impact on the built environment and cost of projects. Building materials emit huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to the use of cement as a basic component in the manufacturing process and as a binder, which harms our environment. Energy consumption from buildings has increased in the last few years; a huge amount of energy is being wasted from using unsustainable building and finishing materials, as well as from the process of heating and cooling of buildings. In addition, the construction sector in Egypt is taking a good portion of the economy; however, there is a lack of awareness of buildings environmental impacts on the built environment. Using advanced building materials and different wall systems can help in reducing heat consumption, the project’s initial and long-term costs, and minimizing the environmental impacts. Red Bricks is one of the materials that are being used widely in Egypt. There are many other types of bricks such as Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC); however, the use of Red Bricks is dominating the construction industry due to its affordability and availability. This research focuses on the New Egyptian Administrative Capital as a case study to investigate the potential of the influence of using different wall systems such as AAC on the project’s cost and the environment. The aim of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis between the traditional and most commonly used bricks in Egypt, which is Red Bricks, and AAC wall systems. Through an economic and environmental study, the difference between the two wall systems will be justified to encourage the utilization of uncommon techniques in the construction industry to build more affordable, energy efficient and sustainable buildings. The significance of this research is to show the potential of using AAC in the construction industry and its positive influences. The study analyzes the factors associated with choosing suitable building materials for different projects according to the need and criteria of each project and its nature without harming the environment and wasting materials that could be saved or recycled. The New Egyptian Administrative Capital is considered as the country’s new heart, where ideas regarding energy savings and environmental benefits are taken into consideration. Meaning that, Egypt is taking good steps to move towards more sustainable construction. According to the analysis and site visits, there is a potential in reducing the initial costs of buildings by 12.1% and saving energy by using different techniques up to 25%. Interviews with the mega structures project engineers and managers reveal that they are more open to introducing sustainable building materials that will help in saving the environment and moving towards green construction as well as to studying more effective techniques for energy conservation.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Building Material, Modern Construction, AAC blocks, new Egyptian administrative capital

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1 Container Chaos: The Impact of a Casual Game on Learning and Behavior

Authors: Lori L. Scarlatos, Ryan Courtney


This paper explores the impact that playing a casual game can have on a player's learning and subsequent behavior. A casual mobile game, Container Chaos, was created to teach undergraduate students about the carbon footprint of various disposable beverage containers. Learning was tested with a short quiz, and behavior was tested by observing which beverage containers players choose when offered a drink and a snack. The game was tested multiple times, under a variety of different circumstances. Findings of these tests indicate that, with extended play over time, players can learn new information and sometimes even change their behavior as a result. This has implications for how other casual games can be used to teach concepts and possibly modify behavior.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Behavior, Carbon Footprint, Material Sciences, casual games

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