Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Entrepreneurs Related Abstracts

22 Involvement of Stakeholders in the R&D and Innovation Process in Developing Country Context: An Analysis of the Nigeria Innovation System

Authors: B. O. Oyedoyin, M. O. Ilori, T. O. Oyebisi, B. A. Oluwale, O. O. Jegede


The study was designed to evaluate the business development and transfer of technologies to small manufacturing companies by research institutes in South Western Nigeria. The study covered all the industrial research institutions with headquarters in South Western Nigeria. The study showed that the involvement of scientists in innovation process was rated highest in the idea generation (4.14) and idea screening (4.29) phases; high in R&D (3.86) and fairly high in pilot plant development (2.71) and commercialization (2.43) phase. Their involvement was rated low in business analysis and development (2.14), and test marketing (2.29) phase. The involvement of engineers was rated highest in idea generation (3.28), fairly high in R&D (2.71), pilot plant development (2.57), and idea screening (2.40) phases. However, their involvement was rated low in business analysis and development (2.0), test marketing (2.0), and commercialization (1.28) phases. The involvement of technology marketers in innovation process was generally rated fairly high in R&D (2.7) and business analysis and development (2.6), and low in all the other phases of innovation. However, their involvement at IAR&T, FIIRO, and NIOMR in all the phases was rated very high (3.0-5.0). The involvement of entrepreneurs was generally rated from fairly high to low (2.7-2.3) in all the phases of innovation. The involvement of financial institutions in all the phases of innovation was generally rated low (1.28-1.71). In conclusion, the study showed that the involvement of stakeholders like entrepreneurs and financial institutions in technology packaging for commercialization is very low.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Financial Institution, Nigeria, research institutes, national innovation system

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21 Guidance for Strengthening Ethics of Entrepreneurs in Information and Communication Technology Professional

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai


The objectives of this paper were to study current problem of ethics of entrepreneurs in information and communication technology professional, and to build their awareness of ethics, which would be useful as guidance for strengthening professional ethics among them. The study employed quantitative research method in order to analyze relationships or differences found in each ethics factor and report in statistics. The sample of this paper was 300 information technology users of Rajabhat Universities in Bangkok. The findings revealed that the ethics factors which gained the highest and high level of opinion included possessing principles of righteousness, having trust in themselves and others, and respecting different opinions of others and accepting the fact that people of different opinions.

Keywords: Communication, Information, Ethics, Entrepreneurs

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20 The Characteristics of the Graduates Based on Thailand Qualification Framework (TQF) of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Apinya Mungaomklang, Natakamol Lookkham


The purpose of this research is to study the characteristics of the graduates based on Thailand Qualification Framework (TQF) of the Faculty of Industrial Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The population of the research was employers/entrepreneurs/supervisors of students who were doing Professional Experiences course in their respective organizations during semester 1/2012. Data were collected during the month of September 2012 from the total number of 100 people. The tool used in this research was a questionnaire developed by the research team. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean and standard deviation using a computer program. The results showed that most of the surveyed organizations were private companies. The program with most students doing Professional Experiences course was Safety Technology and Occupational Health. The nature of work that most students did was associated with the document. Employers/ entrepreneurs/employers’ opinions on the characteristics of the graduates based on TQF received high scores. Cognitive skills received the highest score, followed by interpersonal relationships and responsibilities, ethics and moral, numerical analysis skills, communication and information technology skills, and knowledge, respectively.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, employers, graduates characteristics, Thailand Qualification Framework

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19 Women Entrepreneurs’ in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Mohammed Mainoma, Abubakar Tijanni, Mohammed Aliyu


Globalization has brought a structural change in industry. It is the breaking of artificial boundaries and given way to new product, new service, new market, and new technology among others. It leads to the realization that men entrepreneurs’ alone cannot meet the demand of the teeming population. Therefore there is a need for the participation, involvement, and engagement of females in the production and distribution of goods and services. This will enhance growth and development of a nation. It is in line with the above that this paper attempt to discuss meaning of women entrepreneurs, roles, types, problems, and prospects. Also, on the basis of conclusion the paper recommended that entrepreneurship education should be introduced in all Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Women, Entrepreneurs, Issues

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18 Intestacy and Business Continuity among Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olurankinse Felix, Igbekoyi Olusola Esther


This paper examined the factors that militate against Will writing among entrepreneurs in Ondo State Nigeria and the effect of intestate death on business continuity after the exit of the entrepreneurs. The paper was written with a view to providing information on the reasons why intestate death is common among entrepreneurs in Ondo State and the effects on continuity of business after death of the initial owners. Data were obtained from primary source through the administration of questionnaires to entrepreneurs drawn from 50 registered manufacturing companies. These companies have been in existence for a minimum of 10 years with minimum staff strength of 20 workers each. These companies were selected using the purposive random sampling technique in order to capture firms that meet the requirements of this paper. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and regression analysis. The findings of the paper revealed that administration of Will, traditional beliefs, Will execution procedures, age and non- admissibility of Wills in court are the major factors that militates against Will writing among entrepreneurs in Ondo State. It was also discovered that chaos and instability in business, reduction in sales and productivity, poor succession planning, polygamous nature of marriages, difficulty in sourcing for funds and gender preference are joint predictors of business continuity in event intestate death which is evident in the result where R2 =.954;(F 6, 26)= 89.644; (P < 0.01). The individual beta co-efficient, t- statistics and significance of each variable revealed that gender preference (.735; 7.031; .000) and poor succession plan (.402; 2.840; .009) have significant positive effect on business continuity; while reduction in sales and productivity (-.059; -.335; .740) and difficulty in sourcing for funds (-.217; -1.367; .188) have negative effect; other variables also have positive relationship but they are not significant. It is therefore concluded that business continuity after the exit of the entrepreneur is highly dependent on the rebuilding of confidence on Wills administration in ondo state Nigeria, proper succession planning and elimination of gender preferences.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Business Continuity, will, intestacy, succession planning

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17 An Investigation into the Strategies Adopted by Women Entrepreneurs to Ensure Small Business Success in Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Agholor Deborah Ewere, Emmanuel Ade, Seriki Idowu


The role women entrepreneur plays to combat unemployment should not be underestimated, especially in countries with growing unemployment rates such as South Africa. Women entrepreneurs contribute significantly to economic development in South Africa, but their contribution has not been adequately studied and developed. Hence, the study identified business strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs to sustain growth and development of entrepreneurship. Survey research design approach was adopted and convenience sampling method was used for sample selection. The structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed some of the operational challenges women entrepreneur faced to include lack of finance, marketing skills and planning and also showed that the strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs have a positive effect on the success of small businesses. It was recommended among others that the women entrepreneurs should take some time to study the nature of challenges other women have faced in business and possibly provide solutions to such issues before starting their own business. It was however concluded that unless the operational challenges named above are resolved, the role of women entrepreneurs in the developing nations will continue to experience deprived economic growth, development and display substandard competitiveness.

Keywords: Business, Women, Entrepreneurs, Strategies, Small, success

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16 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori


Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Emotional Intelligence, Iran, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire

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15 Income Inequality among Selected Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O.O. Ehinmowo, A.I. Fatuase, D.F. Oke


Nigeria is endowed with resources that could boost the economy as well as generate income and provide jobs to the teaming populace. One of the keys of attaining this is by making the environment conducive for the entrepreneurs to excel in their respective enterprises so that more income could be accrued to the entrepreneurs. This study therefore examines income inequality among selected entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria using primary data. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents for the study with the aid of structured questionnaire and personal interview. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics, Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient and Double - Log regression model. Results revealed that majority of the entrepreneurs (63%) were males and 90% were married with an average age of 44 years. About 40% of the respondents spent at most 12 years in school with 81% of the respondents had 4-6 members per household, while hair dressing (43.5%) and fashion designing (31.5%) were the most common enterprises among the sampled respondents. The findings also showed that majority of the entrepreneurs in hairdressing, fashion designing and laundry service earned below N200,000 per annum while the majority of those in restaurant and food vending earned between N400,000 – N600,000 followed by the entrepreneurs in pure water enterprise where majority earned N800,000 and above per annum. The result of the Gini coefficient (0.58) indicated that there was presence of inequality among the entrepreneurs which was also affirmed by the Lorenz curve. The Regression results showed that gender, household size and number of employees significantly affected the income of the entrepreneurs in the study area. Therefore, more female households should be encouraged into entrepreneurial businesses and government should give incentive cum conductive environment that could bridge the disparity in the income of the entrepreneurs in their various enterprises.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Income Inequality, gini coefficient, Lorenz curve

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14 The Impact of Sport Tourism on Small Scale Business Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari, Vimuckthi Charika Wickramaratne


Sport tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism in a fast growing sector of the Sri Lankan travelling industry since Cricket are more popular sport game in the country. This study intends to analyze the impact of these popular sport events for creating and developing small scale business in the country. Primary data gathered from 100 small entrepreneurs around Keththarama Cricket Ground in Sri Lanka. Collected data analyzed using descriptive research methods. The study revealed that local and international visitors for cricket games had impacted on small scale business activities such as retail, handicraft, transport, vehicle parking, small restaurant, hotels, foods and beverage industry. In addition, it was identified that these type of small business are sessional income generating activities for the short period.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Sport Tourism, cricket, small scale business

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13 Challenges of Women Entrepreneurs: Interview Findings on Cultural Differences of Three Women Business Owners in New York, Dubai and Athens

Authors: Joanna Konstantinou


The aim of the study is to present the challenges faced by women SME owners in developing resilient businesses. Qualitative research methods will be used through semi-structured interviews to present the cases of women entrepreneurs in Athens, Dubai, and New York. The conclusions and findings of the study will focus on the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs which can be attributed to cultural and contextual differences. Moreover, the study intends to identify these differences and the causes to which they can be potentially attributed so that these cases will serve as the ground of lessons to learn in order to highlight enablers of women entrepreneurship. Finally, the study will provide valuable insight to cultural perspectives and their impact on the development of female entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Culture, Women, Entrepreneurs, SMEs

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12 Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria

Authors: Bashir Ahmad, Ahmad, Daneji, Hamidu Aminu, Aliyu Mukhtar, Haruna Mohammed


It has been established and universally agreed that vibrant Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) play significant roles in economic growth and development. In Nigeria, MSMEs are not playing the expected roles. Notable among the plethora of reasons is lack of prompt and sufficient finance. Government and other stakeholders attempted in several ways at different times to provide the required finance to MSMEs but the results were not encouraging and consequently, many failed. In recent past, Islamic financing emerged world over as promising alternative source of financing. However, its awareness among MSMEs entrepreneurs in north east region of Nigeria stands to be questioned. This study explored the 'Demographic Factors Influence on Awareness of Islamic Financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the North East Region of Nigeria'. The primary data used in this study were collected through questionnaire. In analyzing the collected data, the study used frequency, percentages, Pearson correlation, ANOVA and test of homogeneity test (Levene’s test) parameters generated from SPSS (version 15). The findings of the study revealed that entrepreneurs’ age, state of origin, religion and educational level influence their MSMEs awareness of Islamic Financing in the north east region of Nigeria. The study recommended that Islamic Financing institutions, government and relevant agencies should do more to enhance the awareness of Islamic financing among MSMEs entrepreneurs in the north east region of Nigeria.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, awareness, demographic factors, Islamic financing

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11 Innovating Development: An Exploratory Study of Social Enterprises in Nigeria

Authors: Akor Omachile Opaluwah


Entrepreneurs are heralded as a very vital force in the growth of economies. This is because they create businesses, employ people, have direct access to the local consumer, and primarily utilize local sources of raw materials, have an understanding of the immediate need of consumers, and they have the capacity to keep in motion the economy. The rise of social enterprises takes these advantages further beyond the business and economic benefits. These Social enterprises help address developmental issues in the society while maintaining a profit for their investors and shareholders. These combined roles create a unique synergy between the civil society and the market, therefore placing the social enterprise in a position where they can access directly, the benefits of the market while meeting the needs of the citizens and their environment. With such a unique position, social enterprises hold a place in the development discourse that has previously been left unexplored. This hybridisation of the functions of civil societies and the market can provide to development, practices, and benefits that have previously been only available in trace amounts. It, therefore, is imperative to understand the efficacy of social enterprises. With the discourse of social enterprises still in its early stages. This paper looks at selected social enterprise cases in Nigeria and analyses their approach and contribution to development.

Keywords: Business, Development, Innovation, Civil Society, Market, Entrepreneurs, Social Enterprise, Nigeria

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10 Startup Ecosystem in India: Development and Impact

Authors: Soham Chakraborty


This article examines the development of start-up culture in India, its development as well as related impact on the Indian society. Another vibrant synonym of start-up in the present century can be starting afresh. Startups have become the new flavor of this decade. A startup ecosystem is formed by mainly the new generation in the making. A startup ecosystem involves a variety of elements without which a startup can never prosper, they are—ideas, inventions, innovations as well as authentic research in the field into which one is interested, mentors, advisors, funding bodies, service provider organizations, angel, venture and so on. The culture of startup is quiet nascent but rampant in India. This is largely due to the widespread of media as a medium through which the newfangled entrepreneurs can spread their word of mouth far and wide. Different kinds of media such as Television, Radio, Internet, Print media and so on, act as the weapon to any startup company in India. The article explores how there is a sudden shift in the growing Indian economy due to the rise of startup ecosystem. There are various reasons, which are the result of the growing success of startup in India, firstly, entrepreneurs are building up startup ideas on the basis of various international startup but giving them a pinch of Indian flavor; secondly, business models are framed based on the current problems that people face in the modern century; thirdly, balance between social and technological entrepreneurs and lastly, quality of mentorship. The Government of India boasts startup as a flagship initiative. Bunch full of benefits and assistance was declared in an event named as 'Start Up India, Stand Up India' on 16th January 2016 by the current Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi. One of the biggest boon that increasing startups are creating in the society is the proliferation of self-employment. Noted Startups which are thriving in India are like OYO, Where’s The Food (WTF), TVF Pitchers, Flipkart and so on are examples of India is getting covered up by various innovative startups. The deep impact can be felt by each Indian after a few years as various governmental and non-governmental policies and agendas are helping in the sprawling up of startups and have mushroom growth in India. The impact of startup uprising in India is also possible due to increasing globalization which is leading to the eradication of national borders, thereby creating the environment to enlarge one’s business model. To conclude, this article points out on the correlation between rising startup in Indian market and its increasing developmental benefits for the people at large. Internationally, various business portals are tagging India to be the world’s fastest growing startup ecosystem.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Business, Media, Entrepreneurs, Globalization, startup

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9 Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism

Authors: Oktay Emir


The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Perception, Tourism, Entrepreneurs, structural equation modelling

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8 Entrepreneurship Education: A Pre-Requisite for Graduate Entrepreneurship, a Study of Entrepreneurs in Yenagoa City

Authors: Kurotimi M. Fems, Francis D. W. Poazi, Helen Opigo


Entrepreneurship education and graduate entrepreneurship have taken centre stage in many countries as a 21st century strategy for economic growth and development. Entrepreneurship education has been viewed as a pre-requisite tool for a more effective and successful business operation. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if entrepreneurship education is a foundational requirement for graduate entrepreneurial engagement or, if other factors such as personality trait, need for achievement, situational circumstances or experience and competence played a more vital role in stimulating graduate entrepreneurial engagement. The scope of the research study is entrepreneurs within Yenagoa metropolis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. The sample target is graduates engaged in entrepreneurship activities (graduates who own and run businesses). Stratified sampling technique was used and 101 responses were gotten from a total of 300 questionnaires issued. Bar chart, tables, and percentages were used to analyze the data collected. Findings: The findings revealed that personality traits, situational circumstance, need for achievement and experience/competence were the foundational factors stimulating graduate entrepreneurs to engage in entrepreneurial pursuits. Of all, personality trait showed the highest score with 73 (73%) out of 101 entrepreneurs agreeing. Experience/Competence and situational circumstances followed behind with 66 (65%) and 63 (62.4%) respectively. Entrepreneurship education revealed the least score with 33 (32.3%) out of 101 participating entrepreneurs. All hope, however, is not lost, as this shows that something can be done to increase the impact of entrepreneurship education on graduate entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship Education, Creative Destruction, pre-requisite, graduate entrepreneurship

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7 Entrepreneurship Education as a Pre-Requisite for Graduate Entrepreneurship: A Study of Graduate Entrepreneurs in Yenagoa City

Authors: Kurotimi M. Fems, Francis D. W. Poazi, Helen Opigo


The concepts of entrepreneurship education together with graduate entrepreneurship have taken centre stage in many countries as a 21st century strategy for economic growth and development. Entrepreneurship education has been viewed as a pre-requisite tool for a more effective and successful business operation. This paper seeks to verify if entrepreneurship education is pre-requisite to graduate entrepreneurship, and to ascertain if such other factors as the need for achievement, competence and experience etc. also play a foundational role in the choice of a graduate becoming an entrepreneur. The scope of the research study is entrepreneurs within Yenagoa metropolis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. The sample target is graduates engaged in entrepreneurship activities (graduates who own and run businesses). Stratified sampling technique was used and 101 responses were obtained from a total of 300 questionnaires issued. Bar chart, tables and percentages were used to analyze the collected data. The findings revealed that personality traits, situational circumstance, need for achievement and experience/competence were the foundational factors stimulating graduate entrepreneurs to engage in entrepreneurial pursuits. Of all, personality trait showed the highest score with 73 (73%) out of 101 entrepreneurs agreeing. Experience/Competence and situational circumstances followed behind with 66 (65%) and 63 (62.4%), respectively. Entrepreneurship education revealed the least score with 33 (32.3%) out of 101 participating entrepreneurs. All hope, however, is not lost, as this shows that something can be done to increase the impact of entrepreneurship education on graduate entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship Education, Creative Destruction, pre-requisite, graduate entrepreneurship

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6 Bestination: A Sustainable Approach to Conflict Management for Buddhist Entrepreneurs

Authors: Navarat Sachayansrisakul, Nattawat Ponnara


Human beings are driving forces for any unit of societies, whether it would be in a family, communities, industries or even organizations. However, as our humanity progresses, the reliance has shifted from human to machineries and technologies. One main challenge when dealing with more than one person is conflict often resulted. If the conflict is properly managed, then economic development also follows. In order to achieve positive outcome of conflict, it is believed that the management comes from within individual entrepreneurs. As such, this is a unique study as it looks into the spiritual side of humans as business people and applies to the business environment with the focus on moral and ethical framework in order for sustainable development. This study aims to provide a model of how to positively manage conflict without compromising the ethical and moral standards of the businesses. Sustainability in this study is achieved through the Buddhists’ aim for liberation in which it works on the balanced approach to solving conflict. Buddhists’ livelihood is established on simplicity and non-violence while contributing not to only one’s self but those around them such as the stake holders of the businesses and the communities. According to Buddhist principles and some findings, a model called ‘The Bestination Conflict Management’ was developed. Bestination model offers an alternative approach for entrepreneurs to achieve sustainability along with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that benefit the well-beings of the owners, the stakeholders and the communities involved. This research study identifies ‘Conflict Management’ model as having goodwill and wisdom as a base, then moral motivation as the next level up to have a disciplines in order to keep a unit well cooperated.

Keywords: Sustainable, Ethics, Conflict, Entrepreneurs, moral, Buddhist

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5 Market Acceptance of a Murabaha-Based Finance Structure within a Social Network of Non-Islamic Small and Medium Enterprise Owners in African Procurement

Authors: Craig M. Allen


Twenty two African entrepreneurs with Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a single social network centered around a non-Muslim population in a smaller African country, selected an Islamic financing structure, a form of Murabaha, based solely on market rationale. These entrepreneurs had all won procurement contracts from major purchasers of goods within their country and faced difficulty arranging traditional bank financing to support their supply-chain needs. The Murabaha-based structure satisfied their market-driven demand and provided an attractive alternative to the traditional bank-offered lending products. The Murabaha-styled trade-financing structure was not promoted with any religious implications, but solely as a market solution to the existing problems associated with bank-related financing. This indicates the strong market forces that draw SMEs to financing structures that are traditionally considered within the framework of Islamic finance.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Entrepreneurs, Africa, SMEs, market acceptance, Murabaha

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4 Technology Angels and Entrepreneurs: Insights from a Study in Poland

Authors: Rafal Morawczynski


The paper presents results of a study of technology angels in Poland, who are important for the development of the high technology industries. For entrepreneurs, they offer not only capital but also expertise, engagement, and networking. A technology angel is a relatively new type of investor who invests in high-tech start-ups and supports their founders (entrepreneurs) in the development process of a new venture. Conclusions are drawn from a comparison between 8 technology angels and 7 'classical' business angels. Results present features and behaviors of technology angels that distinguish them from traditional (typical, classic) business angels. As this type of investor actively cooperates with entrepreneurs, the study focuses mainly on their perception of venture founders and several aspects of this cooperation: perception of entrepreneurs’ characteristics by angels, correction of expectations toward corporate governance, and 'value adding' activities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Venture Capital, Poland, start-up, business angels, technology entrepreneurship

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3 Problems and Prospects of Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Kakamega County, Kenya

Authors: Kenichi Matsui, Ondiba Hesborn Andole


Women entrepreneurs in the rural areas of Kenya have continually been affected by culturally engraved gendered bias customs. This research investigates challenges and prospects of rural women entrepreneurship in Kakamega County, Kenya. We conducted the questionnaire survey and interviews among 153 women entrepreneurs in the County to better understand how traditional norms influence them in conducting or seeking small businesses. We found that Luhya customs significantly affect growth and performance of rural women enterprises. Traditional Luhya society does not recognize women’s rights to land and higher education. The Luhya traditional roles of women are limited so that, without competing with men, they need to find gender biased works through networking activities. Also, without higher education degrees, their business prospects are limited. Among the respondents, 31% had primary education and about 5% had no formal education at all. We discuss how these women may succeed in businesses under these conditions.

Keywords: Culture, Entrepreneurs, rural women, chama

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2 Factors behind Success of Nascent Social Enterprises in Pakistan: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

Authors: Abida Zanib


Social entrepreneurship is an attention-grabbing area to meet social needs. Stakeholders in the social sector of Pakistan, particularly investors, development activists and policy makers are considering it as an engine to economic growth and powerful tool to address social issues in inventive ways. However, absence of specific policy and legitimacy issues create hurdles in the way of success for emerging start-ups. The review of the literature reveals that research in this emerging phenomenon particularly in the case of Pakistan is inadequate. To fill this gap in the literature, this study aims to scrutinize characteristics of nascent social enterprises. The study collects data from 65-emerging social enterprises using questionnaire. The results of factor analysis highlight optimistic and driving qualities of Pakistani social entrepreneurs, which help them to survive and grow in the business world. Moreover, the study identifies several areas for improvements such as information disclosure, networking, corporate governance, mentorship programs, and trainings. The study notes that despite the absence of specific policy, dynamic entrepreneurial culture is fostering in Pakistan and recommends re-framing the education policy to support the development of social entrepreneurship.

Keywords: Social, Entrepreneurs, Emerging, Pakistan, Start-Ups

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1 Effect of Micro Credit Access on Poverty Reduction among Small Scale Women Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Oladapo, C. A. Afolami


The study analyzed the effect of micro credit access on poverty reduction among small scale women entrepreneurs in Ondo state, Nigeria. Primary data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly selected woman entrepreneurs. These were drawn in multistage sampling process covering four local government areas (LGAS). Data collected include socio economics characteristics of respondents, access to micro credit, sources of micro credit, and constraints faced by the entrepreneur in sourcing for micro credit. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index of poverty measure, Gini coefficients and probit regression analysis. The study found that respondents sampled for the survey were within the age range of 31-40 years with mean age 38.6%. Mostly (56.0%) of the respondents were educated to the tune of primary school. Majority (87.0%) of the respondents were married with fairly large household size of (4-5). The poverty index analysis revealed that most (67%) of the sample respondents were poor. The result of the Probit regression analyzed showed that income was a significant variable in micro credit access, while the result of the Gini coefficient revealed a very high income inequality among the respondents. The study concluded that most of the respondents were poor and return on investment (income) was an important variable that increased the chance of respondents in sourcing for micro-credit loan and recommended that income realized by entrepreneur should be properly documented to facilitate loan accessibility.

Keywords: Poverty, Entrepreneurs, Income, micro-credit

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