Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

entomopathogenic fungi Related Abstracts

3 Test of Biological Control against Brachytrupes Megacephalus Lefèbre, 1827 (Orthoptera, Gryllinae) by Using Entomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: W. Lakhdari, B. Doumendji-Mitich, A. Dahliz, S. Doumendji, Y. Bouchikh, R. M'lik, H. Hammi, A. Soud

Abstract:

This work was done in order to fight against Brachytrupes megacephalus, a major pest in the Algerian oasis and promote one aspect of biological control against it. He wears a hand on the isolation and identification of indigenous fungi on imagos of this insect harvested in the station of INRAA Touggourt and secondly, the study of the pathogenicity of these strains fungal on this orthoptère adults. The results obtained showed the presence of six different species of entomopathogenic fungi, it is: Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Beauveria bassiana, Penicillium sp, Metharizium anisopliae and Aspergillus Niger. The pathogenicity test using fungi Beauveria bassiana strains and Metharizium anisopliae. On adult of B. megacephalus highlights the effectiveness of these strains of predatory adults, with a mortality rate approaching 100% after 11 days.

Keywords: Biological Control, brachytrupes megacephalus, entomopathogenic fungi, Southeastern Algeria

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2 Optimization of Culture Conditions of Paecilomyces Tenuipes, Entomopathogenic Fungi Inoculated into the Silkworm Larva, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Sung-Hee Nam, Kwang-Gill Lee, You-Young Jo, HaeYong Kweon

Abstract:

Entomopathogenic fungi is a Cordyceps species that is isolated from dead silkworm and cicada. Fungi on cicadas were described in old Chinese medicinal books and From ancient times, vegetable wasps and plant worms were widely known to have active substance and have been studied for pharmacological use. Among many fungi belonging to the genus Cordyceps, Cordyceps sinensis have been demonstrated to yield natural products possessing various biological activities and many bioactive components. Generally, It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue. Due to their commercial and economic importance, the demand for Cordyceps has been rapidly increased. However, a supply of Cordyceps specimen could not meet the increasing demand because of their sole dependence on field collection and habitat destruction. Because it is difficult to obtain many insect hosts in nature and the edibility of host insect needs to be verified in a pharmacological aspect. Recently, this setback was overcome that P. tenuipes was able to be cultivated in a large scale using silkworm as host. Pharmacological effects of P. tenuipes cultured on silkworm such as strengthening immune function, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor activity and controlling liver etc have been proved. They are widely commercialized. In this study, we attempted to establish a method for stable growth inhibition of P. tenuipes on silkworm hosts and an optimal condition for synnemata formation. To determine optimum culturing conditions, temperature and light conditions were varied. The length and number of synnemata was highest at 25℃ temperature and 100~300 lux illumination. On an average, the synnemata of wild P. tenuipes measures 70 ㎜ in length and 20 in number; those of the cultured strain were relatively shorter and more in number. The number of synnemata may have increased as a result of inoculating the host with highly concentrated conidia, while the length may have decreased due to limited nutrition per individual. It is not able that changes in light illumination cause morphological variations in the synnemata. However, regulation of only light and temperature could not produce stromata like perithecia, asci, and ascospores. Yamanaka reported that although a complete fruiting body can be produced under optimal culture conditions, it should be regarded as synnemata because it does not develop into an ascoma bearing ascospores.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, entomopathogenic fungi, paecilomyces tenuipes, silkworm larva

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1 Effect of Metarhizium robertsii in Rhipicephalus microplus hemocytes

Authors: Jessica P. Fiorotti, Maria C. Freitas, Caio J. B. Coutinho-Rodrigues, Mariana G. Camargo, Emily S. Mesquita, Amanda R. C. Corval, Ricardo O. B. Bitencourt, Allan F. Marciano, Diva D. Spadacci-Morena, Patricia S. Golo, Isabele C. Angelo, Vania R. E. P. Bittencourt

Abstract:

The bovine tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is an arthropod of great importance in veterinary medicine leading to anemia, weight loss, animals' leather depreciation and also acting as a vector of many pathogens. In this way, the parasitism causes a loss of 3.24 billion dollars per year in Brazil. Knowingly, entomopathogenic fungi act as natural controller of some arthropods, acting mainly by active penetration through the cuticle. However, it can also act on the hemolymph and through the production of mycotoxins. Hemocytes are responsible for the cellular immune response and participate in the processes of phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation and may undergo changes when challenged by pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in R. microplus hemocytes after inoculation of Metarhizium robertsii using transmission electron microscopy. The isolate ARSEF 2575 and 200 engorged R. microplus females were used. The groups were divided into control, in which the females were inoculated with 5 μL of sterile distilled water solution and 0.1% Tween 80, and a group inoculated with 5 μL of fungal suspension at the concentration of 10⁷ conidia mL⁻¹. The experiment was performed in duplicate and each group contained 50 females. Twenty-four hours after fungal inoculation, hemolymph was collected through the cuticle dorsal surface perforation of the tick females. After collection, the hemolymph samples were centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes at 4 °C, the plasma was discarded and the hemocyte pellet was resuspended in 50 μl PBS. The suspension material was fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in Millonig buffer for three hours. After fixation, the material was centrifuged at 500 x g for 3 minutes, the supernatant was discarded and the cells were resuspended in a wash solution. Subsequently, the cells were post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide in phosphate buffer for one hour at room temperature and dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol, and then embedded in Epon resin. The ultrathin sections were examined under the LEO EM 906E transmission electron microscopy at 80kV. The ultrastructural results revealed that.in control group, the cells were considered intact, in which the granulocytes were observed with granules of different electrodensities, intact mitochondria and cytoplasm without vacuolization. In addition, granulocytes showed plasma membrane projections similar to pseudopodia. Plasmatocytes presented as irregularly shaped cells, with the eccentric nucleus, agranular cytoplasm and some cells presented pseudopodia. Nevertheless, in the group exposed to the fungus, most of the cells presented in degeneration. The granulocytes found had fewer granules in the cytoplasm and more vacuoles. Plasmatocytes, after treatment, presented many vacuoles also in the cytoplasm and the lysosomes presented great amount of electrodense material in their interior. Thus, the results suggest that the fungus has a depressant action in the immune system of the tick, not only by the cell degranulation, but also suggesting that this leads to morphological changes in the hemocytes and may even trigger processes such as phagocytosis.

Keywords: Immune response, entomopathogenic fungi, bovine tick, cellular defense

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