Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

enterobacteriaceae Related Abstracts

3 The Prevalence and Profile of Extended Spectrum B-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae Species in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Setting of a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India

Authors: Alok Jain, Harmeet Pal Singh Dhooria, Deepinder Chinna, UPS Sidhu

Abstract:

Serious infections caused by gram-negative bacteria are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the hospital setting. In acute care facilities like in intensive care units (ICUs), the intensity of antimicrobial use together with a population highly susceptible to infection, creates an environment, which facilitates both emergence and transmission of Extended Spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae species. The study was conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and the Pulmonary Critical Care Unit (PCCU) of the Department of Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Out of a total of 1108 samples of urine, blood and respiratory tract secretions received for culture and sensitivity analysis from Medical Intensive Care Unit and Pulmonary Critical Care Unit, a total of 170 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae species were obtained which were then included in our study. Out of these 170 isolates, confirmed ESBL production was seen in 116 (68.24%) cases. E.coli was the most common species isolated (56.47%) followed by Klebsiella (32.94%), Enterobacter (5.88%), Citrobacter (3.53%), Enterobacter (0.59%) and Morganella (0.59%) among the total isolates. The rate of ESBL production was more in Klebsiella (78.57%) as compared to E.coli (60.42%). ESBL producers were found to be significantly more common in patients with prior history of hospitalization, antibiotic use, and prolonged ICU stay. Also significantly increased the prevalence of ESBL related infections was observed in patients with a history of catheterization or central line insertion but not in patients with the history of intubation. Patients who had an underlying malignancy had significantly higher prevalence of ESBL related infections as compared to other co-morbid illnesses. A slightly significant difference in the rate of mortality/LAMA was observed in the ESBL producer versus the non-ESBL producer group. The rate of mortality/LAMA was significantly higher in the ESBL related UTI but not in the ESBL related respiratory tract and bloodstream infections. ESBL producing isolates had significantly higher rates of resistance to Cefepime and Piperacillin/Tazobactum, and to non β-lactum antibiotics like Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin. The level of resistance to Imipenem was lower as compared to other antibiotics. However, it was noted that ESBL producing isolates had higher levels of resistance to Imipenem as compared to non-ESBL producing isolates. Conclusion- The prevalence of ESBL producing organisms was found to be very high (68.24%) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in our ICU setting as among other ICU care settings around the world.

Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance, ICU, enterobacteriaceae, extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)

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2 Changes to Populations Might Aid the Spread Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Authors: Yasir Bashawri, Vincent N. Chigor James McDonald, Merfyn Williams, Davey Jones, A. Prysor Williams

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health. As a result of their misuse and overuse, bacteria have become resistant to many common antibiotics. Βeta lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are one of the most significant classes of antimicrobials in providing therapeutic benefits for the treatment of bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine, for approximately 60% of all antibiotics are used. In particular, some Enterobacteriaceae produce Extend Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) that enable them to some break down multi-groups of antibiotics. CTX-M enzymes have rapidly become the most important ESBLs, with increases in mainly CTX-M 15 in many countries during the last decade. Global travel by intercontinental medical ‘tourists’, migrant employees and overseas students could theoretically be a risk factor for spreading antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of the world. Bangor city, North Wales, is subject to sudden demographic changes due to a large proportion (>25%) of the population being students, most of which arrive over a space of days. This makes it a suitable location to study the impacts of large demographic change on the presence of ESBLs. The aim of this study is to monitor the presence of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria isolated from Bangor wastewater treatment plant, before, during and after the arrival week of students to Bangor University. Over a five-week period, water samples were collected twice a week, from the influent, primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank and the final effluent. Isolation and counts for Escherichia coli and other faecal coliforms were done on selective agar (primary UTI agar). ESBL presence will be confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Sampling at all points of the tertiary treatment stages will indicate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in reducing the spread of ESBLs genes. The study will yield valuable information to help tackle a problem which many regard to be the one of the biggest threats to modern-day society.

Keywords: wastewater treatment plant, enterobacteriaceae, extended spectrum β-lactamase, international travel

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1 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Anthony I. Okoh, Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake

Abstract:

Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: Public Health, resistance genes, enterobacteriaceae, MARP, MALDI-TOF, antibiotic-resistance, MARI

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