Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Enhancement Related Abstracts

7 Experimental Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid and Baffled Twisted Tape Inserts

Authors: Ratheesh Radhakrishnan, P. C. Sreekumar, K. Krishnamoorthy


Heat transfer augmentation techniques ultimately results in the reduction of thermal resistance in a conventional heat exchanger by generating higher convective heat transfer coefficient. It also results in reduction of size, increase in heat duty, decrease in approach temperature difference and reduction in pumping power requirements for heat exchangers. Present study deals with compound augmentation technique, which is not widely used. The study deals with the use of Alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid and baffled twisted tape inserts in double pipe heat exchanger as compound augmentation technique. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for the flow through the inner tube of heat exchanger in turbulent flow range (8000Keywords: Nanofluid, Enhancement, friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, twisted tape

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6 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana


Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: Image, Enhancement, Histology, HSV space

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5 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: V. K. Jain, Amit Kamra, Pragya


Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: Enhancement, Multi-scale, Mammography, mathematical morphology

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4 Students' ExperiEnce Enhancement Through Simulaton. A Process Flow in Logistics and Transportation Field

Authors: Nizamuddin Zainuddin, Adam Mohd Saifudin, Ahmad Yusni Bahaudin, Mohd Hanizan Zalazilah, Roslan Jamaluddin


Students’ enhanced experience through simulation is a crucial factor that brings reality to the classroom. The enhanced experience is all about developing, enriching and applications of a generic process flow in the field of logistics and transportations. As educational technology has improved, the effective use of simulations has greatly increased to the point where simulations should be considered a valuable, mainstream pedagogical tool. Additionally, in this era of ongoing (some say never-ending) assessment, simulations offer a rich resource for objective measurement and comparisons. Simulation is not just another in the long line of passing fads (or short-term opportunities) in educational technology. It is rather a real key to helping our students understand the world. It is a way for students to acquire experience about how things and systems in the world behave and react, without actually touching them. In short, it is about interactive pretending. Simulation is all about representing the real world which includes grasping the complex issues and solving intricate problems. Therefore, it is crucial before stimulate the real process of inbound and outbound logistics and transportation a generic process flow shall be developed. The paper will be focusing on the validization of the process flow by looking at the inputs gains from the sample. The sampling of the study focuses on multi-national and local manufacturing companies, third party companies (3PL) and government agency, which are selected in Peninsular Malaysia. A simulation flow chart was proposed in the study that will be the generic flow in logistics and transportation. A qualitative approach was mainly conducted to gather data in the study. It was found out from the study that the systems used in the process of outbound and inbound are System Application Products (SAP) and Material Requirement Planning (MRP). Furthermore there were some companies using Enterprises Resources Planning (ERP) and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) as part of the Suppliers Own Inventories (SOI) networking as a result of globalized business between one countries to another. Computerized documentations and transactions were all mandatory requirement by the Royal Custom and Excise Department. The generic process flow will be the basis of developing a simulation program that shall be used in the classroom with the objective of further enhanced the students’ learning experience. Thus it will contributes to the body of knowledge on the enrichment of the student’s employability and also shall be one of the way to train new workers in the logistics and transportation filed.

Keywords: Simulation, Logistics, Transportation, Enhancement, process flow

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3 Enhancement of X-Rays Images Intensity Using Pixel Values Adjustments Technique

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Razan Manofely, Rajab M. Ben Yousef


X-Ray images are very popular as a first tool for diagnosis. Automating the process of analysis of such images is important in order to help physician procedures. In this practice, teeth segmentation from the radiographic images and feature extraction are essential steps. The main objective of this study was to study correction preprocessing of x-rays images using local adaptive filters in order to evaluate contrast enhancement pattern in different x-rays images such as grey color and to evaluate the usage of new nonlinear approach for contrast enhancement of soft tissues in x-rays images. The data analyzed by using MatLab program to enhance the contrast within the soft tissues, the gray levels in both enhanced and unenhanced images and noise variance. The main techniques of enhancement used in this study were contrast enhancement filtering and deblurring images using the blind deconvolution algorithm. In this paper, prominent constraints are firstly preservation of image's overall look; secondly, preservation of the diagnostic content in the image and thirdly detection of small low contrast details in diagnostic content of the image.

Keywords: Enhancement, X-rays, MATLAB, pixel intensity values

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2 Learning Instructional Managements between the Problem-Based Learning and Stem Education Methods for Enhancing Students Learning Achievements and their Science Attitudes toward Physics the 12th Grade Level

Authors: Achirawatt Tungsombatsanti, Toansakul Santiboon, Kamon Ponkham


Strategies of the STEM education was aimed to prepare of an interdisciplinary and applied approach for the instructional of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics in an integrated students for enhancing engagement of their science skills to the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method in Borabu School with a sample consists of 80 students in 2 classes at the 12th grade level of their learning achievements on electromagnetic issue. Research administrations were to separate on two different instructional model groups, the 40-experimental group was designed with the STEM instructional experimenting preparation and induction in a 40-student class and the controlling group using the PBL was designed to students identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to the resolution of the problem in other class. The learning environment perceptions were obtained using the 35-item Physics Laboratory Environment Inventory (PLEI). Students’ creating attitude skills’ sustainable development toward physics were assessed with the Test Of Physics-Related Attitude (TOPRA) The term scaling was applied to the attempts to measure the attitude objectively with the TOPRA was used to assess students’ perceptions of their science attitude toward physics. Comparisons between pretest and posttest techniques were assessed students’ learning achievements on each their outcomes from each instructional model, differently. The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the PLB and the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 80/80. Statistically, significant of students’ learning achievements to their later outcomes on the controlling and experimental physics class groups with the PLB and the STEM instructional designs were differentiated between groups at the .05 level, evidently. Comparisons between the averages mean scores of students’ responses to their instructional activities in the STEM education method are higher than the average mean scores of the PLB model. Associations between students’ perceptions of their physics classes to their attitudes toward physics, the predictive efficiency R2 values indicate that 77%, and 83% of the variances in students’ attitudes for the PLEI and the TOPRA in physics environment classes were attributable to their perceptions of their physics PLB and the STEM instructional design classes, consequently. An important of these findings was contributed to student understanding of scientific concepts, attitudes, and skills as evidence with STEM instructional ought to higher responding than PBL educational teaching. Statistically significant between students’ learning achievements were differentiated of pre and post assessments which overall on two instructional models.

Keywords: Enhancement, STEM Education, Method, Problem-Based Learning, science attitude, learning instructional managements, students learning achievements, physics classes

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1 Treatment with Triton-X 100: An Enhancement Approach for Cardboard Bioprocessing

Authors: Ahlam Said Al Azkawi, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Nasser Al Bahri


Diverse approaches and pathways are under development with the determination to develop cellulosic biofuels and other bio-products eventually at commercial scale in “bio-refineries”; however, the key challenge is mainly the high level of complexity in processing the feedstock which is complicated and energy consuming. To overcome the complications in utilizing the naturally occurring lignocellulose biomass, using waste paper as a feedstock for bio-production may solve the problem. Besides being abundant and cheap, bioprocessing of waste paper has evolved in response to the public concern from rising landfill cost from shrinking landfill capacity. Cardboard (CB) is one of the major components of municipal solid waste and one of the most important items to recycle. Although 50-70% of cardboard constitute is known to be cellulose and hemicellulose, the presence of lignin around them cause hydrophobic cross-link which physically obstructs the hydrolysis by rendering it resistant to enzymatic cleavage. Therefore, pretreatment is required to disrupt this resistance and to enhance the exposure of the targeted carbohydrates to the hydrolytic enzymes. Several pretreatment approaches have been explored, and the best ones would be those can influence cellulose conversion rates and hydrolytic enzyme performance with minimal or less cost and downstream processes. One of the promising strategies in this field is the application of surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants. In this study, triton-X 100 was used as surfactants to treat cardboard prior enzymatic hydrolysis and compare it with acid treatment using 0.1% H2SO4. The effect of the surfactant enhancement was evaluated through its effect on hydrolysis rate in respect to time in addition to evaluating the structural changes and modification by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and through compositional analysis. Further work was performed to produce ethanol from CB treated with triton-X 100 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The hydrolysis studies have demonstrated enhancement in saccharification by 35%. After 72 h of hydrolysis, a saccharification rate of 98% was achieved from CB enhanced with triton-X 100, while only 89 of saccharification achieved from acid pre-treated CB. At 120 h, the saccharification % exceeded 100 as reducing sugars continued to increase with time. This enhancement was not supported by any significant changes in the cardboard content as the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content remained same after treatment, but obvious structural changes were observed through SEM images. The cellulose fibers were clearly exposed with very less debris and deposits compared to cardboard without triton-X 100. The XRD pattern has also revealed the ability of the surfactant in removing calcium carbonate, a filler found in waste paper known to have negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose crystallinity without surfactant was 73.18% and reduced to 66.68% rendering it more amorphous and susceptible to enzymatic attack. Triton-X 100 has proved to effectively enhance CB hydrolysis and eventually had positive effect on the ethanol yield via SSF. Treating cardboard with only triton-X 100 was a sufficient treatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

Keywords: Enhancement, treatment, Ethanol, Hydrolysis, cardboard, Triton-X 100

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