Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Energy Transition Related Abstracts

6 Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies

Authors: Nachtane Mourad, Tarfaoui Mostapha, Saifaoui Dennoun, El Moumen Ahmed

Abstract:

The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy Transition, renewable marine energy, efficiency energy

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5 Towards Renewable Energy: A Qualitative Study of Biofuel Development Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Arie Yanwar Kapriadi

Abstract:

This research is aiming to develop deeper understanding of the scale of power that shaped the biofuel policy. This research is important for the following reasons. Firstly, this research will enrich the body of literature within the field of political ecology, scale and environmental governance. Secondly, by focussing on energy transition policies, this research offers a critical perspective on how government policy, aimed at delivering low carbon sustainable energy systems, being scaled and implemented through multi variate stakeholders. Finally, the research could help the government of Indonesia as a policy evaluation on delivering low carbon sustainable energy systems at the macro level that (possibility) being unable to be delivered at different scale and instead being perceived differently by different stakeholders. Qualitative method is applied particularly an in depth interview with government officials as well as policy stakeholders outside of government and people in positions of responsibility with regards to policy delivery. There are 4 field study location where interview took place as well as sites visit to some biofuel refining facilities. There are some major companies which involve on the production and distribution of biofuel and its relation with biofuel feedstock industry as the source of data. The research investigates how the government biofuel policies correlated with other policy issues such as land reclassification and carbon emission reduction which also influenced plantations expansion as well as its impact on the local people. The preliminary result shows tension of power between governing authorities caused the Indonesian biofuel policy being unfocused which led to failing to meet its mandatory blending target despite the abundance of its feedstock.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, biofuel, Political ecology, Energy Transition

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4 Direct Current Grids in Urban Planning for More Sustainable Urban Energy and Mobility

Authors: B. Casper

Abstract:

The energy transition towards renewable energies and drastically reduced carbon dioxide emissions in Germany drives multiple sectors into a transformation process. Photovoltaic and on-shore wind power are predominantly feeding in the low and medium-voltage grids. The electricity grid is not laid out to allow an increasing feed-in of power in low and medium voltage grids. Electric mobility is currently in the run-up phase in Germany and still lacks a significant amount of charging stations. The additional power demand by e-mobility cannot be supplied by the existing electric grids in most cases. The future demands in heating and cooling of commercial and residential buildings are increasingly generated by heat-pumps. Yet the most important part in the energy transition is the storage of surplus energy generated by photovoltaic and wind power sources. Water electrolysis is one way to store surplus energy known as power-to-gas. With the vehicle-to-grid technology, the upcoming fleet of electric cars could be used as energy storage to stabilize the grid. All these processes use direct current (DC). The demand of bi-directional flow and higher efficiency in the future grids can be met by using DC. The Flexible Electrical Networks (FEN) research campus at RWTH Aachen investigates interdisciplinary about the advantages, opportunities, and limitations of DC grids. This paper investigates the impact of DC grids as a technological innovation on the urban form and urban life. Applying explorative scenario development, analyzation of mapped open data sources on grid networks and research-by-design as a conceptual design method, possible starting points for a transformation to DC medium voltage grids could be found. Several fields of action have emerged in which DC technology could become a catalyst for future urban development: energy transition in urban areas, e-mobility, and transformation of the network infrastructure. The investigation shows a significant potential to increase renewable energy production within cities with DC grids. The charging infrastructure for electric vehicles will predominantly be using DC in the future because fast and ultra fast charging can only be achieved with DC. Our research shows that e-mobility, combined with autonomous driving has the potential to change the urban space and urban logistics fundamentally. Furthermore, there are possible win-win-win solutions for the municipality, the grid operator and the inhabitants: replacing overhead transmission lines by underground DC cables to open up spaces in contested urban areas can lead to a positive example of how the energy transition can contribute to a more sustainable urban structure. The outlook makes clear that target grid planning and urban planning will increasingly need to be synchronized.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Urban Planning, Grid Planning, Energy Transition, e-mobility, direct current

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3 Dynamic Environmental Impact Study during the Construction of the French Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: A. Er-Raki, D. Hartmann, J. P. Belaud, S. Negny

Abstract:

This paper has a double purpose: firstly, a literature review of the life cycle analysis (LCA) and secondly a comparison between conventional (static) LCA and multi-level dynamic LCA on the following items: (i) inventories evolution with time (ii) temporal evolution of the databases. The first part of the paper summarizes the state of the art of the static LCA approach. The different static LCA limits have been identified and especially the non-consideration of the spatial and temporal evolution in the inventory, for the characterization factors (FCs) and into the databases. Then a description of the different levels of integration of the notion of temporality in life cycle analysis studies was made. In the second part, the dynamic inventory has been evaluated firstly for a single nuclear plant and secondly for the entire French nuclear power fleet by taking into account the construction durations of all the plants. In addition, the databases have been adapted by integrating the temporal variability of the French energy mix. Several iterations were used to converge towards the real environmental impact of the energy mix. Another adaptation of the databases to take into account the temporal evolution of the market data of the raw material was made. An identification of the energy mix of the time studied was based on an extrapolation of the production reference values of each means of production. An application to the construction of the French nuclear power plants from 1971 to 2000 has been performed, in which a dynamic inventory of raw material has been evaluated. Then the impacts were characterized by the ILCD 2011 characterization method. In order to compare with a purely static approach, a static impact assessment was made with the V 3.4 Ecoinvent data sheets without adaptation and a static inventory considering that all the power stations would have been built at the same time. Finally, a comparison between static and dynamic LCA approaches was set up to determine the gap between them for each of the two levels of integration. The results were analyzed to identify the contribution of the evolving nuclear power fleet construction to the total environmental impacts of the French energy mix during the same period. An equivalent strategy using a dynamic approach will further be applied to identify the environmental impacts that different scenarios of the energy transition could bring, allowing to choose the best energy mix from an environmental viewpoint.

Keywords: Nuclear Energy, Construction, Dynamic, Inventory, Energy Transition, Energy Mix, Static, LCA

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2 Cross-Sectoral Energy Demand Prediction for Germany with a 100% Renewable Energy Production in 2050

Authors: Ali Hashemifarzad, Jens Zum Hingst

Abstract:

The structure of the world’s energy systems has changed significantly over the past years. One of the most important challenges in the 21st century in Germany (and also worldwide) is the energy transition. This transition aims to comply with the recent international climate agreements from the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) to ensure sustainable energy supply with minimal use of fossil fuels. Germany aims for complete decarbonization of the energy sector by 2050 according to the federal climate protection plan. One of the stipulations of the Renewable Energy Sources Act 2017 for the expansion of energy production from renewable sources in Germany is that they cover at least 80% of the electricity requirement in 2050; The Gross end energy consumption is targeted for at least 60%. This means that by 2050, the energy supply system would have to be almost completely converted to renewable energy. An essential basis for the development of such a sustainable energy supply from 100% renewable energies is to predict the energy requirement by 2050. This study presents two scenarios for the final energy demand in Germany in 2050. In the first scenario, the targets for energy efficiency increase and demand reduction are set very ambitiously. To build a comparison basis, the second scenario provides results with less ambitious assumptions. For this purpose, first, the relevant framework conditions (following CUTEC 2016) were examined, such as the predicted population development and economic growth, which were in the past a significant driver for the increase in energy demand. Also, the potential for energy demand reduction and efficiency increase (on the demand side) was investigated. In particular, current and future technological developments in energy consumption sectors and possible options for energy substitution (namely the electrification rate in the transport sector and the building renovation rate) were included. Here, in addition to the traditional electricity sector, the areas of heat, and fuel-based consumptions in different sectors such as households, commercial, industrial and transport are taken into account, supporting the idea that for a 100% supply from renewable energies, the areas currently based on (fossil) fuels must be almost completely be electricity-based by 2050. The results show that in the very ambitious scenario a final energy demand of 1,362 TWh/a is required, which is composed of 818 TWh/a electricity, 229 TWh/a ambient heat for electric heat pumps and approx. 315 TWh/a non-electric energy (raw materials for non-electrifiable processes). In the less ambitious scenario, in which the targets are not fully achieved by 2050, the final energy demand will need a higher electricity part of almost 1,138 TWh/a (from the total: 1,682 TWh/a). It has also been estimated that 50% of the electricity revenue must be saved to compensate for fluctuations in the daily and annual flows. Due to conversion and storage losses (about 50%), this would mean that the electricity requirement for the very ambitious scenario would increase to 1,227 TWh / a.

Keywords: Energy demand, Energy Transition, German Energiewende

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1 A Comparative Study of Global Power Grids and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Using GIS Technology

Authors: Wenhao Wang, Xinzhi Xu, Limin Feng, Wei Cong

Abstract:

This paper comprehensively investigates current development status of global power grids and fossil energy pipelines (oil and natural gas), proposes a standard visual platform of global power and fossil energy based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. In this visual platform, a series of systematic visual models is proposed with global spatial data, systematic energy and power parameters. Under this visual platform, the current Global Power Grids Map and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Map are plotted within more than 140 countries and regions across the world. Using the multi-scale fusion data processing and modeling methods, the world’s global fossil energy pipelines and power grids information system basic database is established, which provides important data supporting global fossil energy and electricity research. Finally, through the systematic and comparative study of global fossil energy pipelines and global power grids, the general status of global fossil energy and electricity development are reviewed, and energy transition in key areas are evaluated and analyzed. Through the comparison analysis of fossil energy and clean energy, the direction of relevant research is pointed out for clean development and energy transition.

Keywords: Power Systems, Geographic Information System, Fossil energy, Energy Transition

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