Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Energy Saving Related Abstracts

30 Monitoring Energy Reduction through Applying Green Roofs to Residential Buildings in Dubai

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb


Since buildings are a major consumer of energy, their potential impact on the environment is considerable. Therefore, expanding the application of low energy architecture is of the utmost importance. Designing with nature is also one of the most attractive methods of design for many architects and designers because it creates a pathway to sustainability. One feature of designing with nature is the use of green roofing which aims to cover the roof with vegetation either partially or completely. Appreciably, green roofing in a building has many advantages including absorbing rainwater, providing thermal insulation, enhancing the ecology, creating a peaceful retreat for people and animals, improving air quality and helping to offset the air temperature and heat island effect. The aim of this paper is to monitor energy saving in the residential buildings of Dubai after applying green roofing techniques. The paper also attempts to provide a thermal analysis after the application of green roofs. A villa in Dubai was chosen as a case study. With the aid of energy simulation software, namely Design Builder, as well as manual recording and calculations, the energy savings after applying the green roofing were detected. To that extent, the paper draws some recommendations with regard to the types of green roofing that should be used in these particular climatic conditions based on this real experiment that took place over a one year period.

Keywords: Energy Saving, CFD, Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, Dubai, green roofing

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
29 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam


The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4 ˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Concrete, iron ore, ice rink

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
28 Magnitude of Green Computing in Trending IT World

Authors: Raghul Vignesh Kumar, M. Vadivel


With the recent years many industries and companies have turned their attention in realizing how going 'green' can benefit public relations, lower cost, and reduce global emissions from industrial manufacturing. Green Computing has become an originative way on how technology and ecology converge together. It is a growing import subject that creates an urgent need to train next generation computer scientists or practitioners to think ‘green’. However, green computing has not yet been well taught in computer science or computer engineering courses as a subject. In this modern IT world it’s impossible for an organization or common man to work without hardware like servers, desktop, IT devices, smartphones etc. But it is also important to consider the harmful impact of those devices and steps to achieve energy saving and environmental protection. This paper presents the magnitude of green computing and steps to be followed to go green.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Green Computing, Greenhouse gas, carbon-dioxide, environmental protection agency

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
27 The Study of Groundcover for Heat Reduction

Authors: Winai Mankhatitham


This research investigated groundcover on the roof (green roof) which can reduce the temperature and carbon monoxide. This study is divided into 3 main aspects: 1) Types of groundcover affecting heat reduction, 2) The efficiency on heat reduction of 3 types of groundcover, i.e. lawn, arachis pintoi, and purslane, 3) Database for designing green roof. This study has been designed as an experimental research by simulating the 3 types of groundcover in 3 trays placed in the green house for recording the temperature change for 24 hours. The results showed that the groundcover with the highest heat reduction efficiency was lawn. The dense of the lawn can protect the heat transfer to the soil. For the further study, there should be a comparative study of the thickness and the types of soil to get more information for the suitable types of groundcover and the soil for designing the energy saving green roof.

Keywords: Energy Saving, green roof, heat reduction, groundcover

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
26 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi


A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Power Generation, methanol, Gas Turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
25 Achieving Household Electricity Saving Potential Through Behavioral Change

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri


The rapid growth of Indonesia population is directly proportional to the energy needs of the country, but not all of Indonesian population can relish the electricity. Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. User behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. However repair solution will impact the user's habits sustainable energy issues. This study attempts to identify the user behavior and lifestyle that affect household electricity consumption and to evaluate the potential for energy saving. The behavior component is frequently underestimated or ignored in analyses of household electrical energy end use, partly because of its complexity. It is influenced by socio-demographic factors, culture, attitudes, aesthetic norms and comfort, as well as social and economic variables. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
24 Assessing Household Energy Savings and Consumer Behavior in Padang City

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri, Karin Bestarina


Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. Consumer behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
23 The Inverse Problem in the Process of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Multilayer Walling

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Nazerke Rysbayeva, Aigerim Rysbayeva


Relevance: Energy saving elevated to public policy in almost all developed countries. One of the areas for energy efficiency is improving and tightening design standards. In the tie with the state standards, make high demands for thermal protection of buildings. Constructive arrangement of layers should ensure normal operation in which the humidity of materials of construction should not exceed a certain level. Elevated levels of moisture in the walls can be attributed to a defective condition, as moisture significantly reduces the physical, mechanical and thermal properties of materials. Absence at the design stage of modeling the processes occurring in the construction and predict the behavior of structures during their work in the real world leads to an increase in heat loss and premature aging structures. Method: To solve this problem, widely used method of mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer in materials. The mathematical modeling of heat and mass transfer are taken into the equation interconnected layer [1]. In winter, the thermal and hydraulic conductivity characteristics of the materials are nonlinear and depends on the temperature and moisture in the material. In this case, the experimental method of determining the coefficient of the freezing or thawing of the material becomes much more difficult. Therefore, in this paper we propose an approximate method for calculating the thermal conductivity and moisture permeability characteristics of freezing or thawing material. Questions. Following the development of methods for solving the inverse problem of mathematical modeling allows us to answer questions that are closely related to the rational design of fences: Where the zone of condensation in the body of the multi-layer fencing; How and where to apply insulation rationally his place; Any constructive activities necessary to provide for the removal of moisture from the structure; What should be the temperature and humidity conditions for the normal operation of the premises enclosing structure; What is the longevity of the structure in terms of its components frost materials. Tasks: The proposed mathematical model to solve the following problems: To assess the condition of the thermo-physical designed structures at different operating conditions and select appropriate material layers; Calculate the temperature field in a structurally complex multilayer structures; When measuring temperature and moisture in the characteristic points to determine the thermal characteristics of the materials constituting the surveyed construction; Laboratory testing to significantly reduce test time, and eliminates the climatic chamber and expensive instrumentation experiments and research; Allows you to simulate real-life situations that arise in multilayer enclosing structures associated with freezing, thawing, drying and cooling of any layer of the building material.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Energy Saving, Inverse problem, multilayer walling

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22 Development of Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) in Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu, F. Xiao


This study addresses a concept of the Sustainable Building Environmental Model (SBEM) developed to optimize energy consumption in air conditioning and ventilation (ACV) systems without any deterioration of indoor environmental quality (IEQ). The SBEM incorporates two main components: an adaptive comfort temperature control module (ACT) and a new carbon dioxide demand control module (nDCV). These two modules take an innovative approach to maintain satisfaction of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) with optimum energy consumption, they provide a rational basis of effective control. A total of 2133 sets of measurement data of indoor air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (Rh) and carbon dioxide concentration (CO2) were conducted in some Hong Kong offices to investigate the potential of integrating the SBEM. A simulation was used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the energy and air conditioning system with the integration of the SBEM in an air-conditioned building. It allows us make a clear picture of the control strategies and performed any pre-tuned of controllers before utilized in real systems. With the integration of SBEM, it was able to save up to 12.3% in simulation and 15% in field measurement of overall electricity consumption, and maintain the average carbon dioxide concentration within 1000ppm and occupant dissatisfaction in 20%.

Keywords: Energy Saving, sustainable building environmental model (SBEM), adaptive comfort temperature (ACT), new demand control ventilation (nDCV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
21 Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving Evaluation of a Combined System in an Office Room Using Displacement Ventilation

Authors: S. Gao, A. Q. Ahmed


In this paper, the energy saving and human thermal comfort in a typical office room are investigated. The impact of a combined system of exhaust inlet air with light slots located at the ceiling level in a room served by displacement ventilation system is numerically modelled. Previous experimental data are used to validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model. A case study of simulated office room includes two seating occupants, two computers, two data loggers and four lamps. The combined system is located at the ceiling level above the heat sources. A new method of calculation for the cooling coil load in stratified air distribution (STRAD) system is used in this study. The results show that 47.4 % energy saving of space cooling load can be achieved by combing the exhaust inlet air with light slots at the ceiling level above the heat sources.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Energy Saving, Thermal comfort, displacement ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
20 Modeling and Analysis of Solar Assisted Adsorption Cooling System Using TRNSYS

Authors: M. Wajahat, M. Shoaib, A. Waheed


As a result of increase in world energy demand as well as the demand for heating, refrigeration and air conditioning, energy engineers are now more inclined towards the renewable energy especially solar based thermal driven refrigeration and air conditioning systems. This research is emphasized on solar assisted adsorption refrigeration system to provide comfort conditions for a building in Islamabad. The adsorption chiller can be driven by low grade heat at low temperature range (50 -80 °C) which is lower than that required for generator in absorption refrigeration system which may be furnished with the help of common flat plate solar collectors (FPC). The aim is to offset the total energy required for building’s heating and cooling demand by using FPC’s thus reducing dependency on primary energy source hence saving energy. TRNSYS is a dynamic modeling and simulation tool which can be utilized to simulate the working of a complete solar based adsorption chiller to meet the desired cooling and heating demand during summer and winter seasons, respectively. Modeling and detailed parametric analysis of the whole system is to be carried out to determine the optimal system configuration keeping in view various design constraints. Main focus of the study is on solar thermal loop of the adsorption chiller to reduce the contribution from the auxiliary devices.

Keywords: Energy Saving, flat plate collector, solar assisted adsorption chiller, TRNSYS

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19 Identifying the Factors affecting on the Success of Energy Usage Saving in Municipality of Tehran

Authors: Rojin Bana Derakhshan, Abbas Toloie


For the purpose of optimizing and developing energy efficiency in building, it is required to recognize key elements of success in optimization of energy consumption before performing any actions. Surveying Principal Components is one of the most valuable result of Linear Algebra because the simple and non-parametric methods are become confusing. So that energy management system implemented according to energy management system international standard ISO50001:2011 and all energy parameters in building to be measured through performing energy auditing. In this essay by simulating used of data mining, the key impressive elements on energy saving in buildings to be determined. This approach is based on data mining statistical techniques using feature selection method and fuzzy logic and convert data from massive to compressed type and used to increase the selected feature. On the other side, influence portion and amount of each energy consumption elements in energy dissipation in percent are recognized as separated norm while using obtained results from energy auditing and after measurement of all energy consuming parameters and identified variables. Accordingly, energy saving solution divided into 3 categories, low, medium and high expense solutions.

Keywords: Data Mining, Energy Saving, key elements of success, optimization of energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
18 A New Approach to the Boom Welding Technique by Determining Seam Profile Tracking

Authors: Muciz Özcan, Mustafa Sacid Endiz, Veysel Alver


In this paper we present a new approach to the boom welding related to the mobile cranes manufacturing, implementing a new method in order to get homogeneous welding quality and reduced energy usage during booms production. We aim to get the realization of the same welding quality carried out on the boom in every region during the manufacturing process and to detect the possible welding errors whether they could be eliminated using laser sensors. We determine the position of the welding region directly through our system and with the help of the welding oscillator we are able to perform a proper boom welding. Errors that may occur in the welding process can be observed by monitoring and eliminated by means of an operator. The major modification in the production of the crane booms will be their form of the booms. Although conventionally, more than one welding is required to perform this process, with the suggested concept, only one particular welding is sufficient, which will be more energy and environment-friendly. Consequently, as only one welding is needed for the manufacturing of the boom, the particular welding quality becomes more essential. As a way to satisfy the welding quality, a welding manipulator was made and fabricated. By using this welding manipulator, the risks of involving dangerous gases formed during the welding process for the operator and the surroundings are diminished as much as possible.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Global Warming, boom welding, seam tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
17 Contribution of the Cogeneration Systems to Environment and Sustainability

Authors: Uğur Çakir, Kemal Çomakli, Erol Sahin, Aysegül Çokgez Kus


Kind of energy that buildings need changes in various types, like heating energy, cooling energy, electrical energy and thermal energy for hot top water. Usually the processes or systems produce thermal energy causes emitting pollutant emissions while they produce heat because of fossil fuels they use. A lower consumption of thermal energy will contribute not only to a reduction in the running costs, but also in the reduction of pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect and a lesser dependence of the hospital on the external power supply. Cogeneration or CHP (Combined heat and Power) is the system that produces power and usable heat simultaneously. Combined production of mechanical or electrical and thermal energy using a simple energy source, such as oil, coal, natural or liquefied gas, biomass or the sun; affords remarkable energy savings and frequently makes it possible to operate with greater efficiency when compared to a system producing heat and power separately. Because of the life standard of humanity in new age, energy sources must be continually and best qualified. For this reason the installation of a system for the simultaneous generation of electrical, heating and cooling energy would be one of the best solutions if we want to have qualified energy and reduce investment and operating costs and meet ecological requirements. This study aims to bring out the contributions of cogeneration systems to the environment and sustainability by saving the energy and reducing the emissions.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Sustainability, Energy Economy, cogeneration systems

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16 Preliminary Study on Using of Thermal Energy from Effluent Water for the SBR Process of RO

Authors: Gyeong-Sung Kim, In-soo Ahn, Yong Cho


SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) process is usually applied to membrane water treatment plants to treat its concentrated wastewater. The role of SBR process is to remove COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and NH3 from wastewater before discharging it outside of the water treatment plant using microorganism. Microorganism’s nitrification capability is influenced by water temperature because the nitrification rate of the concentrated wastewater becomes ‘zero’ as water temperature approach 0℃. Heating system is necessary to operate SBR in winter season even though the operating cost increase sharply. The operating cost of SBR at ‘D’ RO water treatment plant in Korea was 51.8 times higher in winter (October to March) compare to summer (April to September) season in 2014. Otherwise the effluent water temperature maintained around 8℃ constantly in winter. This study focuses on application heat pump system to recover the thermal energy from the effluent water of ‘D’ RO plant so that the operating cost will be reduced.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Water Treatment, SBR, water thermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
15 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari


In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: Energy Saving, clear sky, daylight factor, wall window

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
14 Design Optimisation of a Novel Cross Vane Expander-Compressor Unit for Refrigeration System

Authors: K. T. Ooi, Y. D. Lim, K. S. Yap


In recent years, environmental issue has been a hot topic in the world, especially the global warming effect caused by conventional non-environmentally friendly refrigerants has increased. Several studies of a more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigeration system have been conducted in order to tackle the issue. In search of a better refrigeration system, CO2 refrigeration system has been proposed as a better option. However, the high throttling loss involved during the expansion process of the refrigeration cycle leads to a relatively low efficiency and thus the system is impractical. In order to improve the efficiency of the refrigeration system, it is suggested by replacing the conventional expansion valve in the refrigeration system with an expander. Based on this issue, a new type of expander-compressor combined unit, named Cross Vane Expander-Compressor (CVEC) was introduced to replace the compressor and the expansion valve of a conventional refrigeration system. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the performance of CVEC, and it was found that the machine is capable of saving the energy consumption of a refrigeration system by as much as 18%. Apart from energy saving, CVEC is also geometrically simpler and more compact. To further improve its efficiency, optimization study of the device is carried out. In this report, several design parameters of CVEC were chosen to be the variables of optimization study. This optimization study was done in a simulation program by using complex optimization method, which is a direct search, multi-variables and constrained optimization method. It was found that the main design parameters, which was shaft radius was reduced around 8% while the inner cylinder radius was remained unchanged at its lower limit after optimization. Furthermore, the port sizes were increased to their upper limit after optimization. The changes of these design parameters have resulted in reduction of around 12% in the total frictional loss and reduction of 4% in power consumption. Eventually, the optimization study has resulted in an improvement in the mechanical efficiency CVEC by 4% and improvement in COP by 6%.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Design optimization, Improvement, direct search, COP, complex optimization method, cross vane expander-compressor, CVEC, mechanical efficiency, multi variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
13 The Performance Evaluation of the Modular Design of Hybrid Wall with Surface Heating and Cooling System

Authors: Selcen Nur Eri̇kci̇ Çeli̇k, Burcu İbaş Parlakyildiz, Gülay Zorer Gedi̇k


Reducing the use of mechanical heating and cooling systems in buildings, which accounts for approximately 30-40% of total energy consumption in the world has a major impact in terms of energy conservation. Formations of buildings that have sustainable and low energy utilization, structural elements with mechanical systems should be evaluated with a holistic approach. In point of reduction of building energy consumption ratio, wall elements that are vertical building elements and have an area broadly (m2) have proposed as a regulation with a different system. In the study, designing surface heating and cooling energy with a hybrid type of modular wall system and the integration of building elements will be evaluated. The design of wall element; - Identification of certain standards in terms of architectural design and size, -Elaboration according to the area where the wall elements (interior walls, exterior walls) -Solution of the joints, -Obtaining the surface in terms of building compatible with both conceptual structural put emphasis on upper stages, these elements will be formed. The durability of the product to the various forces, stability and resistance are so much substantial that are used the establishment of ready-wall element section and the planning of structural design. All created ready-wall alternatives will be paid attention at some parameters; such as adapting to performance-cost by optimum level and size that can be easily processed and reached. The restrictions such as the size of the zoning regulations, building function, structural system, wheelbase that are imposed by building laws, should be evaluated. The building aims to intend to function according to a certain standardization system and construction of wall elements will be used. The scope of performance criteria determined on the wall elements, utilization (operation, maintenance) and renovation phase, alternative material options will be evaluated with interim materials located in the contents. Design, implementation and technical combination of modular wall elements in the use phase and installation details together with the integration of energy saving, heat-saving and useful effects on the environmental aspects will be discussed in detail. As a result, the ready-wall product with surface heating and cooling modules will be created and defined as hybrid wall and will be compared with the conventional system in terms of thermal comfort. After preliminary architectural evaluations, certain decisions for all architectural design processes (pre and post design) such as the implementation and performance in use, maintenance, renewal will be evaluated in the results.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Architectural Design, Hybrid, Thermal comfort, modular ready-wall element

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
12 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei


The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Refrigeration Plant, vapour cCompression systems, organic fluids, radial turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
11 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants, Part II: Compressor Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei


The electrical power consumption related to refrigeration systems is evaluated to be in the order of 15% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been suggested to reduce the power demand of refrigeration and air conditioning plants. The research work deals with the development of an innovative internal power recovery system for industrial cryogenic cooling plants. Such system is based on a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG). Both the expander and the compressor have been designed starting from automotive turbocharging components, strongly modified to take refrigerant fluid properties and specific system requirements into consideration. A preliminary choice of the machines (radial compressors and expanders) among existing components available on the market was realised according to the rules of the similarity theory. Once the expander was selected, it was strongly modified and performance verified by means of steady-state 3D CFD simulations. This paper focuses the attention on the development of the second CEG main component: the compressor. Once the preliminary selection has been done, the compressor geometry has been modified to take the new boundary conditions into account. In particular, the impeller has been machined to address the required total enthalpy increase. Such evaluation has been carried out by means of a simplified 1D model. Moreover, a vaneless diffuser has been added, modifying the shape of casing rear and front disks. To verify the performance of the modified compressor geometry and suggest improvements, a numerical fluid dynamic model has been set up and the commercial Ansys-CFX software has been used to perform steady-state 3D simulations. In this work, all the numerical results will be shown, highlighting critical aspects and suggesting further developments to increase compressor performance and flexibility.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Refrigeration Plant, centrifugal compressor, organic fluids, vapour compression systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
10 Simulation and Thermal Evaluation of Containers Using PCM in Different Weather Conditions of Chile: Energy Savings in Lightweight Constructions

Authors: Mohammad Saffari, Paula Marín, Alvaro de Gracia, Luisa F. Cabeza, Svetlana Ushak


Climate control represents an important issue when referring to energy consumption of buildings and associated expenses, both in installation or operation periods. The climate control of a building relies on several factors. Among them, localization, orientation, architectural elements, sources of energy used, are considered. In order to study the thermal behaviour of a building set up, the present study proposes the use of energy simulation program Energy Plus. In recent years, energy simulation programs have become important tools for evaluation of thermal/energy performance of buildings and facilities. Besides, the need to find new forms of passive conditioning in buildings for energy saving is a critical component. The use of phase change materials (PCMs) for heat storage applications has grown in importance due to its high efficiency. Therefore, the climatic conditions of Northern Chile: high solar radiation and extreme temperature fluctuations ranging from -10°C to 30°C (Calama city), low index of cloudy days during the year are appropriate to take advantage of solar energy and use passive systems in buildings. Also, the extensive mining activities in northern Chile encourage the use of large numbers of containers to harbour workers during shifts. These containers are constructed with lightweight construction systems, requiring heating during night and cooling during day, increasing the HVAC electricity consumption. The use of PCM can improve thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of containers of 2.5×2.5×2.5 m3, located in four cities of Chile: Antofagasta, Calama, Santiago, and Concepción. Lightweight envelopes, typically used in these building prototypes, were evaluated considering a container without PCM inclusion as the reference building and another container with PCM-enhanced envelopes as a test case, both of which have a door and a window in the same wall, orientated in two directions: North and South. To see the thermal response of these containers in different seasons, the simulations were performed considering a period of one year. The results show that higher energy savings for the four cities studied are obtained when the distribution of door and window in the container is in the north direction because of higher solar radiation incidence. The comparison of HVAC consumption and energy savings in % for north direction of door and window are summarised. Simulation results show that in the city of Antofagasta 47% of heating energy could be saved and in the cities of Calama and Concepción the biggest savings in terms of cooling could be achieved since PCM reduces almost all the cooling demand. Currently, based on simulation results, four containers have been constructed and sized with the same structural characteristics carried out in simulations, that are, containers with/without PCM, with door and window in one wall. Two of these containers will be placed in Antofagasta and two containers in a copper mine near to Calama, all of them will be monitored for a period of one year. The simulation results will be validated with experimental measurements and will be reported in the future.

Keywords: Simulation, Energy Saving, PCM, lightweight construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
9 Summary of Technical Approaches to Improve Energy Efficiency in Electric Motor Drive Systems

Authors: Manuel Valencia Alejaandro Paz, Luz Nidia Quintero Jairo Palacios


In present paper a set of technical approaches to improve the energy efficiency in processes controlled by electric motor drive systems EMDS are listed and analyzed. Energy saving becomes fundamental to improve the sustainability and competitiveness of organizations all around the world; increasing costs of electricity had impulse the use of different strategies to reduce the electric power condition. A summary of these techniques is presented and evaluated in the potential for energy saving policies.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Sustainability, Energy Efficiency, Induction Motor, EMDS

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
8 Comparison of Traditional and Green Building Designs in Egypt: Energy Saving

Authors: Hala M. Abdel Mageed, Ahmed I. Omar, Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem


This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “LEED”) as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Sustainability, Energy Consumption, Green Building, leadership in energy and environmental design

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7 CFD Modelling and Thermal Performance Analysis of Ventilated Double Skin Roof Structure

Authors: A. I. Ibrahim, A. O. Idris, J. Virgone, D. David, E. Vergnault


In hot countries, the major challenge is the air conditioning. The increase in energy consumption by air conditioning stems from the need to live in more comfortable buildings, which is understandable. But in Djibouti, one of the countries with the most expensive electricity in the world, this need is exacerbated by an architecture that is inappropriate and unsuitable for climatic conditions. This paper discusses the design of the roof which is the surface receiving the most solar radiation. The roof determines the general behavior of the building. The study presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and analysis of the energy performance of a double skin ventilated roof. The particularity of this study is that it considers the climate of Djibouti characterized by hot and humid conditions in winter and very hot and humid in summer. Roof simulations are carried out using the Ansys Fluent software to characterize the flow and the heat transfer induced in the ventilated roof in steady state. This modeling is carried out by comparing the influence of several parameters such as the internal emissivity of the upper surface, the thickness of the insulation of the roof and the thickness of the ventilated channel on heat gain through the roof. The energy saving potential compared to the current construction in Djibouti is also presented.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Building, CFD, natural convection, forced convection, double skin roof, thermo-fluid analysis

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6 Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Air Condition Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

Authors: Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu, Olusola Bamisile, Ferdinard Dika


The aim of this study was to model an air conditioning system that brings about effective cooling and reduce fossil fuel consumption with solar energy as an alternative source of energy. The objective of the study is to design a system with high COP, low usage of electricity and to integrate solar energy into AC systems. A hybrid solar assisted air conditioning system is designed to produce 30kW cooling capacity and R744 (CO₂) is used as a refrigerant. The effect of discharge pressure on the performance of the system is studied. The subcool temperature, evaporating temperature (5°C) and suction gas return temperature (12°C) are kept constant for the four different discharge pressures considered. The cooling gas temperature is set at 25°C, and the discharge pressure includes 80, 85, 90 and 95 bars. Copeland Scroll software is used for the simulation. A pressure-enthalpy graph is also used to deduce each enthalpy point while numerical methods were used in making other calculations. From the result of the study, it is observed that a higher COP is achieved with the use of solar assisted systems. As much as 46% of electricity requirements will be save using solar input at compressor stage.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Solar energy, Energy Saving, Performance

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5 End-Users Tools to Empower and Raise Awareness of Behavioural Change towards Energy Efficiency

Authors: G. Calleja-Rodriguez, N. Jimenez-Redondo, J. J. Peralta Escalante


This research work aims at developing a solution to take advantage of the potential energy saving related to occupants behaviour estimated in between 5-30 % according to existing studies. For that purpose, the following methodology has been followed: 1) literature review and gap analysis, 2) define concept and functional requirements, 3) evaluation and feedback by experts. As result, the concept for a tool-box that implements continuous behavior change interventions named as engagement methods and based on increasing energy literacy, increasing energy visibility, using bonus system, etc. has been defined. These engagement methods are deployed through a set of ICT tools: Building Automation and Control System (BACS) add-ons services installed in buildings and Users Apps installed in smartphones, smart-TVs or dashboards. The tool-box called eTEACHER identifies energy conservation measures (ECM) based on energy behavioral change through a what-if analysis that collects information about the building and its users (comfort feedback, behavior, etc.) and carry out cost-effective calculations to provide outputs such us efficient control settings of building systems. This information is processed and showed in an attractive way as tailored advice to the energy end-users. Therefore, eTEACHER goal is to change the behavior of building´s energy users towards energy efficiency, comfort and better health conditions by deploying customized ICT-based interventions taking into account building typology (schools, residential, offices, health care centres, etc.), users profile (occupants, owners, facility managers, employers, etc.) as well as cultural and demographic factors. One of the main findings of this work is the common failure when technological interventions on behavioural change are done to not consult, train and support users regarding technological changes leading to poor performance in practices. As conclusion, a strong need to carry out social studies to identify relevant behavioural issues and to identify effective pro-evironmental behavioral change strategies has been identified.

Keywords: Energy Saving, behavioral bhange, building users, engagement methods, energy conservation measures

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4 Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Gamal Sowilam, Omar Hegazy


This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Electric Vehicle, Simulation and Control, multi-motor, electric differential

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3 Enhancing Efficiency of Building through Translucent Concrete

Authors: Humaira Athar, Brajeshwar Singh


Generally, the brightness of the indoor environment of buildings is entirely maintained by the artificial lighting which has consumed a large amount of resources. It is reported that lighting consumes about 19% of the total generated electricity which accounts for about 30-40% of total energy consumption. One possible way is to reduce the lighting energy by exploiting sunlight either through the use of suitable devices or energy efficient materials like translucent concrete. Translucent concrete is one such architectural concrete which allows the passage of natural light as well as artificial light through it. Several attempts have been made on different aspects of translucent concrete such as light guiding materials (glass fibers, plastic fibers, cylinder etc.), concrete mix design and manufacturing methods for use as building elements. Concerns are, however, raised on various related issues such as poor compatibility between the optical fibers and cement paste, unaesthetic appearance due to disturbance occurred in the arrangement of fibers during vibration and high shrinkage in flowable concrete due to its high water/cement ratio. Need is felt to develop translucent concrete to meet the requirement of structural safety as OPC concrete with the maximized saving in energy towards the power of illumination and thermal load in buildings. Translucent concrete was produced using pre-treated plastic optical fibers (POF, 2mm dia.) and high slump white concrete. The concrete mix was proportioned in the ratio of 1:1.9:2.1 with a w/c ratio of 0.40. The POF was varied from 0.8-9 vol.%. The mechanical properties and light transmission of this concrete were determined. Thermal conductivity of samples was measured by a transient plate source technique. Daylight illumination was measured by a lux grid method as per BIS:SP-41. It was found that the compressive strength of translucent concrete increased with decreasing optical fiber content. An increase of ~28% in the compressive strength of concrete was noticed when fiber was pre-treated. FE-SEM images showed little-debonded zone between the fibers and cement paste which was well supported with pull-out bond strength test results (~187% improvement over untreated). The light transmission of concrete was in the range of 3-7% depending on fiber spacing (5-20 mm). The average daylight illuminance (~75 lux) was nearly equivalent to the criteria specified for illumination for circulation (80 lux). The thermal conductivity of translucent concrete was reduced by 28-40% with respect to plain concrete. The thermal load calculated by heat conduction equation was ~16% more than the plain concrete. Based on Design-Builder software, the total annual illumination energy load of a room using one side translucent concrete was 162.36 kW compared with the energy load of 249.75 kW for a room without concrete. The calculated energy saving on an account of the power of illumination was ~25%. A marginal improvement towards thermal comfort was also noticed. It is concluded that the translucent concrete has the advantages of the existing concrete (load bearing) with translucency and insulation characteristics. It saves a significant amount of energy by providing natural daylight instead of artificial power consumption of illumination.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Microstructure, Translucent Concrete, Plastic Optical Fibers, light transmission

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2 Energy Saving Study of Mass Rapid Transit by Optimal Train Coasting Operation

Authors: Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Artiya Sopharak


This paper presents an energy-saving study of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) using an optimal train coasting operation. For the dynamic train movement with four modes of operation, including accelerating mode, constant speed or cruising mode, coasting mode, and braking mode are considered in this study. The acceleration rate, the deceleration rate, and the starting coasting point are taken into account the optimal train speed profile during coasting mode with considering the energy saving and acceptable travel time comparison to the based case with no coasting operation. In this study, the mathematical method as a Quadratic Search Method (QDS) is conducted to carry out the optimization problem. A single train of MRT services between two stations with a distance of 2 km and a maximum speed of 80 km/h is taken to be the case study. Regarding the coasting mode operation, the results show that the longer distance of costing mode, the less energy consumption in cruising mode and the less braking energy. On the other hand, the shorter distance of coasting mode, the more energy consumption in cruising mode and the more braking energy.

Keywords: Energy Saving, mass rapid transit, coasting mode, quadratic search method

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1 Statistical Analysis to Compare between Smart City and Traditional Housing

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Taha Anjamrooz, Ayman Alzaatreh


Smart cities are playing important roles in real life. Integration and automation between different features of modern cities and information technologies improve smart city efficiency, energy management, human and equipment resource management, life quality and better utilization of resources for the customers. One of difficulties in this path, is use, interface and link between software, hardware, and other IT technologies to develop and optimize processes in various business fields such as construction, supply chain management and transportation in parallel to cost-effective and resource reduction impacts. Also, Smart cities are certainly intended to demonstrate a vital role in offering a sustainable and efficient model for smart houses while mitigating environmental and ecological matters. Energy management is one of the most important matters within smart houses in the smart cities and communities, because of the sensitivity of energy systems, reduction in energy wastage and maximization in utilizing the required energy. Specially, the consumption of energy in the smart houses is important and considerable in the economic balance and energy management in smart city as it causes significant increment in energy-saving and energy-wastage reduction. This research paper develops features and concept of smart city in term of overall efficiency through various effective variables. The selected variables and observations are analyzed through data analysis processes to demonstrate the efficiency of smart city and compare the effectiveness of each variable. There are ten chosen variables in this study to improve overall efficiency of smart city through increasing effectiveness of smart houses using an automated solar photovoltaic system, RFID System, smart meter and other major elements by interfacing between software and hardware devices as well as IT technologies. Secondly to enhance aspect of energy management by energy-saving within smart house through efficient variables. The main objective of smart city and smart houses is to reproduce energy and increase its efficiency through selected variables with a comfortable and harmless atmosphere for the customers within a smart city in combination of control over the energy consumption in smart house using developed IT technologies. Initially the comparison between traditional housing and smart city samples is conducted to indicate more efficient system. Moreover, the main variables involved in measuring overall efficiency of system are analyzed through various processes to identify and prioritize the variables in accordance to their influence over the model. The result analysis of this model can be used as comparison and benchmarking with traditional life style to demonstrate the privileges of smart cities. Furthermore, due to expensive and expected shortage of natural resources in near future, insufficient and developed research study in the region, and available potential due to climate and governmental vision, the result and analysis of this study can be used as key indicator to select most effective variables or devices during construction phase and design

Keywords: Energy Saving, Energy Efficiency, RFID, Smart City, Traditional Housing, Photovoltaic System

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