Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Energy Related Abstracts

123 Investigation of Passive Solutions of Thermal Comfort in Housing Aiming to Reduce Energy Consumption

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Josiane R. Pires, Bruna L. Brenner, Luciana S. Roos

Abstract:

The concern with sustainability brought the need for optimization of the buildings to reduce consumption of natural resources. Almost 1/3 of energy demanded by Brazilian housings is used to provide thermal solutions. AEC sector may contribute applying bioclimatic strategies on building design. The aim of this research is to investigate the viability of applying some alternative solutions in residential buildings. The research was developed with computational simulation on single family social housing, examining envelope type, absorptance, and insolation. The analysis of the thermal performance applied both Brazilian standard NBR 15575 and degree-hour method, in the scenery of Porto Alegre, a southern Brazilian city. We used BIM modeling through Revit/Autodesk and used Energy Plus to thermal simulation. The payback of the investment was calculated comparing energy savings and building costs, in a period of 50 years. The results shown that with the increment of envelope’s insulation there is thermal comfort improvement and energy economy, with a pay-back period of 24 to 36 years, in some cases.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Economic analysis, Thermal Performance, civil construction

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122 Energy Efficient Shading Strategies for Windows of Hospital ICUs in the Desert

Authors: A. Sherif, A. El Zafarany, R. Arafa

Abstract:

Hospitals, everywhere, are considered heavy energy consumers. Hospital Intensive Care Unit spaces pose a special challenge, where design guidelines requires the provision of external windows for day-lighting and external view. Window protection strategies could be employed to reduce energy loads without detriment effect on comfort or health care. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using various window strategies on the annual cooling, heating and lighting energy use of a typical Hospital Intensive Unit space. Series of experiments were performed using the EnergyPlus simulation software for a typical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) space in Cairo, located in the Egyptian desert. This study concluded that the use of shading systems is more effective in conserving energy in comparison with glazing of different types, in the Cairo ICUs. The highest energy savings in the West and South orientations were accomplished by external perforated solar screens, followed by overhangs positioned at a protection angle of 45°.

Keywords: Energy, hospital, intensive care units, shading

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
121 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: J. D. Mallapur, Y. B. Kirankumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: Energy, Wireless Sensor Network, WSN, energy approach

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120 Kinetic Energy Recovery System Using Spring

Authors: Mayuresh Thombre, Prajyot Borkar, Mangirish Bhobe

Abstract:

New advancement of technology and never satisfying demands of the civilization are putting huge pressure on the natural fuel resources and these resources are at a constant threat to its sustainability. To get the best out of the automobile, the optimum balance between performance and fuel economy is important. In the present state of art, either of the above two aspects are taken into mind while designing and development process which puts the other in the loss as increase in fuel economy leads to decrement in performance and vice-versa. In-depth observation of the vehicle dynamics apparently shows that large amount of energy is lost during braking and likewise large amount of fuel is consumed to reclaim the initial state, this leads to lower fuel efficiency to gain the same performance. Current use of Kinetic Energy Recovery System is only limited to sports vehicles only because of the higher cost of this system. They are also temporary in nature as power can be squeezed only during a small time duration and use of superior parts leads to high cost, which results on concentration on performance only and neglecting the fuel economy. In this paper Kinetic Energy Recovery System for storing the power and then using the same while accelerating has been discussed. The major storing element in this system is a Flat Spiral Spring that will store energy by compression and torsion. The use of spring ensure the permanent storage of energy until used by the driver unlike present mechanical regeneration system in which the energy stored decreases with time and is eventually lost. A combination of internal gears and spur gears will be used in order to make the energy release uniform which will lead to safe usage. The system can be used to improve the fuel efficiency by assisting in overcoming the vehicle’s inertia after braking or to provide instant acceleration whenever required by the driver. The performance characteristics of the system including response time, mechanical efficiency and overall increase in efficiency are demonstrated. This technology makes the KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) more flexible and economical allowing specific application while at the same time increasing the time frame and ease of usage.

Keywords: Energy, Power, electric control unit, mechanical KERS, planetary gear system, smart braking, spiral spring

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119 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"

Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari

Abstract:

In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.

Keywords: Human, Wind, Energy, Solar energy, biomass, renewable, Environment, Pollution, Sources

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118 Modelisation of a Full-Scale Closed Cement Grinding

Authors: D. Touil, L. Ouadah

Abstract:

An industrial model of cement grinding circuit is proposed on the basis of sampling surveys undertaken in the Meftah cement plant in Algiers, Algeria. The ball mill is described by a series of equal fully mixed stages that incorporates the effect of air sweeping. The kinetic parameters of this material in the energy normalized form obtained using the data of batch dry ball milling are taken into account in developing the present scale-up procedure. The dynamic separator is represented by the air classifier selectivity equation corrected by empirical factors. The model is incorporated in computer program that predict full size distributions and mass flow rates for all streams in a circuit under a particular set of operating conditions.

Keywords: Energy, Modeling, cement, clinker, grinding circuit, population balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
117 Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop

Authors: Shafique Qadir Memon, Muhammad Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal, Nadeem Amjad

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.

Keywords: Energy, tillage, grain yield, net energy gain

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116 Influence of Shield Positions on Thermo/Fluid Performance of Pin Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

In heat sinks, the flow within the core exhibits separation and hence does not lend itself to simple analytical boundary layer or duct flow analysis of the wall friction. In this paper, I present some findings from an experimental and numerical study aimed to obtain physical insight into the influence of the presence of the shield and its position on the hydraulic and thermal performance of square pin fin heat sink without top by-pass. The variations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained under varied parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the shield position. The numerical code is validated by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. It is shown that, there is a good agreement between the temperature predictions based on the model and the experimental data. Results show that, as the presence of the shield, the heat transfer of fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance increased. The surface temperature distribution of the heat sink base is more uniform when the dimensionless shield position equals to 1/3 or 2/3. The comprehensive performance evaluation approach based on identical pumping power criteria is adopted and shows that the optimum shield position is at x/l=0.43 where energy is saved.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Energy, Performance Evaluation, shield, fin array

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115 Environmental Evaluation of Alternative/Renewable Fuels Technology

Authors: Muhammad Hadi Ibrahim

Abstract:

The benefits of alternative/renewable fuels in general and a study of the environmental impacts of biofuels in particular have been reviewed in this paper. It is a known fact that, energy generation using fossil fuel produces many important pollutants including; nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, soot, dust, smoke and other particulate harmful matter. It’s believed that if carbon dioxide levels continue to increase drastically, the planet will become warmer and will most likely result in a variety of negative impacts including; sea-level rise, extreme and unpredictable weather events and an increased frequency of draughts in inland agricultural zones. Biofuels such as alcohols, biogas, etc. appear to be more viable alternatives, especially for use as fuels in diesel engines. The substitution of fossil fuel through increased utilization of biofuels produced in a sustainable manner, can contribute immensely towards a cleaner environment, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation of climate change. Stakeholders in the energy sector can be sensitized by the findings of the research study and to consider the possible adverse effects in developing technologies for the production and combustion of biofuels.

Keywords: Energy, Environment, Pollution, Emission, renewable/alternative fuel

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114 Occurrence and Geological Setting of the Black Shales Outcrops in Malaysia

Authors: Hassan M. Baioumy, Yuniarti Ulfa

Abstract:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic black shales that can be a potential source of energy and precious metals are widely distributed in Malaysia Peninsula, Sarawak and Sabah. Two Paleozoic black shales outcrops were reported in the Langkawi Island belonging to the Cambrian fluvial Machinchang Formation and the Silurian glaciomarine Singa Formation. More the seventeen occurrences of Paleozoic black shales outcrops have been found in the Peninsular Malaysia that range in age from Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian in the Terengganu, Perlis, Pahang, and Perak States. Mesozoic black shales outcrops occur in several places in both the Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak. In the Peninsular Malaysia, Triassic black shales occur in the Nami area, Northern Kedah and in the Pahang area. In Sarawak, Triassic black shales have been reported in the Bau area. Cenozoic black shales outcrops were reported in both Sarawak at Miri area and Sabah at the Ranau and Tenom areas. Preliminary mineralogical and geochemical investigations on some of these black shales outcrops showed distinct compositional variations among these black shales outcrops probably due to variations in their source area composition and/or depositional and diagenetic settings of these shales. Some of these shalese also subjected to post-depositional hydrothermal mineralization that enriched these shales with Au-bearing minerals such as pyrite, calchopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Many of the studied black shales outcrops look rich in organic matter, which increase the possibility of using these black shales as an unconventional energy resource.

Keywords: Energy, Mineralization, Malaysia, black shales

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113 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman

Abstract:

In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: Energy, Storage, Battery, charger, super capacitor

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112 Cleaner Production Framework for an Beverage Manufacturing Company

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

This study explores to improve the resource efficiency, waste water reduction and to reduce losses of raw materials in a beverage making industry. A number of cleaner production technologies were put across in this work. It was also noted that cleaner production technology practices are not only desirable from the environmental point of view, but they also make good economic sense, in their contribution to the bottom line by conserving resources like energy, raw materials and manpower, improving yield as well as reducing treatment/disposal costs. This work is a resource in promoting adoption and implementation of CP in other industries for sustainable development.

Keywords: Energy, Cleaner Production, Beverages, Yield, Resource Efficiency, reduce losses

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111 Prediction Study of the Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of the Parent and Martensitic Phases of Nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf Pure Metals

Authors: Tayeb Chihi, Messaoud Fatmi

Abstract:

We present calculations of the structural, elastic and electronic properties of nonferrous Ti, Zr, and Hf pure metals in both parent and martensite phases in bcc and hcp structures respectively. They are based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) within the density functional theory (DFT). The shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for Ti, Zr, and Hf metals have were calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental values. Using elastic constants obtained from calculations GGA, the bulk modulus along the crystallographic axes of single crystals was calculated. This is in good agreement with experiment for Ti and Zr, whereas the hcp structure for Hf is a prediction. At zero temperature and zero pressure, the bcc crystal structure is found to be mechanically unstable for Ti, Zr, and Hf. In our calculations the hcp structures is correctly found to be stable at the equilibrium volume. In the electronic density of states (DOS), the smaller n(EF) is, the more stable the compound is. Therefore, in agreement with the results obtained from the total energy minimum.

Keywords: Energy, Transformation, Pure Metals

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110 Fracking the UK's Shale Gas Regulatory Regime

Authors: Yanal Abul Failat

Abstract:

The production of oil and natural gas from shale formations is becoming a trend, and many countries with technically and economically recoverable unconventional resources are endeavoring to explore how shale formations may benefit the economy and achieve energy security. The trajectory of shale gas development in the UK is highly supported by the government; in the Gas Generation Strategy Paper published by the UK government on 5 December 2013, it is recognized that the shale gas production would decrease reliance on imports and thus enhance the UK’s energy security. Moreover, the UK Institute of Directors report on UK Shale Gas Potential explains that in the UK there is a potential of production peaking at around 1.13 trillion cubic feet (“tcf”) and a sector that could support around 70,000 jobs and secure net benefit to the Treasury in tax revenues. On this basis, there has been a growing interest in the benefits of exploring the UK’s shale gas but a combination of technical challenges faced in shale gas operations, a stern opposition by environmentalists and concerns on the adequacy of the legal framework have slowed the progress of the emerging UK shale industry.

Keywords: Energy, Oil and Gas, Legal, Shale Gas

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109 Technology Maps in Energy Applications Based on Patent Trends: A Case Study

Authors: Juan David Sepulveda

Abstract:

This article reflects the current stage of progress in the project “Determining technological trends in energy generation”. At first it was oriented towards finding out those trends by employing such tools as the scientometrics community had proved and accepted as effective for getting reliable results. Because a documented methodological guide for this purpose could not be found, the decision was made to reorient the scope and aim of this project, changing the degree of interest in pursuing the objectives. Therefore it was decided to propose and implement a novel guide from the elements and techniques found in the available literature. This article begins by explaining the elements and considerations taken into account when implementing and applying this methodology, and the tools that led to the implementation of a software application for patent revision. Univariate analysis helped recognize the technological leaders in the field of energy, and steered the way for a multivariate analysis of this sample, which allowed for a graphical description of the techniques of mature technologies, as well as the detection of emerging technologies. This article ends with a validation of the methodology as applied to the case of fuel cells.

Keywords: Energy, Patents, technology mapping, univariate analysis

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108 Efficient Energy Management: A Novel Technique for Prolonged and Persistent Automotive Engine

Authors: Chakshu Baweja, Ishaan Prakash, Deepak Giri, Prithwish Mukherjee, Herambraj Ashok Nalawade

Abstract:

The need to prevent and control rampant and indiscriminate usage of energy in present-day realm on earth has motivated active research efforts aimed at understanding of controlling mechanisms leading to sustained energy. Although much has been done but complexity of the problem has prevented a complete understanding due to nonlinear interaction between flow, heat and mass transfer in terrestrial environment. Therefore, there is need for a systematic study to clearly understand mechanisms controlling energy-spreading phenomena to increase a system’s efficiency. The present work addresses the issue of sustaining energy and proposes a devoted technique of optimizing energy in the automotive domain. The proposed method focus on utilization of the mechanical and thermal energy of an automobile IC engine by converting and storing energy due to motion of a piston in form of electrical energy. The suggested technique utilizes piston motion of the engine to generate high potential difference capable of working as a secondary power source. This is achieved by the use of a gear mechanism and a flywheel.

Keywords: Energy, Efficiency, Electromagnetic Induction, internal combustion engine, gear ratio, hybrid vehicle, engine shaft

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107 SFO-ECRSEP: Sensor Field Optimızation Based Ecrsep For Heterogeneous WSNS

Authors: Gagandeep Singh

Abstract:

The sensor field optimization is a serious issue in WSNs and has been ignored by many researchers. As in numerous real-time sensing fields the sensor nodes on the corners i.e. on the segment boundaries will become lifeless early because no extraordinary safety is presented for them. Accordingly, in this research work the central objective is on the segment based optimization by separating the sensor field between advance and normal segments. The inspiration at the back this sensor field optimization is to extend the time spam when the first sensor node dies. For the reason that in normal sensor nodes which were exist on the borders may become lifeless early because the space among them and the base station is more so they consume more power so at last will become lifeless soon.

Keywords: Energy, WSNs, ECRSEP, SEP, field optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
106 Application of Genetic Algorithm with Multiobjective Function to Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Thermal System

Authors: Sonveer Singh, Sanjay Agrawal, D. V. Avasthi, Jayant Shekhar

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithms with multi-objective function. There are some parameters that affect the efficiency of PVT system like depth and length of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid through the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid i.e. all above parameters are considered for optimization. An attempt has been made to the model and optimizes the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module when two objective functions have been considered separately. The two objective function for optimization of PVT module is overall electrical and thermal efficiency. All equations for PVT module have been derived. Using genetic algorithms (GAs), above two objective functions of the system has been optimized separately and analysis has been carried out for two cases. Two cases are: Case-I; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall electrical efficiency is optimized, Case-II; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non-changeable parameters, like solar radiation, ambient temperature cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that electrical efficiency (14.08%) and thermal efficiency (19.48%) are obtained when overall thermal efficiency was an objective function for optimization. It is observed that GA is a very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module.

Keywords: Energy, Optimization, Exergy, Genetic Algorithm, PVT module

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105 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Photovoltaic, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
104 Critical Review of Clean Energy Mix as Means of Boosting Power Generation in Nigeria

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Adequate power generation and supply are enormous challenges confronting Nigeria state today. This is a powerful mechanism that drives industrial development and socio-economy of any nation. The present level of power generation and supply have become national embarrassment to both government and the citizens of Nigeria, where over 60% of the population have no access to electricity. This paper is set to review the abundant clean energy alternative sources available in abundance that are capable of boosting power generation. The clean energy sources waiting to be exploited include: nuclear, solar and wind energy. The environmental benefits of these sources of power generation are identified. Nuclear energy is a powerful clean energy source. However, Africa accounted for 20% of known recoverable reserve and uranium produces heat of 500,000 MJ/kg. Moreover, Nigeria receives average daily solar radiation of over 5.249 kWh/m2/day. Researchers have shown that wind speed and power flux densities varied from 1.5 – 4.1 m/s and 5.7 – 22.5 W/m2 respectively. It is a fact that the cost of doing business in Nigeria is very high, leading to winding up of the multi-national companies and then led to increase unemployment level. More importantly, readily available vast quantity of energy will reduce cost of running industries. Hence, more industries will come on board, goods, services, and more job creation will be achieved. This clean source of power generation is devoid of production of green house gases, elimination of environmental pollution, and reduced waste disposal. Then Nigerians will live in harmony with the environment.

Keywords: Energy, Industrial, Power, Clean, Generation, mix

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103 Conceptualization and Strategies of Biogas Technology for Rural Development in Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The main challenge of present world is to harness the energy source which is environment friendly and ecologically balanced. This need has forced to search for other alternate source of energy. But unfortunately the new alternative energy sources like the solar, hydro, wind etc. require huge economical value and technical power to operate, which seem to be very difficult for the developing countries like Nigeria. In the present moment biogas energy can be one and only reliable, easily available and economically feasible source of alternative and renewable source which can be managed by locally available sources and simple technology for secondary schools, tertiary institution and rural villages. This paper is aimed at boosting the energy generation for developing of rural Nigeria, through Biogas.

Keywords: Energy, Environment, Technology, Nigeria, bio-gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
102 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

Abstract:

With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, biofuel, Energy policy, Environmental Impacts

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101 Green Organic Chemistry, a New Paradigm in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Pesaru Vigneshwar Reddy, Parvathaneni Pavan

Abstract:

Green organic chemistry which is the latest and one of the most researched topics now-a- days has been in demand since 1990’s. Majority of the research in green organic chemistry chemicals are some of the important starting materials for greater number of major chemical industries. The production of organic chemicals has raw materials (or) reagents for other application is major sector of manufacturing polymers, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, artificial fibers, food additives etc. organic synthesis on a large scale compound to the labratory scale, involves the use of energy, basic chemical ingredients from the petro chemical sectors, catalyst and after the end of the reaction, seperation, purification, storage, packing distribution etc. During these processes there are many problems of health and safety for workers in addition to the environmental problems caused there by use and deposition as waste. Green chemistry with its 12 principles would like to see changes in conventional way that were used for decades to make synthetic organic chemical and the use of less toxic starting materials. Green chemistry would like to increase the efficiency of synthetic methods, to use less toxic solvents, reduce the stage of synthetic routes and minimize waste as far as practically possible. In this way, organic synthesis will be part of the effort for sustainable development Green chemistry is also interested for research and alternatives innovations on many practical aspects of organic synthesis in the university and research labaratory of institutions. By changing the methodologies of organic synthesis, health and safety will be advanced in the small scale laboratory level but also will be extended to the industrial large scale production a process through new techniques. The three key developments in green chemistry include the use of super critical carbondioxide as green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidising agent and use of hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis. It also focuses on replacing traditional methods of heating with that of modern methods of heating like microwaves traditions, so that carbon foot print should reduces as far as possible. Another beneficiary of this green chemistry is that it will reduce environmental pollution through the use of less toxic reagents, minimizing of waste and more bio-degradable biproducts. In this present paper some of the basic principles, approaches, and early achievements of green chemistry has a branch of chemistry that studies the laws of passing of chemical reactions is also considered, with the summarization of green chemistry principles. A discussion about E-factor, old and new synthesis of ibuprofen, microwave techniques, and some of the recent advancements also considered.

Keywords: Energy, e-factor, carbon foot print, micro-wave, sono-chemistry, advancement

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100 Reduced Power Consumption by Randomization for DSI3

Authors: David Levy

Abstract:

The newly released Distributed System Interface 3 (DSI3) Bus Standard specification defines 3 modulation levels from which 16 valid symbols are coded. This structure creates power consumption variations depending on the transmitted data of a factor of more than 2 between minimum and maximum. The power generation unit has to consider therefore the worst case maximum consumption all the time and be built accordingly. This paper proposes a method to reduce both the average current consumption and worst case current consumption. The transmitter randomizes the data using several pseudo-random sequences. It then estimates the energy consumption of the generated frames and selects to transmit the one which consumes the least. The transmitter also prepends the index of the pseudo-random sequence, which is not randomized, to allow the receiver to recover the original data using the correct sequence. We show that in the case that the frame occupies most of the DSI3 synchronization period, we achieve average power consumption reduction by up to 13% and the worst case power consumption is reduced by 17.7%.

Keywords: Energy, Power Consumption, DSI3, randomization

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99 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Best Available Technique Application in a Food Processing Plant

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Magdaléna Náplavová, Alexandr Bozek, Pavel Budinsky, Ignac Hoza

Abstract:

A cleaner production project was implemented in a bakery. The project is based on the substitution of the best available technique for an obsolete leaven production technology. The new technology enables production of durable, high-quality leavens. Moreover, 25% of flour as the original raw material can be replaced by pastry from the previous day production which has not been sold. That pastry was previously disposed in a waste incineration plant. Besides the environmental benefits resulting from less waste, lower consumption of energy, reduction of sewage waters quantity and floury dustiness there are also significant economic benefits. Payback period of investment was calculated with help of static method of financial analysis about 2.6 years, using dynamic method 3.5 years and an internal rate of return more than 29%. The supposed annual average profit after taxation in the second year of operation was incompliance with the real profit.

Keywords: Energy, Investment, Cleaner Production, Efficiency, savings, bakery, costs, best available technology, economic benefit, environmental benefit

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98 Fuelwood Rsources Utilisation and Its Impact on Sustainable Environment: A Rural Perception

Authors: Abubakar Abdullahi

Abstract:

Large amount of human energy are spent gathering and collecting fuel wood in many parts of the world, most especially in rural areas. In Nigeria fuel wood serves million houses in both rural and urban centers for various energy needs. It’s a common scene in many places while passing by roads to see bunch of woods being sold by the road sides. Even though the resource serves millions of peoples energy needs it has serious consequences on our environment, thus sustainable environment. Majority of the rural areas who rely heavily on the firewood as a means of energy are not aware of the dangers associated with the uses of the products. The aim of this work is to look into the utilization of fuel wood among rural dwellers and their perception about the dangers associated with it and how to sustain our environment. The methodology used involves a structured questionnaire designed with the question about the utilization and perception. The questionnaire is administered to the people of Kashere, a rural area in Gombe state. The result clearly shows there is a high level of ignorance among rural dwellers on the dangers of using fuel wood and how it constitute the depletion of the immediate environment. However, what is surprising in the research is the people’s readiness for alternative energy sources. The research recommend that proper orientation and sensitization is required to create education and awareness to the rural dwellers as well as provide alternative energy that is available, environment friendly and accessible to address the problems.

Keywords: Energy, Environment, resources, rural dwellers, fuel wood

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97 Energy Use, Emissions, Economic Growth and Trade: Evidence from Mauritius

Authors: B. Seetanah, H. Neeliah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the relationship among energy, emissions and economic growth in Mauritius in the presence of trade activities, with capital and labour as other control variables. Using annual data from 1960 to 2011, it is found that the variables are non-stationary and cointegrated. The relationship among the various variables are thus examined in a dynamic VECM framework. Our empirical results comply with the growth hypothesis. Output elasticities of 0.17, 0.25 and 0.43 show that increases in energy consumption cause increases in economic growth, capital accumulation and trade in the long run. We also found that CO2 negatively affects output, but has no significant effect on trade. Findings for the long-run generally tend to tally with those in the short-run. Interestingly we found that energy consumption has a significant impact on CO2 emissions. Our results tend to suggest that implementing energy conservation strategies to mitigate the negative impact of CO2 emissions can dent economic growth, and that promoting cleaner energy production could be a better alternative for Mauritius.

Keywords: Energy, Emissions, Economic growth, Export, VECM

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96 Nutrition Intervention for Spinal Cord Injury in Critical Care

Authors: Dina Muharib

Abstract:

Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested.

Keywords: Energy, Protein, SCI, Nutrition Assessment, eneral feeding, nitrogen balance

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95 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

Abstract:

This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: Energy, Fermentation, temperature, biogas production, Anaerobic Digestion, bio-reactor, biogas plant, rate of production, therm

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94 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: Energy, Light, circular polarizer, window, air condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 349