Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

energy recovery Related Abstracts

8 Pump-as-Turbine: Testing and Characterization as an Energy Recovery Device, for Use within the Water Distribution Network

Authors: T. Lydon, A. McNabola, P. Coughlan

Abstract:

Energy consumption in the water distribution network (WDN) is a well established problem equating to the industry contributing heavily to carbon emissions, with 0.9 kg CO2 emitted per m3 of water supplied. It is indicated that 85% of energy wasted in the WDN can be recovered by installing turbines. Existing potential in networks is present at small capacity sites (5-10 kW), numerous and dispersed across networks. However, traditional turbine technology cannot be scaled down to this size in an economically viable fashion, thus alternative approaches are needed. This research aims to enable energy recovery potential within the WDN by exploring the potential of pumps-as-turbines (PATs), to realise this potential. PATs are estimated to be ten times cheaper than traditional micro-hydro turbines, presenting potential to contribute to an economically viable solution. However, a number of technical constraints currently prohibit their widespread use, including the inability of a PAT to control pressure, difficulty in the selection of PATs due to lack of performance data and a lack of understanding on how PATs can cater for fluctuations as extreme as +/- 50% of the average daily flow, characteristic of the WDN. A PAT prototype is undergoing testing in order to identify the capabilities of the technology. Results of preliminary testing, which involved testing the efficiency and power potential of the PAT for varying flow and pressure conditions, in order to develop characteristic and efficiency curves for the PAT and a baseline understanding of the technologies capabilities, are presented here: •The limitations of existing selection methods which convert BEP from pump operation to BEP in turbine operation was highlighted by the failure of such methods to reflect the conditions of maximum efficiency of the PAT. A generalised selection method for the WDN may need to be informed by an understanding of impact of flow variations and pressure control on system power potential capital cost, maintenance costs, payback period. •A clear relationship between flow and efficiency rate of the PAT has been established. The rate of efficiency reductions for flows +/- 50% BEP is significant and more extreme for deviations in flow above the BEP than below, but not dissimilar to the reaction of efficiency of other turbines. •PAT alone is not sufficient to regulate pressure, yet the relationship of pressure across the PAT is foundational in exploring ways which PAT energy recovery systems can maintain required pressure level within the WDN. Efficiencies of systems of PAT energy recovery systems operating conditions of pressure regulation, which have been conceptualise in current literature, need to be established. Initial results guide the focus of forthcoming testing and exploration of PAT technology towards how PATs can form part of an efficiency energy recovery system.

Keywords: energy recovery, pump-as-turbine, water distribution network

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7 Cleaning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Obtained from Ferroalloys Plant

Authors: Stefan Andersson, Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen

Abstract:

Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of only hydrogen and carbon aromatic rings. PAH are neutral, non-polar molecules that are produced due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. These compounds are carcinogenic and interact with biological nucleophiles to inhibit the normal metabolic functions of the cells. Norways, the most important sources of PAH pollution is considered to be aluminum plants, the metallurgical industry, offshore oil activity, transport, and wood burning. Stricter governmental regulations regarding emissions to the outer and internal environment combined with increased awareness of the potential health effects have motivated Norwegian metal industries to increase their efforts to reduce emissions considerably. One of the objective of the ongoing industry and Norwegian research council supported "SCORE" project is to reduce potential PAH emissions from an off gas stream of a ferroalloy furnace through controlled combustion. In a dedicated combustion chamber. The sizing and configuration of the combustion chamber depends on the combined properties of the bulk gas stream and the properties of the PAH itself. In order to achieve efficient and complete combustion the residence time and minimum temperature need to be optimized. For this design approach reliable kinetic data of the individual PAH-species and/or groups thereof are necessary. However, kinetic data on the combustion of PAH are difficult to obtain and there is only a limited number of studies. The paper presents an evaluation of the kinetic data for some of the PAH obtained from literature. In the present study, the oxidation is modelled for pure PAH and also for PAH mixed with process gas. Using a perfectly stirred reactor modelling approach the oxidation is modelled including advanced reaction kinetics to study influence of residence time and temperature on the conversion of PAH to CO2 and water. A Chemical Reactor Network (CRN) approach is developed to understand the oxidation of PAH inside the combustion chamber. Chemical reactor network modeling has been found to be a valuable tool in the evaluation of oxidation behavior of PAH under various conditions.

Keywords: energy recovery, PSR, PAH, ferro alloy furnace

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6 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio

Abstract:

The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: Benchmarking, Landfill, energy recovery, municipal solid waste

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5 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen

Abstract:

The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, energy recovery, Combustion Chamber, arc furnace

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4 Estimation of Eucalyptus Wood Calorific Potential for Energy Recovering

Authors: N. Ouslimani, H. Aksas, N. Hakimi

Abstract:

The reduction of oil reserves in the world makes that many countries are directed towards the study and the use of local and renewable energies. For this purpose, wood energy represents the material of choice. The energy production is primarily thermal and corresponds to a heating of comfort, auxiliary or principal. Wood is generally conditioned in the form of logs, of pellets, even of plates. In Algeria, this way of energy saving could contribute to the safeguarding of the environment, as to the recovery of under wood products (branches, barks and various wastes on the various transformation steps). This work is placed within the framework general of the search for new sources of energy starting from the recovery of the lignocellulosic matter. In this direction, we proposed various sources of products (biomass, under product and by-products) relating to the ‘Eucalyptus species’ being able to be developed, of which we carried out a preliminary physicochemical study, necessary to the development of the densified products with high calorific value.

Keywords: Combustion, biomass, energy recovery, calorific value

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3 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

Keywords: energy recovery, Diesel Engine, Organic Rankine Cycle, absorption system, ejector refrigeration

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Analysis of Heat Exchanging Performance of Rotary Thermal Wheels

Authors: H. M. D. Prabhashana Herath, M. D. Anuradha Wickramasinghe, A. M. C. Kalpani Polgolla, R. A. C. Prasad Ranasinghe, M. Anusha Wijewardane

Abstract:

The demand for thermal comfort in buildings in hot and humid climates increases progressively. In general, buildings in hot and humid climates spend more than 60% of the total energy cost for the functionality of the air conditioning (AC) system. Hence, it is required to install energy efficient AC systems or integrate energy recovery systems for both new and/or existing AC systems whenever possible, to reduce the energy consumption by the AC system. Integrate a Rotary Thermal Wheel as the energy recovery device of an existing AC system has shown very promising with attractive payback periods of less than 5 years. A rotary thermal wheel can be located in the Air Handling Unit (AHU) of a central AC system to recover the energy available in the return air stream. During this study, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software to determine the optimum design parameters (i.e., rotary speed and parameters of the matrix profile) of a rotary thermal wheel for hot and humid climates. The simulations were performed for a sinusoidal matrix geometry. Variation of sinusoidal matrix parameters, i.e., span length and height, were also analyzed to understand the heat exchanging performance and the induced pressure drop due to the air flow. The results show that the heat exchanging performance increases when increasing the wheel rpm. However, the performance increment rate decreases when increasing the rpm. As a result, it is more advisable to operate the wheel at 10-20 rpm. For the geometry, it was found that the sinusoidal geometries with lesser spans and higher heights have higher heat exchanging capabilities. Considering the sinusoidal profiles analyzed during the study, the geometry with 4mm height and 3mm width shows better performance than the other combinations.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, energy recovery, Heat Exchangers

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1 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal

Authors: T. Malmir, U. Eicker

Abstract:

Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.

Keywords: energy recovery, Organic Waste, waste flow, urban energy modelling with INSEL

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