Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Energy policy Related Abstracts

19 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Abstract:

Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: Turkey, Energy policy, Energy Strategy, future projection

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18 Highlighting of the Factors and Policies affecting CO2 Emissions level in Malaysian Transportation Sector

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand requirement has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyse the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.

Keywords: Energy policy, Fuel Consumption, Co2 Emissions, Transportation Sector, Malaysia

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17 Energy Policy and Interactions with Politics and Economics

Authors: A. Beril Tuğrul

Abstract:

Demand on production and thereby the global need of energy is growing continuously. Each country has different trends on energy demand and supply according to their geopolitical and geographical locations, underground reserves, weather conditions and level of industrialization. Conventional energy resources such as oil, gas and coal –in other words fossil resources- remain dominant on primary energy supply in spite of causing of environmental problems. Energy supply and demand securities are essential within the energy importing and exporting countries. This concept affected all sectors, but especially impressed on political aspects of the countries and also global economic views.

Keywords: Energy policy, Energy Economics, Energy Strategy, global trends, petro-dollar recycling

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16 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

Abstract:

With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, biofuel, Energy policy, Environmental Impacts

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15 Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Development Perspectives in Lithuanian Furniture Industry

Authors: J. Vasauskaite

Abstract:

From the perspective of Lithuanian furniture enterprises, the role of energy efficiency is significant as it leads to direct economic benefits, increased competitiveness and higher productivity. There are various possible improvements in energy efficiency in industry: changes in the production process, investment in R&D, implementation of energy-saving technologies or energy management systems. The research aims to contribute the understanding of energy efficiency importance in industry by presenting possible improvements of energy use in different manufacturing process of enterprises. The evaluation methodology included quantitative and qualitative research methods: the comparative and statistical analysis of primary and secondary sources of information. This paper provides the detailed analysis of the energy efficiency development opportunities and challenges in Lithuanian furniture industry. The results of the study show the importance of technological innovations, energy efficiency policies and environmental management strategies in developing energy efficiency within the wood and furniture industry. The analysis of energy efficiency development in Lithuanian furniture industry showed that the industrial activities are influenced by various internal and external factors such as increasing flows of products, human resources and overall management decisions; dynamic growth and increasing competition; emerging need for environmental information. In the light of these factors, Lithuanian furniture industry has undergone significant changes – restructuring, technological advances and business model innovations, allowing it to be more export-oriented and focus on upgrading quality, design and innovation.

Keywords: Energy policy, Technological innovation, Energy Efficiency, furniture industry

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14 The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database: Introducing a Quantified Library of China's Energy Policies

Authors: Philipp Galkin

Abstract:

Government policy is a critical factor in the understanding of energy markets. Regardless, it is rarely approached systematically from a research perspective. Gaining a precise understanding of what policies exist, their intended outcomes, geographical extent, duration, evolution, etc. would enable the research community to answer a variety of questions that, for now, are either oversimplified or ignored. Policy, on its surface, also seems a rather unstructured and qualitative undertaking. There may be quantitative components, but incorporating the concept of policy analysis into quantitative analysis remains a challenge. The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database (KEPD) is intended to address these two energy policy research limitations. Our approach is to represent policies within a quantitative library of the specific policy measures contained within a set of legal documents. Each of these measures is recorded into the database as a single entry characterized by a set of qualitative and quantitative attributes. Initially, we have focused on the major laws at the national level that regulate coal in China. However, KAPSARC is engaged in various efforts to apply this methodology to other energy policy domains. To ensure scalability and sustainability of our project, we are exploring semantic processing using automated computer algorithms. Automated coding can provide a more convenient input data for human coders and serve as a quality control option. Our initial findings suggest that the methodology utilized in KEPD could be applied to any set of energy policies. It also provides a convenient tool to facilitate understanding in the energy policy realm enabling the researcher to quickly identify, summarize, and digest policy documents and specific policy measures. The KEPD captures a wide range of information about each individual policy contained within a single policy document. This enables a variety of analyses, such as structural comparison of policy documents, tracing policy evolution, stakeholder analysis, and exploring interdependencies of policies and their attributes with exogenous datasets using statistical tools. The usability and broad range of research implications suggest a need for the continued expansion of the KEPD to encompass a larger scope of policy documents across geographies and energy sectors.

Keywords: Energy policy, Policy Analysis, China, policy database

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13 Status Check: Journey of India’s Energy Sustainability through Renewable Sources

Authors: Santosh Ghosh, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Vivekananda Mukherjee, Ishta Garg

Abstract:

India, akin to the rest of the world today, is grappling with balancing act between ever increasing demand for energy and alarmingly high level of green house gas emission, which is inevitable corollary of energy production in the conventional way. Researchers and energy policy makers around the world are now focusing on renewable energy (RE) technologies to find solution to this crisis. In India various agencies at both national and state level has been set up and bestowed with responsibility of development of renewable energy technologies, viz. Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVNL), Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) and RE Development Agencies in respective states. In the present work, the preparedness of India in terms of forming institutional and policy frame work briefly discussed. Status of implementation of RE technologies state wise and of India as a whole, critically reviewed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy policy, Energy Sustainability, IREDA

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12 The Scenario Analysis of Shale Gas Development in China by Applying Natural Gas Pipeline Optimization Model

Authors: Meng Xu, Alexis K. H. Lau, Ming Xu, Bill Barron, Narges Shahraki

Abstract:

As an emerging unconventional energy, shale gas has been an economically viable step towards a cleaner energy future in U.S. China also has shale resources that are estimated to be potentially the largest in the world. In addition, China has enormous unmet for a clean alternative to substitute coal. Nonetheless, the geological complexity of China’s shale basins and issues of water scarcity potentially impose serious constraints on shale gas development in China. Further, even if China could replicate to a significant degree the U.S. shale gas boom, China faces the problem of transporting the gas efficiently overland with its limited pipeline network throughput capacity and coverage. The aim of this study is to identify the potential bottlenecks in China’s gas transmission network, as well as to examine the shale gas development affecting particular supply locations and demand centers. We examine this through application of three scenarios with projecting domestic shale gas supply by 2020: optimistic, medium and conservative shale gas supply, taking references from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) projections and China’s shale gas development plans. Separately we project the gas demand at provincial level, since shale gas will have more significant impact regionally than nationally. To quantitatively assess each shale gas development scenario, we formulated a gas pipeline optimization model. We used ArcGIS to generate the connectivity parameters and pipeline segment length. Other parameters are collected from provincial “twelfth-five year” plans and “China Oil and Gas Pipeline Atlas”. The multi-objective optimization model uses GAMs and Matlab. It aims to minimize the demands that are unable to be met, while simultaneously seeking to minimize total gas supply and transmission costs. The results indicate that, even if the primary objective is to meet the projected gas demand rather than cost minimization, there’s a shortfall of 9% in meeting total demand under the medium scenario. Comparing the results between the optimistic and medium supply of shale gas scenarios, almost half of the shale gas produced in Sichuan province and Chongqing won’t be able to be transmitted out by pipeline. On the demand side, the Henan province and Shanghai gas demand gap could be filled as much as 82% and 39% respectively, with increased shale gas supply. To conclude, the pipeline network in China is currently not sufficient in meeting the projected natural gas demand in 2020 under medium and optimistic scenarios, indicating the need for substantial pipeline capacity expansion for some of the existing network, and the importance of constructing new pipelines from particular supply to demand sites. If the pipeline constraint is overcame, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Henan’s gas demand gap could potentially be filled, and China could thereby reduce almost 25% its dependency on LNG imports under the optimistic scenario.

Keywords: Energy policy, energy systematic analysis, scenario analysis, shale gas in China

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11 [Keynote Talk]: Quest for Sustainability in the Midst of Conflict Between Climate and Energy Security

Authors: Deepak L. Waikar

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Unprecedented natural as well as human made disasters have been responsible for loss of hundreds of thousands of lives, injury & displacement of millions of people and damages in billions of dollars in various parts of the world. Scientists, experts, associations and united nation have been warning about colossal disregard for human safety and environment in exploiting natural resources for insatiable greed for economic growth and rising lavish life style of the rich. Usual blame game is routinely played at international forums & summits by vested interests in developing and developed nations, while billions of people continue to suffer in abject energy poverty. Energy security, on the other hand, is becoming illusive with the dominance of few players in the market, poor energy governance mechanisms, volatile prices and geopolitical conflicts in supply chain. Conflicting scenarios have been cited as one of the major barriers for transformation to a low carbon economy. Policy makers, researchers, academics, businesses, industries and communities have been evaluating sustainable alternatives, albeit at snail’s pace. This presentation focuses on technologies, energy governance, policies & practices, economics and public concerns about safe, prudent & sustainable harnessing of energy resources. Current trends and potential research & development projects in power & energy sectors which students can undertake will be discussed. Speaker will highlight on how youths can be engaged in meaningful, safe, enriching, inspiring and value added self-development programmes in our quest for sustainability in the midst of conflict between climate and energy security.

Keywords: Energy Security, Sustainable Energy, Energy policy, clean energy

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10 Concept, Modules and Objectives of the Syllabus Course: Small Power Plants and Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Nikola L. J. Rajakovic

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This paper presents a curriculum of the subject small power plants and renewable energy sources, dealing with the concept of distributed generation, renewable energy sources, hydropower, wind farms, geothermal power plants, cogeneration plants, biogas plants of agriculture and animal origin, solar power and fuel cells. The course is taught the manner of connecting small power plants to the grid, the impact of small generators on the distribution system, as well as economic, environmental and legal aspects of operation of distributed generators.

Keywords: Energy policy, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, Curriculum

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9 Impact of the Non-Energy Sectors Diversification on the Energy Dependency Mitigation: Visualization by the “IntelSymb” Software Application

Authors: Ilaha Rzayeva, Emin Alasgarov, Orkhan Karim-Zada

Abstract:

This study attempts to consider the linkage between management and computer sciences in order to develop the software named “IntelSymb” as a demo application to prove data analysis of non-energy* fields’ diversification, which will positively influence on energy dependency mitigation of countries. Afterward, we analyzed 18 years of economic fields of development (5 sectors) of 13 countries by identifying which patterns mostly prevailed and which can be dominant in the near future. To make our analysis solid and plausible, as a future work, we suggest developing a gateway or interface, which will be connected to all available on-line data bases (WB, UN, OECD, U.S. EIA) for countries’ analysis by fields. Sample data consists of energy (TPES and energy import indicators) and non-energy industries’ (Main Science and Technology Indicator, Internet user index, and Sales and Production indicators) statistics from 13 OECD countries over 18 years (1995-2012). Our results show that the diversification of non-energy industries can have a positive effect on energy sector dependency (energy consumption and import dependence on crude oil) deceleration. These results can provide empirical and practical support for energy and non-energy industries diversification’ policies, such as the promoting of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), services and innovative technologies efficiency and management, in other OECD and non-OECD member states with similar energy utilization patterns and policies. Industries, including the ICT sector, generate around 4 percent of total GHG, but this is much higher — around 14 percent — if indirect energy use is included. The ICT sector itself (excluding the broadcasting sector) contributes approximately 2 percent of global GHG emissions, at just under 1 gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2eq). Ergo, this can be a good example and lesson for countries which are dependent and independent on energy, and mainly emerging oil-based economies, as well as to motivate non-energy industries diversification in order to be ready to energy crisis and to be able to face any economic crisis as well.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy policy, energy diversification, “IntelSymb” software

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8 Wind Power Assessment for Turkey and Evaluation by APLUS Code

Authors: A. B. Tugrul, Ibrahim H. Kilic

Abstract:

Energy is a fundamental component in economic development and energy consumption is an index of prosperity and the standard of living. The consumption of energy per capita has increased significantly over the last decades, as the standard of living has improved. Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. Information such as installation capacity of wind power plants in installation, under construction and license stages in the country are reported in detail. Some suggestions are presented in order to increase the wind power installation capacity of Turkey. Turkey’s economic and social development has led to a massive increase in demand for electricity over the last decades. Since the Turkey has no major oil or gas reserves, it is highly dependent on energy imports and is exposed to energy insecurity in the future. But Turkey does have huge potential for renewable energy utilization. There has been a huge growth in the construction of wind power plants and small hydropower plants in recent years. To meet the growing energy demand, the Turkish Government has adopted incentives for investments in renewable energy production. Wind energy investments evaluated the impact of feed-in tariffs (FIT) based on three scenarios that are optimistic, realistic and pessimistic with APLUS software that is developed for rational evaluation for energy market. Results of the three scenarios are evaluated in the view of electricity market for Turkey.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Turkey, wind power, Energy policy, APLUS

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7 Illuminating the Policies Affecting Energy Security in Malaysia’s Electricity Sector

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

For the past few decades, the Malaysian economy has expanded at an impressive pace, whilst, the Malaysian population has registered a relatively high growth rate. These factors had driven the growth of final energy demand. The ballooning energy demand coupled with the country’s limited indigenous energy resources have resulted in an increased of the country’s net import. Therefore, acknowledging the precarious position of the country’s energy self-sufficiency, this study has identified three main concerns regarding energy security, namely; over-dependence on fossil fuel, increasing energy import dependency, and increasing energy consumption per capita. This paper discusses the recent energy demand and supply trends, highlights the policies that are affecting energy security in Malaysia and suggests strategic options towards achieving energy security. The paper suggested that diversifying energy sources, reducing carbon content of energy, efficient utilization of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries could further enhance the effectiveness of the measures as the introduction of policies and initiatives will be more holistic.

Keywords: Energy Security, Energy policy, Electricity, Malaysia

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6 A Review of Energy in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: Kanzumba Kusakana

Abstract:

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is currently experiencing a general energy crisis due to lack of proper investment and management in the energy sector. 93, 6% of the country is highly dependent on wood fuels as main source of energy having severe impacts such as deforestation and general degradation of the environment. On the other hand, the major share of the electricity produced mainly from ill-conditioned hydro and thermal power stations is principally used to supply the industrial sector as well as very few urban areas. Nevertheless, DRC possesses huge potential in renewable resources such as hydropower, biomass, methane gas, solar geothermal and moderate wind potential that can be used for energy generation. Recently the country has initiated projects to build decentralized micro hydropower station to supply remotes and isolated areas; to rehabilitate its existent main hydropower plants and transmission lines as well as to extend its current generation capacity by building new hydropower stations able to respond to a major part of the African continent energy needs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of current energy resources as well as of the electricity situation in DRC. Recent energy projects, the energy policy as well as the energy challenges in the DRC are also presented.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy, biomass, Energy policy, Hydro power, Democratic Republic of Congo

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5 Determinants of Aggregate Electricity Consumption in Ghana: A Multivariate Time Series Analysis

Authors: Renata Konadu

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In Ghana, electricity has become the main form of energy which all sectors of the economy rely on for their businesses. Therefore, as the economy grows, the demand and consumption of electricity also grow alongside due to the heavy dependence on it. However, since the supply of electricity has not increased to match the demand, there has been frequent power outages and load shedding affecting business performances. To solve this problem and advance policies to secure electricity in Ghana, it is imperative that those factors that cause consumption to increase be analysed by considering the three classes of consumers; residential, industrial and non-residential. The main argument, however, is that, export of electricity to other neighbouring countries should be included in the electricity consumption model and considered as one of the significant factors which can decrease or increase consumption. The author made use of multivariate time series data from 1980-2010 and econometric models such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Vector Error Correction Model. Findings show that GDP growth, urban population growth, electricity exports and industry value added to GDP were cointegrated. The results also showed that there is unidirectional causality from electricity export and GDP growth and Industry value added to GDP to electricity consumption in the long run. However, in the short run, there was found to be a directional causality among all the variables and electricity consumption. The results have useful implication for energy policy makers especially with regards to electricity consumption, demand, and supply.

Keywords: Energy policy, Electricity Consumption, vector error correction model, GDP growth

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4 A Worldwide Assessment of Geothermal Energy Policy: Systematic, Qualitative and Critical Literature Review

Authors: Diego Moya, Juan Paredes, Clay Aldas, Ramiro Tite, Prasad Kaparaju

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Globally, energy policy for geothermal development is addressed in different forms, depending on the economy, resources, country-development, environment aspects and technology access. Although some countries have established strong regulations and standards for geothermal exploration, exploitation and sustainable use at the policy level (government departments and institutions), others have discussed geothermal laws at legal levels (congress – a national legislative body of a country). Appropriate regulations are needed not only to meet local and international funding requirements but also to avoid speculation in the use of the geothermal resource. In this regards, this paper presents the results of a systematic, qualitative and critical literature review of geothermal energy policy worldwide addressing two scenarios: policy and legal levels. At first, literature is collected and classified from scientific and government sources regarding geothermal energy policy of the most advanced geothermal producing countries, including Iceland, New Zealand, Mexico, the USA, Central America, Italy, Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Kenia, and Australia. This is followed by a systematic review of the literature aiming to know the best geothermal practices and what remains uncertain regarding geothermal policy implementation. This analysis is made considering the stages of geothermal production. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis is conducted comparing the findings across geothermal policies in the countries mentioned above. Then, a critical review aims to identify significant items in the field to be applied in countries with geothermal potential but with no or weak geothermal policies. Finally, patterns and relationships are detected, and conclusions are drawn.

Keywords: Geothermal, Energy policy, Assessment, worldwide

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3 Economic Analysis of Policy Instruments for Energy Efficiency

Authors: Etidel Labidi

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Energy efficiency improvement is one of the means to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. Recently, some developed countries have implemented the tradable white certificate scheme (TWC) as a new policy instrument based on market approach to support energy efficiency improvements. The major focus of this paper is to compare the White Certificates (TWC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement to other policy instruments: energy taxes and regulations setting a minimum level of energy efficiency. On the basis of our theoretical discussion and numerical simulation, we show that the white certificates system is the most interesting policy instrument for saving energy because it generates the most important level of energy savings and the least increase in energy service price.

Keywords: Energy policy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Savings, white certificates

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2 Renewable Energy and Energy Security in Malaysia: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

Robust economic growth, increasing population, and personal consumption are the main drivers for the rapid increase of energy demand in Malaysia. Increasing demand has compounded the issue of national energy security due to over-dependence on fossil fuel, depleting indigenous domestic conventional energy resources which in turns has increased the country’s energy import dependence. In order to improve its energy security, Malaysia has seriously embarked on a renewable energy journey. Many initiatives on renewable energy have been introduced in the past decade. These strategies have resulted in the exploding growth of renewable energy deployment in Malaysia. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of renewable energy deployment on energy security. Secondary data was used to calculate the energy security indicators. The study also compared the results of applying different energy security indicators namely availability, applicability, affordability and acceptability dimension of energy resources. The evaluation shows that Malaysia will experience slight improvement in availability and acceptability dimension of energy security. This study suggests that energy security level could be further enhanced by efficient utilization of energy, reducing carbon content of energy and facilitating low-carbon industries.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy Security, Energy policy, Malaysia

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1 Exploring Factors Affecting Electricity Production in Malaysia

Authors: Hussain Ali Bekhet, Endang Jati Mat Sahid

Abstract:

Ability to supply reliable and secure electricity has been one of the crucial components of economic development for any country. Forecasting of electricity production is therefore very important for accurate investment planning of generation power plants. In this study, we aim to examine and analyze the factors that affect electricity generation. Multiple regression models were used to find the relationship between various variables and electricity production. The models will simultaneously determine the effects of the variables on electricity generation. Many variables influencing electricity generation, i.e. natural gas (NG), coal (CO), fuel oil (FO), renewable energy (RE), gross domestic product (GDP) and fuel prices (FP), were examined for Malaysia. The results demonstrate that NG, CO, and FO were the main factors influencing electricity generation growth. This study then identified a number of policy implications resulting from the empirical results.

Keywords: Energy Security, Energy policy, Electricity Production, Malaysia, the regression model

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