Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

energy harvester Related Abstracts

7 Powering Pacemakers from Heart Pressure Variation with Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

Authors: A. Mathieu, B. Aubry, E. Chhim, M. Jobe, M. Arnaud


Present project consists in a study and a development of piezoelectric devices for supplying power to new generation pacemakers. They are miniaturized leadless implants without battery placed directly in right ventricle. Amongst different acceptable energy sources in cardiac environment, we choose the solution of a device based on conversion of the energy produced by pressure variation inside the heart into electrical energy. The proposed energy harvesters can meet the power requirements of pacemakers, and can be a good solution to solve the problem of regular surgical operation. With further development, proposed device should provide enough energy to allow pacemakers autonomy, and could be good candidate for next pacemaker generation.

Keywords: heart, energy harvester, leadless pacemaker, piezoelectric cells, pressure variation

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6 Piezoelectric Approach on Harvesting Acoustic Energy

Authors: Khin Fai Chen, Jee-Hou Ho, Eng Hwa Yap


An acoustic micro-energy harvester (AMEH) is developed to convert wasted acoustical energy into useful electrical energy. AMEH is mathematically modeled using lumped element modelling (LEM) and Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) modelling. An experiment is designed to validate the mathematical model and assess the feasibility of AMEH. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data on critical parameter value such as Mm, Cms, dm and Ceb showed the variances are within 1% to 6%, which is reasonably acceptable. Hence, AMEH mathematical model is validated. Then, AMEH undergoes bandwidth tuning for performance optimization for further experimental work. The AMEH successfully produces 0.9 V⁄(m⁄s^2) and 1.79 μW⁄(m^2⁄s^4) at 60Hz and 400kΩ resistive load which only show variances about 7% compared to theoretical data. By integrating a capacitive load of 200µF, the discharge cycle time of AMEH is 1.8s and the usable energy bandwidth is available as low as 0.25g. At 1g and 60Hz resonance frequency, the averaged power output is about 2.2mW which fulfilled a range of wireless sensors and communication peripherals power requirements. Finally, the design for AMEH is assessed, validated and deemed as a feasible design.

Keywords: acoustic, piezoelectric, energy harvester

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5 Acoustic Energy Harvesting Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF-ZnO Piezoelectric Polymer

Authors: S. M. Giripunje, Mohit Kumar


Acoustic energy that exists in our everyday life and environment have been overlooked as a green energy that can be extracted, generated, and consumed without any significant negative impact to the environment. The harvested energy can be used to enable new technology like wireless sensor networks. Technological developments in the realization of truly autonomous MEMS devices and energy storage systems have made acoustic energy harvesting (AEH) an increasingly viable technology. AEH is the process of converting high and continuous acoustic waves from the environment into electrical energy by using an acoustic transducer or resonator. AEH is not popular as other types of energy harvesting methods since sound waves have lower energy density and such energy can only be harvested in very noisy environment. However, the energy requirements for certain applications are also correspondingly low and also there is a necessity to observe the noise to reduce noise pollution. So the ability to reclaim acoustic energy and store it in a usable electrical form enables a novel means of supplying power to relatively low power devices. A quarter-wavelength straight-tube acoustic resonator as an acoustic energy harvester is introduced with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF doped with ZnO nanoparticles, piezoelectric cantilever beams placed inside the resonator. When the resonator is excited by an incident acoustic wave at its first acoustic eigen frequency, an amplified acoustic resonant standing wave is developed inside the resonator. The acoustic pressure gradient of the amplified standing wave then drives the vibration motion of the PVDF piezoelectric beams, generating electricity due to the direct piezoelectric effect. In order to maximize the amount of the harvested energy, each PVDF and PVDF-ZnO piezoelectric beam has been designed to have the same structural eigen frequency as the acoustic eigen frequency of the resonator. With a single PVDF beam placed inside the resonator, the harvested voltage and power become the maximum near the resonator tube open inlet where the largest acoustic pressure gradient vibrates the PVDF beam. As the beam is moved to the resonator tube closed end, the voltage and power gradually decrease due to the decreased acoustic pressure gradient. Multiple piezoelectric beams PVDF and PVDF-ZnO have been placed inside the resonator with two different configurations: the aligned and zigzag configurations. With the zigzag configuration which has the more open path for acoustic air particle motions, the significant increases in the harvested voltage and power have been observed. Due to the interruption of acoustic air particle motion caused by the beams, it is found that placing PVDF beams near the closed tube end is not beneficial. The total output voltage of the piezoelectric beams increases linearly as the incident sound pressure increases. This study therefore reveals that the proposed technique used to harvest sound wave energy has great potential of converting free energy into useful energy.

Keywords: energy harvester, acoustic energy, acoustic resonator, eigenfrequency, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

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4 Analysis and Design of Simultaneous Dual Band Harvesting System with Enhanced Efficiency

Authors: Zina Saheb, Ezz El-Masry, Jean-François Bousquet


This paper presents an enhanced efficiency simultaneous dual band energy harvesting system for wireless body area network. A bulk biasing is used to enhance the efficiency of the adapted rectifier design to reduce Vth of MOSFET. The presented circuit harvests the radio frequency (RF) energy from two frequency bands: 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. It is designed with TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology and high quality factor dual matching network to boost the input voltage. Full circuit analysis and modeling is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate a harvester with an efficiency of 23% at 1 GHz and 46% at 2.4 GHz at an input power as low as -30 dBm.

Keywords: CMOS, dual band, energy harvester, simultaneous, differential rectifier, voltage boosting, TSMC 65nm

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3 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez


In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, hard disk drive, energy harvester, voice coil motor, gait motions

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
2 Performance Analysis of Microelectromechanical Systems-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

Authors: Sanket S. Jugade, Swapneel U. Naphade, Satyabodh M. Kulkarni


Microscale energy harvesters can be used to convert ambient mechanical vibrations to electrical energy. Such devices have great applications in low powered electronics in remote environments like powering wireless sensor nodes of Internet of Things, lightings on highways or in ships, etc. In this paper, a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based energy harvester has been modeled using Analytical and Finite Element Method (FEM). The device consists of a microcantilever with a proof mass attached to its free end and a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric thin film deposited on the surface of microcantilever in a unimorph or bimorph configuration. For the analytical method, the energy harvester was modeled as an equivalent electrical system in SIMULINK. The Finite element model was developed and analyzed using the commercial package COMSOL Multiphysics. The modal analysis was performed first to find the fundamental natural frequency and its variation with geometrical parameters of the system. Then the harmonic analysis was performed to find the input mechanical power, output electrical voltage, and power for a range of excitation frequencies and base acceleration values. The variation of output power with load resistance, PVDF film thickness, and damping values was also found out. The results from FEM were then validated with that of the analytical model. Finally, the performance of the device was optimized with respect to various electro-mechanical parameters. For a unimorph configuration consisting of single crystal silicon microcantilever of dimensions 8mm×2mm×80µm and proof mass of 9.32 mg with optimal values of the thickness of PVDF film and load resistance as 225 µm and 20 MΩ respectively, the maximum electrical power generated for base excitation of 0.2g at 630 Hz is 0.9 µW.

Keywords: MEMS, Harmonic Analysis, FEM, energy harvester, unimorph, PVDF, bimorph

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1 Effect of Damping on Performance of Magnetostrictive Vibration Energy Harvester

Authors: Mojtaba Ghodsi, Hamidreza Ziaifar, Morteza Mohammadzaheri, Payam Soltani


This article presents an analytical model to estimate the harvested power from a Magnetostrictive cantilevered beam with tip excitation. Furthermore, the effects of internal and external damping on harvested power are investigated. The magnetostrictive material in this harvester is Galfenol. In comparison to other popular smart materials like Terfenol-D, Galfenol has higher strength and machinability. In this article, first, a mechanical model of the Euler-Bernoulli beam is employed to calculate the deflection of the harvester. Then, the magneto-mechanical equation of Galfenol is combined with Faraday's law to calculate the generated voltage of the Magnetostrictive cantilevered beam harvester. Finally, the beam model is incorporated in the aforementioned combination. The results show that a 30×8.5×1 mm Galfenol cantilever beam harvester with 80 turn pickup coil can generate up to 3.7 mV and 9 mW. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis made by Response Surface Method (RSM) shows that the harvested power is only sensitive to the internal damping coefficient.

Keywords: magnetostrictive, energy harvester, response surface method, internal damping coefficient, external damping coefficient, euler-bernoulli, galfenol

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