Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Energy Conservation Related Abstracts

13 Energy Conservation Strategies of Buildings in Hot, Arid Region: Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. H. Shwehdi, S. Raja Mohammad

Abstract:

Recently energy savings have become more pronounced as a result of the world financial crises as well the unstable oil prices. Certainly all entities needs to adapt Energy Conservation and Management Strategies due to high monthly consumption of their spread locations and advancements of its telecom systems. These system improvements necessitate the establishment of more exchange centers as well provide energy savings. This paper investigates the impact of HVAC System Characteristics, Operational Strategies, the impact of Envelope Thermal Characteristics, and energy conservation measures. These are classified under three types of measures i.e. Zero-Investment; Low-Investment and High-Investment Energy Conservation Measures. The study shows that the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) pertaining to the HVAC system characteristics and operation represent the highest potential for energy reduction, attention should be given to window thermal and solar radiation characteristics when large window areas are used. The type of glazing system needs to be carefully considered in the early design phase of future buildings. Paper will present the thermal optimization of different size centers in the two hot-dry and hot-humid Saudi Arabian city of Al Khobar, East province.

Keywords: Optimization, Energy Conservation, Saudi Arabia, thermal design, intermittent operation, exchange centers, hot-humid climate

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12 Heritage Buildings an Inspiration for Energy Conservation under Solar Control – a Case Study of Hadoti Region of India.

Authors: Abhinav Chaturvedi, Joohi Chaturvedi, Renu Chaturvedi

Abstract:

With rapid urbanization and growth of population, more buildings are require to be constructed to meet the increasing demand of the shelter. 80 % of the world population is living in developing countries, but the adequate energy supplied to only 30% of it. In India situation get little more difficult as majority of the villages of India are still deprived of energy. 1/3 of the Indian household does not have energy supply. So there is big gap between energy demand and supply. Moreover India is producing around 65 % of the energy from Non – Renewable sources and 25 % of the Energy is imported in the form of oil and gas and only 10% of the total, is generated from other sources like solar power, wind power etc. Present modern structures are big energy consumers as they are consuming 40 % of the total energy in providing comfort conditions to the users, in from of heating and cooling,5 % in Building Construction, 20 % in transportation and 20 % in industrial process and 10 % in other processes. If we minimize this Heating and Cooling and lighting load of the building we can conserve huge amount of energy for the future. In history, buildings do not have artificial systems of cooling or heating. These buildings, especially in Hadoti Region which have Semi Arid Climatic conditions, are provided with Solar Passive Design Techniques that is the reason of comfort inside the buildings. So if we use some appropriate elements of these heritage structures, in our present age building design we can find some certain solution to energy crises. Present paper describes Various Solar Passive design techniques used in past, and the same could be used in present to reduce the consumption of energy.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Hadoti region, solar passive design techniques, semi - arid climatic condition

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11 Energy Audit: A Case Study of a Hot Rolling Mill in Steel Industry

Authors: Arvind Dhingra, Tejinder Singh Saggu

Abstract:

As the energy demands rise and the pollution levels grow, it becomes imperative for us to save energy in all the fields in which it is used. The industrial sector is the major commercial energy consuming sector in India, where electrical energy is the most common and widely used type of energy. As the demand and price of energy are increasing day by day, therefore, the subject of energy conservation is a concern for most energy users particularly industry. Judicious use of energy becomes imperative for third world developing country being presence of energy crisis. This paper provides some measure for energy saving that can be commonly recommended for a rolling unit of steel industry. A case of hot rolling unit in JSL Stainless Ltd., Hisar for energy conservation is given. Overall improvement in energy consumption in light of the stated recommendation is illustrated along with the proposed utilization of the techniques and their applications. Energy conservation in conventional motor with replacement or use of star delta star converter, reduction in cable losses, replacement of filament of LED lamps, replacement of conventional transformer with cast resin dry type transformer and provision of energy management system for energy conservation and per unit production cost reduction are elaborated in this paper.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, energy audit, energy efficient motors

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10 The Development of the Prototype of Bamboo Shading Device

Authors: Nuanwan Tuaycharoen, Wanarat Konisranukul

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the prototype of bamboo shading device. There were two objectives of this study. The first objective was to investigate the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle and fungi. The second aim of this study was to develop a prototype of bamboo shading device. The study of the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle in laboratory showed that, among seven treatments tested, wood vinegar treatment can protect powder-post beetle better than the original method up to 92.91%. It was also found that wood vinegar treatment can show the best performance in fungi protection and work better than the original method up to 40%. The second experiment was carried out by constructing four bamboo shading devices and installing them on a building for 28 days. All aspects of shading device were investigated in terms of their beauty, durability, and ease of construction and assembly. The final prototype was developed from the lessons drawn from these tested options. In conclusion this study showed the effectiveness of some natural preservatives against insect and fungi damage. It also illustrated the characteristics of the prototype of bamboo shading device that can constructed by rural workers within one week.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, bamboo, shading device, alternative material

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9 Empirical Investigation of Barriers to Industrial Energy Conservation Measures in the Manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Tahir Hassan, Stas Burek, Mohamed Emad

Abstract:

Industrial sector in Pakistan accounts for 25% of total energy consumption in the country. The performance of this sector has been severely affected due to the adverse effect of current energy crises in the country. Energy conservation potentials of Pakistan’s industrial sectors through energy management can save wasted energy which would ultimately leads to economic and environmental benefits. However due to lack of financial incentives of energy efficiency and absence of energy benchmarking within same industrial sectors are some of the main challenges in the implementation of energy management. In Pakistan, this area has not been adequately explored, and there is a lack of focus on the need for industrial energy efficiency and proper management. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the current energy management performance of Pakistani industrial sector and empirical investigation of the existence of various barriers to industrial energy efficiency. Data was collected from the respondents of 192 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME’s) of Pakistan i.e. foundries, textile, plastic industries, light engineering, auto and spare parts and ceramic manufacturers and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Current energy management performance of manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan has been evaluated by employing two significant indicators, ‘Energy Management Matrix’ and ‘pay-off criteria’, with modified approach. Using the energy management matrix, energy management profiles of overall industry and the individual sectors have been drawn to assess the energy management performance and identify the weak and strong areas as well. Results reveal that, energy management practices in overall surveyed industries are at very low level. Energy management profiles drawn against each sector suggest that performance of textile sector is better among all the surveyed manufacturing SME’s. The empirical barriers to industrial energy efficiency have also been ranked according to the overall responses. The results further reveal that there is a significant relationship exists among the industrial size, sector type and nature of barriers to industrial energy efficiency for the manufacturing SME’s in Pakistan. The findings of this study may help the industries and policy makers in Pakistan to formulate a sustainable energy policy to support industrial energy efficiency keeping in view the actual existing energy efficiency scenario in the industrial sector.

Keywords: Environment, Energy Conservation, barriers, energy management profile, manufacturing SME's of Pakistan

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8 Implementation of Efficiency and Energy Conservation Concept in Office Building as an Effort to Achieve Green Office Building Case Studies Office Building in Jakarta

Authors: Jarwa Prasetya Sih Handoko

Abstract:

The issue of energy crisis for big cities in Indonesia are issues raised in line with the development of the city is rapidly increasing. Various attempts were made by the government in overcoming problems of energy needs in Indonesia. In addition to the efforts of the government required the efforts made by the public to solve this problem. The concept of green building in the design of the building with efforts to use energy efficiently can be one of the efforts that can be applied to solve this problem. Jakarta is capital and the one of the major cities in Indonesia with high economic growth. This leads to increased demand for office space for the people. So that the construction of office buildings in big cities like Jakarta very numerous. Office building is one of the buildings that require large energy consumption. As a building that could potentially require huge amounts of energy, the design should consider the use of energy to help provide solutions to problems of energy crisis in Indonesia. The concept of energy efficient is one of the concepts addressed in an effort to use energy in buildings to save energy needs of the building operations. Therefore, it is necessary to have a study that explores the application of the concept of energy efficiency and conservation in office buildings in Jakarta. In this study using two (2) buildings case study that Sequis Center Building and Sampoerna Strategic Square. Both are office buildings in Jakarta have earned the Green Building Certificate of Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI). The study used literature review methods to address issues raised earlier. Whether it's related to a literature review on the study of office buildings and green building. With this paper is expected to be obtained on the application of the concept of energy efficiency and conservation in office buildings that have earned recognition as a green building by GBCI. The result could be a reference to the architect in designing the next office buildings, especially related to the concept of energy use in buildings. From this study, it can be concluded that the concept of energy efficiency and conservation in the design of office buildings can be applied to its orientation, the openings, the use shade in buildings, vegetation and building material selection and efficient use of water. So that it can reduce energy requirements needed to meet the needs of the building user activity. So the concept of energy efficiency and conservation in office buildings can be one of the efforts to realize the Green Office Building. Recommendations from this study is that the design of office buildings should be able to apply the concept of energy utilization in the design office. This is to meet the energy needs of the office buildings in an effort to realize the Green Building.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, Green Building, Energy Crisis, office building

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7 Optimum Switch Temperature for Phase Change Materials in Buildings

Authors: El Hadi Bouguerra, Nouredine Retiel

Abstract:

To avoid or at least to attenuate the global warming, it is essential to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings where the biggest potential of savings exists. The impending danger can come from the increase in the needs of air conditioning not only because of the climate warming but also the fast equipping of emerging or developing countries. Passive solutions exist and others are in promising development and therefore, must be applied wherever it is possible. Even if they do not always avoid the resort to an active cooling (mechanical), they allow lowering the load at an acceptable level which can be possibly taken in relay by the renewable energies. These solutions have the advantage to be relatively less expensive and especially adaptable to the existing housing. However, it is the internal convection resistance that controls the heat exchange between the phase change materials (PCM) and the indoor temperature because of the very low heat coefficients of natural convection. Therefore, it is reasonable to link the switch temperature Tm to the temperature of the substrate (walls and ceiling) because conduction heat transfer is dominant. In this case, external conditions (heat sources such as solar irradiation and ambient temperatures) and conductivities of envelope constituents are the most important factors. The walls are not at the same temperature year round; therefore, it is difficult to set a unique switch temperature for the whole season, making the average values a key parameter. With this work, the authors’ aim is to see which parameters influence the optimum switch temperature of a PCM and additionally, if a better selection of PCMs relating to their optimum temperature can enhance their energetic performances.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Phase Change Materials, PCM, low energy building

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6 Design and Development of On-Line, On-Site, In-Situ Induction Motor Performance Analyser

Authors: G. S. Ayyappan, Srinivas Kota, Jaffer R. C. Sheriff, C. Prakash Chandra Joshua

Abstract:

In the present scenario of energy crises, energy conservation in the electrical machines is very important in the industries. In order to conserve energy, one needs to monitor the performance of an induction motor on-site and in-situ. The instruments available for this purpose are very meager and very expensive. This paper deals with the design and development of induction motor performance analyser on-line, on-site, and in-situ. The system measures only few electrical input parameters like input voltage, line current, power factor, frequency, powers, and motor shaft speed. These measured data are coupled to name plate details and compute the operating efficiency of induction motor. This system employs the method of computing motor losses with the help of equivalent circuit parameters. The equivalent circuit parameters of the concerned motor are estimated using the developed algorithm at any load conditions and stored in the system memory. The developed instrument is a reliable, accurate, compact, rugged, and cost-effective one. This portable instrument could be used as a handy tool to study the performance of both slip ring and cage induction motors. During the analysis, the data can be stored in SD Memory card and one can perform various analyses like load vs. efficiency, torque vs. speed characteristics, etc. With the help of the developed instrument, one can operate the motor around its Best Operating Point (BOP). Continuous monitoring of the motor efficiency could lead to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of motors. LCA helps in taking decisions on motor replacement or retaining or refurbishment.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Life Cycle Assessment, equivalent circuit parameters, induction motor efficiency, motor performance analysis

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5 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi

Abstract:

Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy Conservation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation techniques

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4 Automation of Embodied Energy Calculations for Buildings through Building Information Modelling

Authors: Ahmad Odeh

Abstract:

Researchers are currently more concerned about the calculations of energy at the operational stage, mainly due to its larger environmental impact, but the fact remains, embodied energies represent a substantial contributor unaccounted for in the overall energy computation method. The calculation of materials’ embodied energy during the construction stage is complicated. This is due to the various factors involved. The equipment used, fuel needed, and electricity required for each type of materials varies with location and thus the embodied energy will differ for each project. Moreover, the method used in manufacturing, transporting and putting in place will have significant influence on the materials’ embodied energy. This anomaly has made it difficult to calculate or even bench mark the usage of such energies. This paper presents a model aimed at calculating embodied energies based on such variabilities. It presents a systematic approach that uses an efficient method of calculation to provide a new insight for the selection of construction materials. The model is developed in a BIM environment. The quantification of materials’ energy is determined over the three main stages of their lifecycle: manufacturing, transporting and placing. The model uses three major databases each of which contains set of the construction materials that are most commonly used in building projects. The first dataset holds information about the energy required to manufacture any type of materials, the second includes information about the energy required for transporting the materials while the third stores information about the energy required by machinery to place the materials in their intended locations. Through geospatial data analysis, the model automatically calculates the distances between the suppliers and construction sites and then uses dataset information for energy computations. The computational sum of all the energies is automatically calculated and then the model provides designers with a list of usable equipment along with the associated embodied energies.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Building Automation, bim, lifecycle energy assessment

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3 The Role of Building Services in Energy Conservation into Residential Buildings

Authors: Osama Ahmed Ibrahim Masoud, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelhadi, Ahmed Mohamed Seddik Hassan

Abstract:

The problem of study focuses on thermal comfort realization in a residential building during hot and dry climate periods consumes a major electrical energy for air conditioning operation. Thermal comfort realization in a residential building during such climate becomes more difficult regarding the phenomena of climate change, and the use of building and construction materials which have the feature of heat conduction as (bricks-reinforced concrete) and the global energy crises. For that, this study aims to how to realize internal thermal comfort through how to make the best use of building services (temporarily used service spaces) for reducing the electrical energy transfer and saving self-shading. In addition, the possibility of reduction traditional energy (fossil fuel) consumed in cooling through the use of building services for reducing the internal thermal comfort and the relationship between them. This study is based on measuring the consumed electrical energy rate in cooling (by using Design-Builder program) for a residential building (the place of study is: Egypt- Suez Canal- Suez City), this design model has lots of alternatives designs for the place of building services (center of building- the eastern front- southeastern front- the southern front- the south-west front, the western front). The building services are placed on the fronts with different rates for determining the best rate on fronts which realizes thermal comfort with the lowest of energy consumption used in cooling. Findings of the study indicate to that the best position for building services is on the west front then the south-west front, and the more the building services increase, the more energy consumption used in cooling of residential building decreases. Recommendations indicate to the need to study the building services positions in the new projects progress to select the best alternatives to realize ‘Energy conservation’ used in cooling or heating into the buildings in general, residential buildings particularly.

Keywords: Energy Conservation, Residential Buildings, Thermal comfort, Building Services, temporary used service spaces, DesignBuilder

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2 An Energy Integration Study While Utilizing Heat of Flue Gas: Sponge Iron Process

Authors: Venkata Ramanaiah, Shabina Khanam

Abstract:

Enormous potential for saving energy is available in coal-based sponge iron plants as these are associated with the high percentage of energy wastage per unit sponge iron production. An energy integration option is proposed, in the present paper, to a coal based sponge iron plant of 100 tonnes per day production capacity, being operated in India using SL/RN (Stelco-Lurgi/Republic Steel-National Lead) process. It consists of the rotary kiln, rotary cooler, dust settling chamber, after burning chamber, evaporating cooler, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), wet scrapper and chimney as important equipment. Principles of process integration are used in the proposed option. It accounts for preheating kiln inlet streams like kiln feed and slinger coal up to 170ᴼC using waste gas exiting ESP. Further, kiln outlet stream is cooled from 1020ᴼC to 110ᴼC using kiln air. The working areas in the plant where energy is being lost and can be conserved are identified. Detailed material and energy balances are carried out around the sponge iron plant, and a modified model is developed, to find coal requirement of proposed option, based on hot utility, heat of reactions, kiln feed and air preheating, radiation losses, dolomite decomposition, the heat required to vaporize the coal volatiles, etc. As coal is used as utility and process stream, an iterative approach is used in solution methodology to compute coal consumption. Further, water consumption, operating cost, capital investment, waste gas generation, profit, and payback period of the modification are computed. Along with these, operational aspects of the proposed design are also discussed. To recover and integrate waste heat available in the plant, three gas-solid heat exchangers and four insulated ducts with one FD fan for each are installed additionally. Thus, the proposed option requires total capital investment of $0.84 million. Preheating of kiln feed, slinger coal and kiln air streams reduce coal consumption by 24.63% which in turn reduces waste gas generation by 25.2% in comparison to the existing process. Moreover, 96% reduction in water is also observed, which is the added advantage of the modification. Consequently, total profit is found as $2.06 million/year with payback period of 4.97 months only. The energy efficient factor (EEF), which is the % of the maximum energy that can be saved through design, is found to be 56.7%. Results of the proposed option are also compared with literature and found in good agreement.

Keywords: Process integration, Energy Conservation, coal consumption, sponge iron plant

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1 Research on Natural Lighting Design of Atriums Based on Energy-Saving Aim

Authors: Fan Yu

Abstract:

An atrium is a place for natural climate exchanging of indoor and outdoor space of buildings, which plays an active role in the overall energy conservation, climate control and environmental purification of buildings. Its greatest contribution is serving as a natural light collector and distributor to solve the problem of natural lighting in large and deep spaces. However, in real situations, the atrium space often results in energy consumption due to improper design in considering its big size and large amount use of glass. Based on the purpose of energy conservation of buildings, this paper emphasizes the significance of natural lighting of atriums. Through literature research, case analysis and other methods, four factors, namely: the light transmittance through the top of the atrium, the geometric proportion of the atrium space, the size and position of windows and the material of the surface of walls in the atrium, were studied, and the influence of different architectural compositions on the natural light distribution of the atrium is discussed. Relying on the analysis of relevant cases, it is proposed that when designing the natural lighting of the atrium, the height and width of the atrium should be paid attention to, the atrium walls are required being rough surfaces and the atrium top-level windows need to be minimized in order to introduce more natural light into the buildings and achieve the purpose of energy conservation.

Keywords: Architectural Design, Energy Conservation, Natural Lighting, atrium

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