Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Energy Absorption Related Abstracts

18 Effects of Position and Cut-Out Lengths on the Axial Crushing Behavior of Aluminum Tubes: Experimental and Simulation

Authors: V. K. Bheemineni, B. Käfer, H. Lammer, M. Kotnik, F. O. Riemelmoser


Axial compression tests are performed on circular tubes made of Aluminum EN AW 6060 (AlMgSi0.5 alloy) in T66 state. All the received tubes have the uniform outer diameter of 40mm and thickness of 1.5mm. Two different lengths 100mm and 200mm are used in the analysis. After performing compression tests on the uniform tube, important crashworthy parameters like peak force, average force, crush efficiency and energy absorption are measured. The present paper has given importance to increase the percentage of crush efficiency without decreasing the value energy absorption of a tube, so a circumferential notch was introduced on the top section of the tube. The effects of position and cut-out lengths of a circumferential notch on the crush efficiency are well explained with relative deformation modes and force-displacement curves. The numerical simulations were carried on the software tool ANSYS/LS-DYNA. It is seen that the numerical results are reasonably good in agreement with the experimental results. 

Keywords: Energy Absorption, crash box, Notch triggering, FEM simulation

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17 An Investigation on the Energy Absorption of Sandwich Panels With Aluminium Foam Core under Perforation Test

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Mojtaba Zebarjad, Golestanipour


Metallic sandwich structures with aluminum foam core are good energy absorbers. In this paper, perforation test were carried out on different samples to study energy absorption. In the experiments, effect of several parameters, i.e. skin thickness and thickness of foam core, on the energy absorption, delamination zone of back faces and deformation strain(φ) are discussed. Results show that increasing plates thickness will results in more absorbed energy and delamination. Moreover, thickening foam core has the same effect.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, sandwich panel, aluminium foam, perforation

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16 Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Dynamic Axial Crushing of a Composite Glass/PEHD

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine, Kaou Abdellah


Energy absorption is a major requirement for automotive structures. Although crashworthy structures of composite based glass fiber have exhibited energy absorption greater than similar at other composites structures, the crush process in many cases is accompanied by fracture, rather than by plastic deformation. The crash experiments show that the tubes are crushed in progressive manner start from one end of the tubes and delamination takes place between the layers. To better understand details of the crash process, ABAQUS finite element code is used.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, crash, PEHD

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15 Effect of Silica Nanoparticles on Three-Point Flexural Properties of Isogrid E-Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composite Structures

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi


Increased interest in lightweight and efficient structural components has created the need for selecting materials with improved mechanical properties. To do so, composite materials are being widely used in many applications, due to durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. Among the various composite structures, grid-stiffened structures are extensively considered in various aerospace and aircraft applications, because of higher specific strength and stiffness, higher impact resistance, superior load-bearing capacity, easy to repair, and excellent energy absorption capability. Although there are a good number of publications on the design aspects and fabrication of grid structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the reinforcing effect of silica nanoparticles on the flexural properties of epoxy/E-glass isogrid panels under three-point bending test. Samples containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt.% of the silica nanoparticles, with 44 and 48 vol.% of the glass fibers in the ribs and skin components respectively, were fabricated by using a manual filament winding method. Ultrasonic and mechanical routes were employed to disperse the nanoparticles within the epoxy resin. To fabricate the ribs, the unidirectional fiber rovings were impregnated with the matrix mixture (epoxy + nanoparticles) and then laid up into the grooves of a silicone mold layer-by-layer. At once, four plies of woven fabrics, after impregnating into the same matrix mixture, were layered on the top of the ribs to produce the skin part. In order to conduct the ultimate curing and to achieve the maximum strength, the samples were tested after 7 days of holding at room temperature. According to load-displacement graphs, the bellow trend was observed for all of the samples when loaded from the skin side; following an initial linear region and reaching a load peak, the curve was abruptly dropped and then showed a typical absorbed energy region. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, a considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. The results showed that the flexural properties of the nanocomposite samples were always higher than those of the nanoparticle-free sample. The maximum enhancement in flexural maximum load and energy absorption was found to be for the incorporation of 3 wt.% of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the flexural stiffness was continually increased by increasing the silica loading. In conclusion, this study suggested that the addition of nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Energy Absorption, grid-stiffened composite structures, three point flexural test

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14 Improving the Crashworthiness Characteristics of Long Steel Circular Tubes Subjected to Axial Compression by Inserting a Helical Spring

Authors: Mehdi Tajdari, Farzad Mokhtarnejad, Fatemeh Moradi, Mehdi Najafizadeh


Nowadays, energy absorbing devices have been widely used in all vehicles and moving parts such as railway couches, aircraft, ships and lifts. The aim is to protect these structures from serious damages while subjected to impact loads, or to minimize human injuries while collision is occurred in transportation systems. These energy-absorbing devices can dissipate kinetic energy in a wide variety of ways like friction, facture, plastic bending, crushing, cyclic plastic deformation and metal cutting. On the other hand, various structures may be used as collapsible energy absorbers. Metallic cylindrical tubes have attracted much more attention due to their high stiffness and strength combined with the low weight and ease of manufacturing process. As a matter of fact, favorable crash worthiness characteristics for energy dissipation purposes can be achieved from axial collapse of tubes while they crush progressively in symmetric modes. However, experimental and theoretical results have shown that depending on various parameters such as tube geometry, material properties of tube, boundary and loading conditions, circular tubes buckle in different modes of deformation, namely, diamond and Euler collapsing modes. It is shown that when the tube length is greater than the critical length, the tube deforms in overall Euler buckling mode, which is an inefficient mode of energy absorption and needs to be avoided in crash worthiness applications. This study develops a new method with the aim of improving energy absorption characteristics of long steel circular tubes. Inserting a helical spring into the tubes is proved experimentally to be an efficient solution. In fact when a long tube is subjected to axial compression load, the spring prevents of undesirable Euler or diamond collapsing modes. This is because the spring reinforces the internal wall of tubes and it causes symmetric deformation in tubes. In this research three specimens were prepared and three tests were performed. The dimensions of tubes were selected so that in axial compression load buckling is occurred. In the second and third tests a spring was inserted into tubes and they were subjected to axial compression load in quasi-static and impact loading, respectively. The results showed that in the second and third tests buckling were not happened and the tubes deformed in symmetric modes which are desirable in energy absorption.

Keywords: Crashworthiness, Energy Absorption, circular tubes, collapsing deformation

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13 Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of E-Glass/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi, Saba Fayazzadeh


Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silane coupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3-GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, a considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. Also, 3-GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the grid-stiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: Surface modification, Energy Absorption, flexural properties, isogrid-stiffened composite panels, silica nanoparticles

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12 Effect of Hybrid Fibers on Mechanical Properties in Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

Authors: B. Vijay Antony Raj, Umarani Gunasekaran, R. Thiru Kumara Raja Vallaban


Fibrous autoclaved aerated concrete (FAAC) is concrete containing fibrous material in it which helps to increase its structural integrity when compared to that of convention autoclaved aerated concrete (CAAC). These short discrete fibers are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented, which enhances the bond strength within the aerated concrete matrix. Conventional red-clay bricks create larger impact to the environment due to red soil depletion and it also consumes large amount to time for construction. Whereas, AAC are larger in size, lighter in weight and it is environmentally friendly in nature and hence it is a viable replacement for red-clay bricks. Internal micro cracks and corner cracks are the only disadvantages of conventional autoclaved aerated concrete, to resolve this particular issue it is preferable to make use of fibers in it.These fibers are bonded together within the matrix and they induce the aerated concrete to withstand considerable stresses, especially during the post cracking stage. Hence, FAAC has the capability of enhancing the mechanical properties and energy absorption capacity of CAAC. In this research work, individual fibers like glass, nylon, polyester and polypropylene are used they generally reduce the brittle fracture of AAC.To study the fibre’s surface topography and composition, SEM analysis is performed and then to determine the composition of a specimen as a whole as well as the composition of individual components EDAX mapping is carried out and then an experimental approach was performed to determine the effect of hybrid (multiple) fibres at various dosage (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%) and curing temperature of 180-2000 C is maintained to determine the mechanical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete. As an analytical part, the outcome experimental results is compared with fuzzy logic using MATLAB.

Keywords: MATLAB, Energy Absorption, SEM, EDAX, fiberous AAC, crack control, mechanical properies

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11 Effect of Stitching Pattern on Composite Tubular Structures Subjected to Quasi-Static Crushing

Authors: Ali Rabiee, Hessam Ghasemnejad


Extensive experimental investigation on the effect of stitching pattern on tubular composite structures was conducted. The effect of stitching reinforcement through thickness on using glass flux yarn on energy absorption of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) was investigated under high speed loading conditions at axial loading. Keeping the mass of the structure at 125 grams and applying different pattern of stitching at various locations in theory enables better energy absorption, and also enables the control over the behaviour of force-crush distance curve. The study consists of simple non-stitch absorber comparison with single and multi-location stitching behaviour and its effect on energy absorption capabilities. The locations of reinforcements are 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm, 10-20 mm, 10-30 mm, 20-30 mm, 10-20-30 mm and 10-15-20-25-30-35 mm from the top of the specimen. The effect of through the thickness reinforcements has shown increase in energy absorption capabilities and crushing load. The significance of this is that as the stitching locations are closer, the crushing load increases and consequently energy absorption capabilities are also increased. The implementation of this idea would improve the mean force by applying stitching and controlling the behaviour of force-crush distance curve.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, through-thickness stitching, tubular composite structures

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10 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, box dimension, impact loading, SHPB test, rock fragments

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9 Enhancing Seismic Performance of Ductile Moment Frames with Delayed Wire-Rope Bracing Using Middle Steel Plate

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Babak Dizangian, Akram Ghalandari


Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, if this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limit, it can impose unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame. Therefore, adding a bracing system with the capability of preserving the capacity of high energy absorption and controlling displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates the retrofitting of a single storey steel moment frame through a delayed wire-rope bracing system using a middle steel plate. In this model, the steel plate lies where the wire ropes meet, and the model geometry is such that the cables are continuously under tension so that they can take the most advantage of the inherent potential they have in tolerating tensile stress. Using the steel plate also reduces the system stiffness considerably compared to cross bracing systems and preserves the ductile frame’s energy absorption capacity. In this research, the software models of delayed wire-rope bracing system have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers’ laboratory test results.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, cyclic loading, hysteresis curve, delayed wire rope bracing, ductile moment frame

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8 Experimental Determination of Shear Strength Properties of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Using Direct Shear and Triaxial Tests

Authors: Mahsa Shafaei Bajestani, Mahmoud Yazdani, Aliakbar Golshani


Artificial lightweight aggregates have a wide range of applications in industry and engineering. Nowadays, the usage of this material in geotechnical activities, especially as backfill in retaining walls has been growing due to the specific characteristics which make it a competent alternative to the conventional geotechnical materials. In practice, a material with lower weight but higher shear strength parameters would be ideal as backfill behind retaining walls because of the important roles that these parameters play in decreasing the overall active lateral earth pressure. In this study, two types of Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) produced in the Leca factory are investigated. LECA is made in a rotary kiln by heating natural clay at different temperatures up to 1200 °C making quasi-spherical aggregates with different sizes ranged from 0 to 25 mm. The loose bulk density of these aggregates is between 300 and 700 kN/m3. The purpose of this research is to determine the stress-strain behavior, shear strength parameters, and the energy absorption of LECA materials. Direct shear tests were conducted at five normal stresses of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 kPa. In addition, conventional triaxial compression tests were operated at confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa to examine stress-strain behavior. The experimental results show a high internal angle of friction and even a considerable amount of nominal cohesion despite the granular structure of LECA. These desirable properties along with the intrinsic low density of these aggregates make LECA as a very proper material in geotechnical applications. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that lightweight aggregates may have high energy absorption that is excellent alternative material in seismic isolations.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, triaxial test, shear properties, direct shear test, expanded clay

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7 Implementation of ALD in Product Development: Study of ROPS to Improve Energy Absorption Performance Using Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Zefry Darmawan


Product development is a big issue in the industrial competition and takes a serious part in development of technology. Product development process could adapt high changes of market needs and transform into engineering concept in order to produce high-quality product. One of the latest methods in product development is Analysis-Led-Design (ALD). It utilizes digital engineering design tools with finite analysis to perform product robust analysis and valuable for product reliability assurance. Heavy machinery which operates under severe condition should maintain safety to the customer when faced with potential hazard. Cab frame should able to absorb the energy while collision. Through ALD, a series of improvement of cab frame to increase energy absorption was made and analyzed. Improvement was made by modifying shapes of frame and-or install absorption device in certain areas. Simulation result showed that install absorption device could increase absorption energy than modifying shape.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, ROPS, cab frame, ALD

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6 Development and Characterization of Re-Entrant Auxetic Fibrous Structures for Application in Ballistic Composites

Authors: Rui Magalhães, Sohel Rana, Raul Fangueiro, Clara Gonçalves, Pedro Nunes, Gustavo Dias


Auxetic fibrous structures and composites with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) have huge potential for application in ballistic protection due to their high energy absorption and excellent impact resistance. In the present research, re-entrant lozenge auxetic fibrous structures were produced through weft knitting technology using high performance polyamide and para-aramid fibres. Fabric structural parameters (e.g. loop length) and machine parameters (e.g. take down load) were varied in order to investigate their influence on the auxetic behaviours of the produced structures. These auxetic structures were then impregnated with two types of polymeric resins (epoxy and polyester) to produce composite materials, which were subsequently characterized for the auxetic behaviour. It was observed that the knitted fabrics produced using the polyamide yarns exhibited NPR over a wide deformation range, which was strongly dependant on the loop length and take down load. The polymeric composites produced from the auxetic fabrics also showed good auxetic property, which was superior in case of the polyester matrix. The experimental results suggested that these composites made from the auxetic fibrous structures can be properly designed to find potential use in the body amours for personal protection applications.

Keywords: Composites, High Performance, Energy Absorption, Impact Resistance, auxetic fabrics

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5 Fiber-Based 3D Cellular Reinforcing Structures for Mineral-Bonded Composites with Enhanced Structural Impact Tolerance

Authors: Chokri Cherif, Duy M. P. Vo, Cornelia Sennewald, Gerald Hoffmann


The development of solutions to improve the resistance of buildings to short-term dynamic loads, particularly impact load, is driven by the urgent demand worldwide on securing human life and critical infrastructures. The research training group GRK 2250/1 aims to develop mineral-bonded composites that allow the fabrication of thin-layered strengthening layers providing available concrete members with enhanced impact resistance. This paper presents the development of 3D woven wire cellular structures that can be used as innovative reinforcement for targeted composites. 3D woven wire cellular structures are truss-like architectures that can be fabricated in an automatized process with a great customization possibility. The specific architecture allows this kind of structures to have good load bearing capability and forming behavior, which is of great potential to give strength against impact loading. An appropriate combination of topology and material enables an optimal use of thin-layered reinforcement in concrete constructions.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, ductile behavior, fiber-based reinforced concrete, impact resistant

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4 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, rubber buffer, coupler, impact tests

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3 Reinforcing Effects of Natural Micro-Particles on the Dynamic Impact Behaviour of Hybrid Bio-Composites Made of Short Kevlar Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Armor

Authors: Edison E. Haro, Akindele G. Odeshi, Jerzy A. Szpunar


Hybrid bio-composites are developed for use in protective armor through positive hybridization offered by reinforcement of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with Kevlar short fibers and palm wood micro-fillers. The manufacturing process involved a combination of extrusion and compression molding techniques. The mechanical behavior of Kevlar fiber reinforced HDPE with and without palm wood filler additions are compared. The effect of the weight fraction of the added palm wood micro-fillers is also determined. The Young modulus was found to increase as the weight fraction of organic micro-particles increased. However, the flexural strength decreased with increasing weight fraction of added micro-fillers. The interfacial interactions between the components were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the size, random alignment and distribution of the natural micro-particles was evaluated. Ballistic impact and dynamic shock loading tests were performed to determine the optimum proportion of Kevlar short fibers and organic micro-fillers needed to improve impact strength of the HDPE. These results indicate a positive hybridization by deposition of organic micro-fillers on the surface of short Kevlar fibers used in reinforcing the thermoplastic matrix leading to enhancement of the mechanical strength and dynamic impact behavior of these materials. Therefore, these hybrid bio-composites can be promising materials for different applications against high velocity impacts.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, hybrid bio-composites, organic nano-fillers, dynamic shocking loading, ballistic impacts

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2 Energy Absorption of Circular Thin-Walled Tube with Curved-Crease Patterns under Axial Crushing

Authors: Grzegorz Dolzyk, Sungmoon Jung


Thin-walled tubes are commonly used as energy absorption devices for their excellent mechanical properties and high manufacturability. Techniques such as grooving and pre-folded origami shapes were introduced to circular and polygonal tubes to improve its energy absorption efficiency. This paper examines the energy absorption characteristics of circular tubes with pre-embedded curved-crease pattern. Set of numerical analyzes were conducted with different grooving patterns for tubes with various diameter (D) to thickness (t) ratio. It has been found that even very shallow grooving can positively affect thin wall tubes, leading to increased energy absorption and higher crushing load efficiency. The phenomenon is associated with nonsymmetric deformation that is usually observed for tubes with a high D/t ratio ( > 90). Grooving can redirect a natural mode of post-buckling deformation to a one with a higher number of lobes such that its beneficial and more stable. Also, the opposite effect can be achieved, and highly disrupted deformation can be a cause of reduced energy absorption capabilities. Curved-crease engraved patterns can be used to stabilize and change a form of hazardous post-buckling deformation.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, axial crushing, grooving, thin-wall structures

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1 Collapse Capacity and Energy Absorption Mechanism of High Rise Steel Moment Frame Considering Aftershock Effects

Authors: Mohammadmehdi Torfehnejad, Serhan Sensoy


Many structures sustain damage during a mainshock earthquake but undergo severe damage under aftershocks following the mainshock. Past researches have studied aftershock effects through different methodologies, but few structural systems have been evaluated for these effects. Collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism of the Special Steel Moment Frame (SSMF) system is evaluated in this study, under aftershock earthquakes when prior damage is caused by the mainshock. A twenty-story building is considered in assessing the residual collapse capacity and energy absorption mechanism under aftershock excitation. In addition, various levels of mainshock damage are considered and reflected through two different response parameters. Aftershock collapse capacity is estimated using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) applied following the mainshock. The study results reveal that the collapse capacity of high-rise structures undergoes a remarkable reduction for high level of mainshock damage. The energy absorption in the columns is decreased by increasing the level of mainshock damage.

Keywords: Energy Absorption, incremental dynamic analysis, seismic collapse, mainshock-aftershock effect

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