Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Endurance Training Related Abstracts

6 The Effect of Endurance Training on Serum VCAM-1 in Overweight Women

Authors: Soheily Shahram, Banaeifar Abdolali, Yadegari Elham


Vascular adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) is one of the factors associating obesity and inflammatory lesions like atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on serum concentration of VCAM-1 in overweight women. Thirty female overweight (BMI ≥ 25) voluntarily participated in our study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Endurance training or control group. Training group exercised for 12 weeks, three sessions a week with definite intensity and distance. Pre and post 12 weeks of endurance training blood samples were taken (5cc) in fasting state from all subjects. Data was analyzed via independent t test (p≤0.05). The results showed that endurance training had significant effect on VCAM, body weight, fat percentage, BMI and maximum oxygen consumption (p ≤ 0.05). This study demonstrates that endurance training caused a decrease in the adhesion molecules level and decreasing inflammation, endurance training may perhaps play an effective role in atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Endurance Training, vascular cell adhesion molecules, overweight women, serum concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
5 The Effect of 8 Weeks Endurance Training and L-NAME on Apelin in Adipose Tissue, Glucose and Insulin in Elderly Male's Rats

Authors: Ahmad Abdi, Asieh Abbassi Daloii, Fatemeh Fani


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks endurance training and L-NAME on apelin in adipose tissue, glucose and insulin in elderly male’s rats. Methods: For this purpose, 24 vistar elderly rats with average 20 months old purchased from Razi Institute and transferred to Research Center were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. training, and L-NAME and 4. L-NAME. Training protocol performed for 8 weeks and 5 days a week with 75-80 VO2 max. All rats were killed 72 hours after the final training session and after 24 hours of fasting adipose tissue samples were collected and kept in -80. Also, Data was analyzed with One way ANOVA and Tucky in p < 0/05. Results: The results showed that the inhibition of nitric oxide on apelin in adipose tissue of adult male rats after eight weeks of endurance training increased significantly compared to the control group (p < 0.00). Also, the results showed no significant difference between the levels of insulin and glucose groups. Conclusion: It is likely that the increased apelin in adipose tissue in mice independent of insulin and glucose.

Keywords: Endurance Training, L-NAME, apelin in adipose tissue, elderly male rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
4 Effects of Boldenone Injections and Endurance Exercise on Hepatocyte Morphologic Damages in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Seyyed Javad Ziaolhagh


Background: The purpose of present study was to investigate, the effects of anabolic steroid Boldenone (BOL) with eight weeks of resistance training on structural changes in rat liver. Method: 21 Male adult Wistar rats, 12 weeks old and 228/53±7/94 g initial body weight were randomly assigned to three groups: group1: Control+ Placebo (C), group2: training+ Placebo (T), group3: Boldenone intramuscular injections 5mg/kg (B). The endurance training protocol consisted three exercise sessions weekly started by a 30-minute run with the speed of 12 m/min and lasted by 60min run with the speed of 30 m/min in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, for light microscopic study Slides were prepared. Results: Sections stained of rat's livers showed no any cell degeneration and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in all groups, but few samples were seen. Indeed, congested blood sinusoids, cell infiltration and degeneration were seen in the Boldenone-treated group. Hepatotoxic effects were severe in group treatment received 5 mg/kg and directly depended on the doses. Indeed, training group was no any hepatocyte degeneration, inflammation and congestion. Conclusion: The present results showed that BOL has a marked adverse effect on the liver tissue, even with low– dose and endurance training. As a result, athletes should aware of Boldenone dosage consumption.

Keywords: Endurance Training, anabolic androgenic steroids, Boldenone, blood congestion, cellular inflammation, cellular degeneration, lipid vocuolations

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
3 Effects of Endurance Training and Thyme Consumption on Neuropeptide Y in Untrained Men

Authors: M. Ghasemi, S.Fazelifar


Abstract Aim: Over-weight is not desirable and has implications for health and in the case of athletes affects performance. Exercise is a strategy used to counteract overweight owing to create a negative energy balance by increasing energy expenditure and influencing appetite regulating hormones. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed inhibitory effects of exercise on the hunger associated with these hormones in healthy subjects Neuropeptide Y(NPY) is a 36 amino acid protein that is a powerful stimulant appetite. NPY is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue. This neurotransmitter is secreted in the brain and autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, research has shown that thyme in addition to various properties, also affects the appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine Effects of eight weeks endurance training and thyme consumption on neuropeptide Y in untrained men. Methodology: 36 Healthy untrained men (mean body weight 78.25±3.2 kg, height 176±6.8 cm, age 34.32±4.54 years and BMI 29.1±4.3 kg/m2) voluntarily participated in this study . Subjects were randomly divided into four groups: 1. control, 2. Endurance training, 3. Thyme 4. Endurance training + Thyme. Amount of 10cc Blood sampling were obtained pre-test and post-test (after 8 weeks). The taken blood samples were centrifuged at 1500 × g for 15 min then plasma was stored at -20 °C until analysis. Endurance training consisted three session per week with 60% -75% of reserve heart rate for eight weeks. Exclusion criteria were history of gastrointestinal, endocrine, cardiovascular or psychological disease, and consuming any supplementation, alcohol and tobacco products. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations, and ranges were calculated for all measures. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0/05 accepted. Results: Results showed that aerobic training significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, but significant increase observed in maximal oxygen consumption level (p ≤ 0/05). The neuropeptide Y levels were significantly increased after exercise. Analysis of data determined that there was no significant difference between the four groups. Conclusion: Appetite control plays a critical role in the competition between energy consumption and energy expenditure. The results of this study showed that endurance training and thyme consumption can be cause improvement in physiological parameters such as increasing aerobic capacity, reduction of fat mass and improve body composition in untrained men.

Keywords: Endurance Training, thyme, neuropeptide Y, untrained men

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2 The Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy), control (cancer), training (cancer), Aloe Vera (cancer) and Aloe Vera + training (cancer). Induction of breast cancer tumors were done in mice by planting method. The training program includes six weeks of swimming training was done in three sessions per week. Training time from 10 minutes on the first day increased to 60 minutes in second week, and by stabilizing this time, the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute. 300 mg per kg body weight of Aloe Vera extract was injected into the peritoneal. Sampling was done 48 hours after the last exercise session. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures and Tukey test was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p<0.05 accepted. The results showed that induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 in aloe group and VEGF in training and Aloe Vera + training groups. The results suggest that swimming exercise and Aloe Vera can reduce levels of COX-2 and VEGF in mice with breast cancer.The results of this study, Induction of cancer cells significantly increased levels of COX-2 and MMP-9 in the control group compared with the cancer control group. The results suggest that Aloe Vera can probably inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway and thus production of prostaglandin E2 decrease of arachidonic acid.

Keywords: Endurance Training, VEGF, Aloe vera, COX-2

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1 Involvement of Corticosterone in the Antidepressant-Like Effect of Endurance Training in Model of Melatonin Deficit

Authors: Jana Tchekalarova, Milena Atanasova, Katerina Georgieva


Pinealectomy can cause a disturbance in emotional status and circadian rhythms of the endocrine and metabolic functions in the body. Endurance training is considered a part of the complex therapy of dysfunctions driven by changes in circadian dynamics of many physiological indicators. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that systematic endurance training can have a beneficial impact on depressive behavior induced by pinealectomy in rat via correction of desynchronized circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion in plasma. Four groups were formed as follows: sham sedentary rats, the sham group with exercise, rats with pinealectomy and sedentary, and rats with pinealectomy and exercise. The pineal gland was removed through thin forceps in anesthetized with ketamine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and xylazine (20 mg/kg, s.c.) rats. A similar procedure was applied over the sham groups but without the last action of the pineal gland removal. Exercised rats were regularly trained on a treadmill with a velocity of 20 m/min, 0°slope (about 50 - 55% of VO2max), five days a week for four weeks. The exercise intensity was set according to the maximal lactate steady state, established for Wistar rats during treadmill running. For assessing depressive behavior, a splash test, sucrose preference test, and forced swimming test were applied. Corticosterone in plasma was measured by the Elisa test kit of animals decapitated under mild anesthesia with CO2, every 4th hour in a 24-h period. The continuous exercise program attenuated depressive responses characterized by anhedonia in the sucrose preference test, decreased grooming in the splash test, and despair- like behavior in the forced swimming test of rats with pinealectomy. Parallel to the observed positive effect on the emotional status, exercise procedure corrected the flattened patterns of plasma corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of endurance training might be mediated via correction of the disturbed circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone release in rats with pinealectomy. Therefore, this alternative mode might have a potential therapeutic application in a subpopulation of people characterized by a melatonin deficiency.

Keywords: Depression, Endurance Training, corticosterone, pinealectomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1