Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

endotracheal intubation Related Abstracts

5 Proof of Concept of Video Laryngoscopy Intubation: Potential Utility in the Pre-Hospital Environment by Emergency Medical Technicians

Authors: A. Al Hajeri, M. E. Minton, B. Haskins, F. H. Cummins

Abstract:

The pre-hospital endotracheal intubation is fraught with difficulties; one solution offered has been video laryngoscopy (VL) which permits better visualization of the glottis than the standard method of direct laryngoscopy (DL). This method has resulted in a higher first attempt success rate and fewer failed intubations. However, VL has mainly been evaluated by experienced providers (experienced anesthetists), and as such the utility of this device for those whom infrequently intubate has not been thoroughly assessed. We sought to evaluate this equipment to determine whether in the hands of novice providers this equipment could prove an effective airway management adjunct. DL and two VL methods (C-Mac with distal screen/C-Mac with attached screen) were evaluated by simulating practice on a Laerdal airway management trainer manikin. Twenty Emergency Medical Technicians (basics) were recruited as novice practitioners. This group was used to eliminate bias, as these clinicians had no pre-hospital experience of intubation (although they did have basic airway skills). The following areas were assessed: Time taken to intubate, number of attempts required to successfully intubate, ease of use of equipment VL (attached screen) took on average longer for novice clinicians to successfully intubate and had a lower success rate and reported higher rating of difficulty compared to DL. However, VL (with distal screen) and DL were comparable on intubation times, success rate, gastric inflation rate and rating of difficulty by the user. This study highlights the routine use of VL by inexperienced clinicians would be of no added benefit over DL. Further studies are required to determine whether Emergency Medical Technicians (Paramedics) would benefit from this airway adjunct, and ascertain whether after initial mastery of VL (with a distal screen), lower intubation times and difficulty rating may be achievable.

Keywords: Pre-hospital, direct laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, video laryngoscopy

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4 Association between Severe Acidemia before Endotracheal Intubation and the Lower First Attempt Intubation Success Rate

Authors: Keiko Naito, Y. Nakashima, S. Yamauchi, Y. Kunitani, Y. Ishigami, K. Numata, M. Mizobe, Y. Homma, J. Takahashi, T. Inoue, T. Shiga, H. Funakoshi

Abstract:

Background: A presence of severe acidemia, defined as pH < 7.2, is common during endotracheal intubation for critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED). Severe acidemia is widely recognized as a predisposing factor for intubation failure. However, it is unclear that acidemic condition itself actually makes endotracheal intubation more difficult. We aimed to evaluate if a presence of severe acidemia before intubation is associated with the lower first attempt intubation success rate in the ED. Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study in the ED of an urban hospital in Japan. The collected data included patient demographics, such as age, sex, and body mass index, presence of one or more factors of modified LEMON criteria for predicting difficult intubation, reasons for intubation, blood gas levels, airway equipment, intubation by emergency physician or not, and the use of the rapid sequence intubation technique. Those with any of the following were excluded from the analysis: (1) no blood gas drawn before intubation, (2) cardiopulmonary arrest, and (3) under 18 years of age. The primary outcome was the first attempt intubation success rates between a severe acidemic patients (SA) group and a non-severe acidemic patients (NA) group. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the first attempt success rates for intubations between those two groups. Results: Over 5 years, a total of 486 intubations were performed; 105 in the SA group and 381 in the NA group. The univariate analysis showed that the first attempt intubation success rate was lower in the SA group than in the NA group (71.4% vs 83.5%, p < 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that severe acidemia was significantly associated with the first attempt intubation failure (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.03-3.68, p = 0.04). Conclusions: A presence of severe acidemia before endotracheal intubation lowers the first attempt intubation success rate in the ED.

Keywords: Airway Management, endotracheal intubation, acidemia, first-attempt intubation success rate

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3 Prediction of Endotracheal Tube Size in Children by Predicting Subglottic Diameter Using Ultrasonographic Measurement versus Traditional Formulas

Authors: Parul Jindal, Shubhi Singh, Priya Ramakrishnan, Shailender Raghuvanshi

Abstract:

Background: Knowledge of the influence of the age of the child on laryngeal dimensions is essential for all practitioners who are dealing with paediatric airway. Choosing the correct endotracheal tube (ETT) size is a crucial step in pediatric patients because a large-sized tube may cause complications like post-extubation stridor and subglottic stenosis. On the other hand with a smaller tube, there will be increased gas flow resistance, aspiration risk, poor ventilation, inaccurate monitoring of end-tidal gases and reintubation may also be required with a different size of the tracheal tube. Recent advancement in ultrasonography (USG) techniques should now allow for accurate and descriptive evaluation of pediatric airway. Aims and objectives: This study was planned to determine the accuracy of Ultrasonography (USG) to assess the appropriate ETT size and compare it with physical indices based formulae. Methods: After obtaining approval from Institute’s Ethical and Research committee, and parental written and informed consent, the study was conducted on 100 subjects of either sex between 12-60 months of age, undergoing various elective surgeries under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. The same experienced radiologist performed ultrasonography. The transverse diameter was measured at the level of cricoids cartilage by USG. After USG, general anesthesia was administered using standard techniques followed by the institute. An experienced anesthesiologist performed the endotracheal intubations with uncuffed endotracheal tube (Portex Tracheal Tube Smiths Medical India Pvt. Ltd.) with Murphy’s eye. He was unaware of the finding of the ultrasonography. The tracheal tube was considered best fit if air leak was satisfactory at 15-20 cm H₂O of airway pressure. The obtained values were compared with the values of endotracheal tube size calculated by ultrasonography, various age, height, weight-based formulas and diameter of right and left little finger. The correlation of the size of the endotracheal tube by different modalities was done and Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained. The comparison of the mean size of the endotracheal tube by ultrasonography and by traditional formula was done by the Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results: The predicted tube size was equal to best fit and best determined by ultrasonography (100%) followed by comparison to left little finger (98%) and right little finger (97%) and age-based formula (95%) followed by multivariate formula (83%) and body length (81%) formula. According to Pearson`s correlation, there was a moderate correlation of best fit endotracheal tube with endotracheal tube size by age-based formula (r=0.743), body length based formula (r=0.683), right little finger based formula (r=0.587), left little finger based formula (r=0.587) and multivariate formula (r=0.741). There was a strong correlation with ultrasonography (r=0.943). Ultrasonography was the most sensitive (100%) method of prediction followed by comparison to left (98%) and right (97%) little finger and age-based formula (95%), the multivariate formula had an even lesser sensitivity (83%) whereas body length based formula was least sensitive with a sensitivity of 78%. Conclusion: USG is a reliable method of estimation of subglottic diameter and for prediction of ETT size in children.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, endotracheal intubation, pediatric airway, subglottic diameter, traditional formulas

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2 Endotracheal Intubation Self-Confidence: Report of a Realistic Simulation Training

Authors: Cleto J. Sauer Jr., Rita C. Sauer, Chaider G. Andrade, Doris F. Rabelo

Abstract:

Introduction: Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) is a procedure for clinical management of patients with severe clinical presentation of COVID-19 disease. Realistic simulation (RS) is an active learning methodology utilized for clinical skill's improvement. To improve ETI skills of public health network's physicians from Recôncavo da Bahia region in Brazil, during COVID-19 outbreak, RS training was planned and carried out. Training scenario included the Nasco Lifeform realistic simulator, and three actions were simulated: ETI procedure, sedative drugs management, and bougie guide utilization. Training intervention occurred between May and June 2020, as an interinstitutional cooperation between the Health's Department of Bahia State and the Federal University from Recôncavo da Bahia. Objective: The main objective is to report the effects on participants' self-confidence perception for ETI procedure after RS based training. Methods: This is a descriptive study, with secondary data extracted from questionnaires applied throughout RS training. Priority workplace, time from last intubation, and knowledge about bougie were reported on a preparticipation questionnaire. Additionally, participants completed pre- and post-training qualitative self-assessment (10-point Likert scale) regarding self-confidence perception in performing each of simulated actions. Distribution analysis for qualitative data was performed with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and self-confidence increase analysis in frequency contingency tables with Fisher's Exact Test. Results: 36 physicians participated of training, 25 (69%) from primary care setting, 25 (69%) performed ETI over a year ago, and only 4 (11%) had previous knowledge about the bougie guide utilization. There was an increase in self-confidence medians for all three simulated actions. Medians (variation) for self-confidence before and after training, for each simulated action were as follows: ETI [5 (1-9) vs. 8 (6-10) (p < 0.0001)]; Sedative drug management [5 (1-9) vs. 8 (4-10) (p < 0.0001)]; Bougie guide utilization [2.5 (1-7) vs. 8 (4-10) (p < 0.0001)]. Among those who performed ETI over a year ago (n = 25), an increase in self-confidence greater than 3 points for ETI was reported by 23 vs. 2 physicians (p = 0.0002), and by 21 vs. 4 (p = 0.03) for sedative drugs management. Conclusions: RS training contributed to self-confidence increase in performing ETI. Among participants who performed ETI over a year, there was a significant association between RS training and increase of more than 3 points in self-confidence, both for ETI and sedative drug management. Training with RS methodology is suitable for ETI confidence enhancement during COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: confidence, endotracheal intubation, COVID-19, realistic simulation

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1 Report of a Realistic Simulation Training in Using Bougie Guide for Endotracheal Intubation

Authors: Cleto J. Sauer Jr., Rita C. Sauer, Chaider G. Andrade, Doris F. Rabelo

Abstract:

Some patients with COVID-19 disease and difficult airway characteristics undergo to endotracheal intubation (ETI) procedure. The tracheal introducer, known as the bougie guide, can aid ETI in patients with difficult airway pattern. Realistic simulation (RS) is a methodology utilized for healthcare professionals training. To improve skills in using the bougie guide of physicians from Recôncavo da Bahia region in Brazil, during COVID-19 outbreak, RS training was carried out. Simulated scenario included the Nasco Lifeform realistic simulator for ETI and a bougie guide introducer. Training was a capacitation program organized by the Health Department of Bahia State. Objective: To report effects in participants´ self-confidence perception for using bougie guide after a RS based training. Methods: Descriptive study, secondary data extracted from questionnaires. Priority workplace and previous knowledge about bougie were reported on a preparticipation formulary. Participants also completed pre- and post-training qualitative self-assessment (10-point Likert scale) regarding to self-confidence in using bougie guide. Distribution analysis for qualitative data was performed with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and self-confidence increase analysis in frequency contingency tables with Fisher's exact test. Results: From May to June 2020 a total of 36 physicians participated of training, 25 (69%) from primary care setting, 32 (89%) with no previous knowledge about the bougie guide utilization. For those who had previous knowledge about bougie pre-training self-confidence median was 6,5, and 2 for participants who had not. In overall there was an increase in self-confidence median for bougie utilization. Median (variation) before and after training was 2.5 (1-7) vs. 8 (4-10) (p <0.0001). Among those who had no previous knowledge about bougie (n = 32) an increase in self-confidence greater than 3 points for bougie utilization was reported by 31 vs. 1 participants (p = 0.71). Conclusions: Most of participants had no previous knowledge about using the bougie guide. RS training contributed to self-confidence increase for using bougie for ETI procedure. RS methodology can contribute for training in using the bougie guide for ETI procedure during COVID-19 outbreak.

Keywords: confidence, endotracheal intubation, COVID-19, realistic simulation, bougie

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