Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

endothelial function Related Abstracts

3 Exercise and Aging Process Related to Oxidative Stress

Authors: B. Dejanova, S. Petrovska, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: Aging process is mainly related to endothelial function which may be impaired by oxidative stress (OS). Exercise is known to be beneficial to aging process, which may improve health and prevent appearance of chronic diseases in elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the OS markers related to exercise. Methods: A number of 80 subjects (healthy volunteers) were examined (38 male and 32 female), divided in 3 age groups: group I ≤ 30 years (n=24); group II – 31-50 years (n=24); group III - ≥ 51 year (n=32). Each group was divided to subgroups of sedentary subjects (SS) and subjects who exercise (SE). Group I: SS (n=11), SE (n=13); group II: SS (n=13), SE (n=10); group III: SS (n=23) SE (n=9). Lipid peroxidation (LP) as a fluorimetric method with thiobarbituric acid was used to estimate OS. Antioxidative status was determined by cell antioxidants such as enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose 6 phosphate (G-6-PD); and by extra cell antioxidants such as glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Increased values of LP were noticed along the aging process: group I – 3.30±0.3 µmol/L; group II – 3.91±0.2 µmol/L; group III – 3.94±0.8 µmol/L (p<0.05), while no statistical significance was found between male and female subjects. Statistical significance for OS was not found between SS and SE in group I as it was found in group II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.01). No statistical significance was found for all cell antioxidants and GR within the groups, while NO and TAC showed lower values in SS compared to SE in II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Aging process showed increased OS which may be either due to impaired function of scavengers of free radicals or due to their enormous production. Well balanced exercise might be one of the factors that keep the integrity of blood vessel endothelium which slows down the aging process. Possible mechanism of exercise beneficial influence is shear stress by upregulation of genes coding for nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, due to obtained results we may conclude that OS is found to be diminished in the subject groups who perform exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Oxidative Stress, Aging Process, endothelial function

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2 The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Eka Fithra Elfi, Indria Hafizah


Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Keywords: Inflammation, Physical exercise, endothelial function, NFkB

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1 The Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on Endothelial Function in Atherosclerosis Patients Living in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wedad Azhar


Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin that is required for the maintenance of good health. It is obtained either through exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet B radiation) or through dietary sources. The role of vitamin D is beyond bone health. Indeed, it plays a critical role in the immune system and a broad range of organ functions such as the cardiovascular system. Moreover, vitamin D plays a critical role in the endothelial function, which is one of the main indicators of atherosclerosis. This study is investigating the correlation between vitamin D status and endothelial function in preventing and treating atherosclerosis especially in country that has ample of sunshine but yet, Saudis from suffering from this issue vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Ninety participants from both genders and aged 40 to 60will be involved. The participants will be categorised into three groups: the control group will be healthy persons, patients at risk of developing atherosclerosis, patients formally diagnosed atherosclerosis. Half of the participants in each group should already have been taking vitamin D supplementations. Fasting blood samples will be taken from the participants for biochemical assays. Endothelial function will be assist by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire on their social and economic status, education level, daily exposure to sunlight, smoking status, consumption of supplements and medication, and a food frequency of vitamin D intake. The data will be analysed using SPSS.

Keywords: Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, endothelial function, vitamin D

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