Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

end of life Related Abstracts

7 Nurses Care Practices at End of Life in Intensive Care Units in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: M. Yaqoob, C. S. O’Neill, S. Faraj, C. L. O’Neill


This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study exploring nurse’s contributions to end of life decisions and to the care of dying patients in ICU units in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The process of dying is complex as medical clinicians are frequently unable to say with certainty when death will occur. It is generally accepted that end of life care begins when it is possible to know that death is imminent. Nurses do not make medical treatment decisions when caring for a dying patient. There are, however, many other types of decisions made when a patient is approaching the end of life and nurses are either formally or informally part of these decision making processes. This study explored nurses care practices at the end of life, in two ICU units in large hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research design was a grounded theory approach. Ten nurses participated, six of whom were Bahraini nationals and four were Indian. A core category death avoidance talk was supported by three major subcategories, degrees of involvement in decision making; signalling and creating an awareness of death; care shifting from dying patients to family. Despite nurses asserting that they carried out the orders of doctors and had no role in decision making processes at end of life this study showed that there were degrees of nurse involvement. Doctors frequently discussed the patient’s clinical condition with nurses and also sought information regarding the family. Information about the family was of particular relevance if the doctor was considering a DNR order, which the nurses equated with dying. Families were not always informed when a DNR decision was made. When families were not informed the nurses engaged in sophisticated rituals signalling and creating awareness to family members that the death of their loved one was near. This process also involved a subtle shifting of care from the dying patient to the family. This seminar paper will focus particularly on how nurses signal and create an awareness of death in an ICU setting. The findings suggest that despite the avoidance of death talk in the ICU nurses indirectly convey and create an awareness that death is near to family members.

Keywords: Decision Making, end of life, intensive care unit, dying patients

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6 Principles and Guidance for the Last Days of Life: Te Ara Whakapiri

Authors: Tania Chalton


In June 2013, an independent review of the Liverpool Care Pathway (LCP) identified a number of problems with the implementation of the LCP in the UK and recommended that it be replaced by individual care plans for each patient. As a result of the UK findings, in November 2013 the Ministry of Health (MOH) commissioned the Palliative Care Council to initiate a programme of work to investigate an appropriate approach for the care of people in their last days of life in New Zealand (NZ). The Last Days of Life Working Group commenced a process to develop national consensus on the care of people in their last days of life in April 2014. In order to develop its advice for the future provision of care to people in their last days of life, the Working Group (WG) established a comprehensive work programme and as a result has developed a series of working papers. Specific areas of focus included: An analysis of the UK Independent Review findings and an assessment of these findings to the NZ context. A stocktake of services providing care to people in their last days of life, including aged residential care (ARC); hospices; hospitals; and primary care. International and NZ literature reviews of evidence and best practice. Survey of family to understand the consumer perspective on the care of people in their last days of life. Key aspects of care that required further considerations for NZ were: Terminology: clarify terminology used in the last days of life and in relation to death and dying. Evidenced based: including specific review of evidence regarding, spiritual, culturally appropriate care as well as dementia care. Diagnosis of dying: need for both guidance around the diagnosis of dying and communication with family. Workforce issues: access to an appropriate workforce after hours. Nutrition and hydration: guidance around appropriate approaches to nutrition and hydration. Symptom and pain management: guidance around symptom management. Documentation: documentation of the person’s care which is robust enough for data collection and auditing requirements, not ‘tick box’ approach to care. Education and training: improved consistency and access to appropriate education and training. Leadership: A dedicated team or person to support and coordinate the introduction and implementation of any last days of life model of care. Quality indicators and data collection: model of care to enable auditing and regular reviews to ensure on-going quality improvement. Cultural and spiritual: address and incorporate any cultural and spiritual aspects. A final document was developed incorporating all the evidence which provides guidance to the health sector on best practice for people at end of life: “Principles and guidance for the last days of life: Te Ara Whakapiri”.

Keywords: palliative care, end of life, New Zealand, guidelines

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5 Reverse Logistics End of Life Products Acquisition and Sorting

Authors: Badli Shah Mohd Yusoff, Khairur Rijal Jamaludin, Rozetta Dollah


The emerging of reverse logistics and product recovery management is an important concept in reconciling economic and environmental objectives through recapturing values of the end of life product returns. End of life products contains valuable modules, parts, residues and materials that can create value if recovered efficiently. The main objective of this study is to explore and develop a model to recover as much of the economic value as reasonably possible to find the optimality of return acquisition and sorting to meet demand and maximize profits over time. In this study, the benefits that can be obtained for remanufacturer is to develop demand forecasting of used products in the future with uncertainty of returns and quality of products. Formulated based on a generic disassembly tree, the proposed model focused on three reverse logistics activity, namely refurbish, remanufacture and disposal incorporating all plausible means quality levels of the returns. While stricter sorting policy, constitute to the decrease amount of products to be refurbished or remanufactured and increases the level of discarded products. Numerical experiments carried out to investigate the characteristics and behaviour of the proposed model with mathematical programming model using Lingo 16.0 for medium-term planning of return acquisition, disassembly (refurbish or remanufacture) and disposal activities. Moreover, the model seeks an analysis a number of decisions relating to trade off management system to maximize revenue from the collection of use products reverse logistics services through refurbish and remanufacture recovery options. The results showed that full utilization in the sorting process leads the system to obtain less quantity from acquisition with minimal overall cost. Further, sensitivity analysis provides a range of possible scenarios to consider in optimizing the overall cost of refurbished and remanufactured products.

Keywords: Reverse Logistics, end of life, core acquisition, quality uncertainty

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4 A Mixed Method Systematic Review of the Experience of Communication in the Care of Children with Palliative Care Needs

Authors: Maha Atout, Pippa Hemingway, Jane Seymour


Background: A mixed method systematic review was undertaken in order to explore issues related to the experiences of health care providers and parents in the care of children with palliative care needs. The aims of this systematic review were to identify existing evidence about the experiences of communication in the care of children with palliative care needs, to appraise the research conducted in this area and to identify gaps in the literature in order to recommend for future related studies. Method: A mixed method systematic review of research on the experience of communication in the care of children with palliative care needs, conducted with parents and health professionals was undertaken. The electronic databases of CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, OVID, Social Care Online, Web of Science, Scopus, and ProQuest were searched for the period of 2000-2016. Inclusion was limited to studies of communication experience in the care of children with palliative care needs. Result: Thirty-eight studies were found. The studies were conducted in a variety of countries: Uganda, Jordan, USA, UK, Taiwan, Turkey, Ireland, Poland, Brazil, Australia, Switzerland, Sweden, Netherland, Lebanon, Spain, Greece, and China. The current review shows that parents tend to protect their children when they are discussing their illnesses with them, particularly where they have a life-threatening or life-limiting condition. The approach of parents towards the discussion of sensitive issues concerning death with their children is significantly affected by the cultural background of the families. Conservative cultures encourage collusion behaviours which tend to keep children unaware of the incurable nature of the disease. The major communication challenges reported by health professionals are facing difficulties in judging how much information should be given to parents, responding to difficult questions, conflicts with families and inadequate skills to support grieving families. Conclusion: It is probably significant for the future studies to consider the change of parent-child communication experience over time in order to understand how the parents could change their interaction styles with their children according to the different stages of their children’s disease. Moreover, further studies are required to investigate the experience of communication of parents of children with non-malignant life-threatening and life-limiting illnesses.

Keywords: end of life, children with life-threatening or life- limiting illnesses, experience of communication, healthcare care providers, paediatric palliative care

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3 The Model Development of Caregiver Skills for the End of Life’s Cancer Patients

Authors: Chaliya Wamaloon, Malee Chaisaena, Nusara Prasertsri


Informal caregivers providing home-based palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care to people with advanced cancer is needed, however, there has not been develop caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. The aim of this research was to study the model development of caregiver skills for the EOL in cancer patients. Mixed methods research was conducted in 3 phases. All subjects were in Ubon Rathchathani Cancer Hospital including 30 EOL cancer patient caregivers, 30 EOL cancer patients, and 111 health care professionals who provided care for the EOL cancer patients and 30 EOL target participants who had been trained to be cancer patient caregivers. The research tools were questionnaires, semi structured interviews, and caregiver skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using percentage, mean, standard deviation, pair t-test, and content analysis. The result from this study showed the model development of caregiver skills for cancer patients consisted of 9 domains skills: 1. monitoring, 2. interpreting, 3. making decisions, 4. taking action, 5. making adjustments, 6. providing hands-on care, 7. accessing resources, 8. working together with the ill patients, and 9. navigating the healthcare system. The model composed of skills development curriculum for cancer patient caregivers, Manual of palliative care for caregivers, diary of health care records for cancer patients, and the evaluation model of development of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients. The results of the evaluation in the development model of caregiver skills for EOL cancer patients showed that the caregivers were satisfied with the model of development for caregiver skills at a high level. The comparison of the caregiver skills before and after obtaining the development of caregivers skills revealed that it improved at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05).

Keywords: end of life, cancer patients, caregiver, caregiver skills

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2 E-Waste Generation in Bangladesh: Present and Future Estimation by Material Flow Analysis Method

Authors: Rowshan Mamtaz, Shuvo Ahmed, Imran Noor, Sumaiya Rahman, Prithvi Shams, Fahmida Gulshan


Last few decades have witnessed a phenomenal rise in the use of electrical and electronic equipment globally in our everyday life. As these items reach the end of their lifecycle, they turn into e-wastes and contribute to the waste stream. Bangladesh, in conformity with the global trend and due to its ongoing rapid growth, is also using electronics-based appliances and equipment at an increasing rate. This has caused a corresponding increase in the generation of e-wastes. Bangladesh is a developing country; its overall waste management system, is not yet efficient, nor is it environmentally sustainable. Most of its solid wastes are disposed of in a crude way at dumping sites. Addition of e-wastes, which often contain toxic heavy metals, into its waste stream has made the situation more difficult and challenging. Assessment of generation of e-wastes is an important step towards addressing the challenges posed by e-wastes, setting targets, and identifying the best practices for their management. Understanding and proper management of e-wastes is a stated item of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) campaign, and Bangladesh is committed to fulfilling it. A better understanding and availability of reliable baseline data on e-wastes will help in preventing illegal dumping, promote recycling, and create jobs in the recycling sectors and thus facilitate sustainable e-waste management. With this objective in mind, the present study has attempted to estimate the amount of e-wastes and its future generation trend in Bangladesh. To achieve this, sales data on eight selected electrical and electronic products (TV, Refrigerator, Fan, Mobile phone, Computer, IT equipment, CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp) bulbs, and Air Conditioner) have been collected from different sources. Primary and secondary data on the collection, recycling, and disposal of the e-wastes have also been gathered by questionnaire survey, field visits, interviews, and formal and informal meetings with the stakeholders. Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method has been applied, and mathematical models have been developed in the present study to estimate e-waste amounts and their future trends up to the year 2035 for the eight selected electrical and electronic equipment. End of life (EOL) method is adopted in the estimation. Model inputs are products’ annual sale/import data, past and future sales data, and average life span. From the model outputs, it is estimated that the generation of e-wastes in Bangladesh in 2018 is 0.40 million tons and by 2035 the amount will be 4.62 million tons with an average annual growth rate of 20%. Among the eight selected products, the number of e-wastes generated from seven products are increasing whereas only one product, CFL bulb, showed a decreasing trend of waste generation. The average growth rate of e-waste from TV sets is the highest (28%) while those from Fans and IT equipment are the lowest (11%). Field surveys conducted in the e-waste recycling sector also revealed that every year around 0.0133 million tons of e-wastes enter into the recycling business in Bangladesh which may increase in the near future.

Keywords: end of life, E-Waste, Bangladesh, material flow analysis

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1 Links between Moral Distress of Registered Nurses and Factors Related to Patient Care at the End of Their Life: A Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: L. Laurs, A. Blazeviciene, D. Milonas


Introduction: Nursing as a profession is grounded in moral obligation. Nursing practice is grounded in ethical standards: to not harm, to promote justice, to be accountable, and to provide safe and competent care. The nature of the nurse-patient therapeutic relationship requires acting on the patient's behalf. Moral distress consists of negative stress symptoms that occur in situations that involve ethical situations that the nurse perceives as discordant with their professional values. Aim of the Study: The purpose of this study was to assess links between moral distress of registered nurses and factors related to patient care at the end of their life. Methods and Sample: A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational design was applied in this study. Registered nurses were recruited from seven municipal multi-profile hospitals providing both general and specialized healthcare services in Lithuania (N=1055). Research instruments included two questionnaires: Obstacles and Facilitating at the End of Life Care and Moral Distress Scale (revised). Results: Spearman’s correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between nurses' attitudes towards patient care at the end of life and the experienced moral distress. A statistically significant correlation between moral distress and the following factors related to patient end-of-life care has been identified: conversations with physicians on patient end-of-life problems have a positive impact on job satisfaction; some patients may be excluded from decisions about their treatment and nursing because they are questioned about their ability to assess the situation. These situations increased moral distress. Patient consciousness should not be permanently suppressed by calming medications, and the patient should be provided with all nursing care services and moral distress. Conclusions: The moral distress of nurses is significantly related to the end-of-life care of patients and their determinants: moral distress increased due to lack of discussion with doctors about problem-solving and exclusion of patients from decision-making. And it diminished by refusing calming medications to permanently suppress a patient's consciousness and providing good care for patients.

Keywords: end of life, Care, moral distress, registered nurses

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