Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

enclosure Related Abstracts

7 Finite Difference Modelling of Temperature Distribution around Fire Generated Heat Source in an Enclosure

Authors: A. A. Dare, E. U. Iniegbedion


Industrial furnaces generally involve enclosures of fire typically initiated by the combustion of gases. The fire leads to temperature distribution inside the enclosure. A proper understanding of the temperature and velocity distribution within the enclosure is often required for optimal design and use of the furnace. This study was therefore directed at numerical modeling of temperature distribution inside an enclosure as typical in a furnace. A mathematical model was developed from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The stream function-vorticity formulation of the governing equations was solved by an alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite difference technique. The finite difference formulation obtained were then developed into a computer code. This was used to determine the temperature, velocities, stream function and vorticity. The effect of the wall heat conduction was also considered, by assuming a one-dimensional heat flow through the wall. The computer code (MATLAB program) developed was used for the determination of the aforementioned variables. The results obtained showed that the transient temperature distribution assumed a uniform profile which becomes more chaotic with increasing time. The vertical velocity showed increasing turbulent behavior with time, while the horizontal velocity assumed decreasing laminar behavior with time. All of these behaviours were equally reported in the literature. The developed model has provided understanding of heat transfer process in an industrial furnace.

Keywords: Modelling, Furnace, heat source, enclosure

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6 Dimensions of Public Spaces: Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela


The significance of public spaces is on a rise in Indian cities as a strong interaction space across cultures and community. It is a pertinent gathering space for people across age and gender, where the face keeps changing with time. A public space is directly related to the social dimension, people, comfort, safety, and security, that, it proposes to provide, as inherent qualities. The presence of these and other dimensions of space, together with related equitable environments, impart certain quality to a public space. The higher the optimum contents of these dimensions, the better the quality of public space. Public is represented by PEOPLE through society and community, and space is created by dimensions. Society contains children, women and the elderly, community is composed of social, and religious groups. These behave differently in a different setting and call for varied quality of spaces, created and generated. Public spaces are spread across a city and have more or less established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The emergence of public space dates back to the times when people started forming communities, display cultures and traditions publicly, gathered for religious observations and celebrations, and address the society. Traditional cities and societies in India were feudal and orthodox in their nature and yet had public spaces. When the gathering of people at one point in a city became more frequent the point became more accessible and occupied. Baras (large courts, Chowks (public squares) and Maidans (large grounds) became well-known gathering spaces in the towns and cities. As the population grew such points grew in number, each becoming a public space in itself and with a different and definite social character. The author aims at studying the various dimensions of public spaces with which a public space has power to hold people for a significant period of time. The human senses here are note referred to as taste, sight, hearing, touch or smell, but how human senses collectively respond to when stationed in a given public space. The collectives may reflect in dimensions like comfort, safety, environment, freedom etc. Various levels of similar other responses would be studied through interviews, observations and other scientific methods for both qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Keywords: Society, Accessibility, Interaction, people, comfort, enclosure

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5 Dimensions of Public Spaces in Indian Market Places Feelings through Human Senses

Authors: Piyush Hajela


Public spaces in Indian market places are vibrant, colorful and carry latent dimensions that make them attractive and popular gathering spaces. These markets satisfy the household needs of the people and also their social, cultural and traditional aspirations. Going to a market place for shopping in India is a great source of entertainment for the people. They would love to spend as much time as possible and stay for longer durations than otherwise required. It is this desire of the people that generates public spaces. Much of these public spaces emerge as squares, plazas, corners of varied shapes and sizes at different locations, and yet provide a conducive environment. Such public spaces grow organically and are discovered by the people themselves. Indian markets serve people of different culture, religion, caste, age, gender which keeps them alive all the year round. Indian is a diverse country and this diversity is reflected clearly in the market places. They hold the people together and promote harmony across cultures. Free access to these market places makes them magnets for social interaction. Public spaces are spread across a city and more or less have established their existence and prominence in a social set up. While few of them are created, others are discovered by the people themselves in their constant search for desirable interactive public spaces. These are the most sought after gathering spaces that have the quality of promoting social interaction, providing free accessibility, provide desirable scale etc. The paper aims at identifying these freely accessible public spaces and the dimensions within it that make these public spaces hold the people for significant duration of time. The dimensions present shall be judged through collective response of human senses in form of safety, comfort and so on through the expressions of the participants. The aim therefore would be to trace the freely accessible public spaces emerged in Indian markets and evaluate them for human response and behavior. The hierarchy of market places in the city of Bhopal is well established as, city center level, sub city-center level, community level, local and convenient level market places. While many city-centers are still referred to as the old or traditional or the core area of the city, the others are part of the planned city. These different levels of market places are studied for emerged public spaces. These emerged public spaces are then documented in detail for unveiling the dimensions they offer through, photographs, visual observations, questionnaires and response of the participants of these public spaces.

Keywords: Safety, Social Interaction, enclosure, human comfort

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4 Numerical Study of Natural Convection of a Localized Heat Source at the up of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Marziyeh Heydari


This article presents a numerical study of natural convection of a heat source embedded on the up wall of an enclosure filled with nanofluid. The bottom and vertical walls of the enclosure are maintained at a relatively low temperature. The type of nanofluid and solid volume fraction of nanoparticle on the heat transfer performance is studied. The results indicated that adding nanoparticle into pure paraffin improves heat transfer. The results are presented over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers(Ra=〖10〗^3 〖-10〗^5), the volume fraction of nanoparticles (0≤ɸ≤0.4%). For an enclosure, the Nusselt number of a cu-paraffin nanofluid was reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles above 0.2%.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, heat source, enclosure

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3 Experimental Analysis of Structure Borne Noise in an Enclosure

Authors: A. Aminudin, Waziralilah N. Fathiah, U. Alyaa Hashim, T. Vikneshvaran D. Shakirah Shukor


This paper presents the experimental analysis conducted on a structure borne noise in a rectangular enclosure prototype made by joining of sheet aluminum metal and plywood. The study is significant as many did not realized the annoyance caused by structural borne-noise. In this study, modal analysis is carried out to seek the structure’s behaviour in order to identify the characteristics of enclosure in frequency domain ranging from 0 Hz to 200 Hz. Here, numbers of modes are identified and the characteristic of mode shape is categorized. Modal experiment is used to diagnose the structural behaviour while microphone is used to diagnose the sound. Spectral testing is performed on the enclosure. It is acoustically excited using shaker and as it vibrates, the vibrational and noise responses sensed by tri-axis accelerometer and microphone sensors are recorded respectively. Experimental works is performed on each node lies on the gridded surface of the enclosure. Both experimental measurement is carried out simultaneously. The modal experimental results of the modal modes are validated by simulation performed using MSC Nastran software. In pursuance of reducing the structure borne-noise, mitigation method is used whereby the stiffener plates are perpendicularly placed on the sheet aluminum metal. By using this method, reduction in structure borne-noise is successfully made at the end of the study.

Keywords: modal analysis, enclosure, sound analysis, structure borne-noise

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2 Buoyant Gas Dispersion in a Small Fuel Cell Enclosure: A Comparison Study Using Plain and Pressed Louvre Vent Passive Ventilation Schemes

Authors: T. Ghatauray, J. Ingram, P. Holborn


The transition from a ‘carbon rich’ fossil fuel dependent to a ‘sustainable’ and ‘renewable’ hydrogen based society will see the deployment of hydrogen fuel cells (HFC) in transport applications and in the generation of heat and power for buildings, as part of a decentralised power network. Many deployments will be low power HFCs for domestic combined heat and power (CHP) and commercial ‘transportable’ HFCs for environmental situations, such as lighting and telephone towers. For broad commercialisation of small fuel cells to be achieved there needs to be significant confidence in their safety in both domestic and environmental applications. Low power HFCs are housed in protective steel enclosures. Standard enclosures have plain rectangular ventilation openings intended for thermal management of electronics and not the dispersion of a buoyant gas. Degradation of the HFC or supply pipework in use could lead to a low-level leak and a build-up of hydrogen gas in the enclosure. Hydrogen’s wide flammable range (4-75%) is a significant safety concern, with ineffective enclosure ventilation having the potential to cause flammable mixtures to develop with the risk of explosion. Mechanical ventilation is effective at managing enclosure hydrogen concentrations, but drains HFC power and is vulnerable to failure. This is undesirable in low power and remote installations and reliable passive ventilation systems are preferred. Passive ventilation depends upon buoyancy driven flow, with the size, shape and position of ventilation openings critical for producing predictable flows and maintaining low buoyant gas concentrations. With environmentally sited enclosures, ventilation openings with pressed horizontal and angled louvres are preferred to protect the HFC and electronics inside. There is an economic cost to adding louvres, but also a safety concern. A question arises over whether the use of pressed louvre vents impairs enclosure passive ventilation performance, when compared to same opening area plain vents. Comparison small enclosure (0.144m³) tests of same opening area pressed louvre and plain vents were undertaken. A displacement ventilation arrangement was incorporated into the enclosure with opposing upper and lower ventilation openings. A range of vent areas were tested. Helium (used as a safe analogue for hydrogen) was released from a 4mm nozzle at the base of the enclosure to simulate a hydrogen leak at leak rates from 1 to 10 lpm. Helium sensors were used to record concentrations at eight heights in the enclosure. The enclosure was otherwise empty. These tests determined that the use of pressed and angled louvre ventilation openings on the enclosure impaired the passive ventilation flow and increased helium concentrations in the enclosure. High-level stratified buoyant gas layers were also found to be deeper than with plain vent openings and were within the flammable range. The presence of gas within the flammable range is of concern, particularly as the addition of the fuel cell and electronics in the enclosure would further reduce the available volume and increase concentrations. The opening area of louvre vents would need to be greater than equivalent plain vents to achieve comparable ventilation flows or alternative schemes would need to be considered.

Keywords: Hydrogen Safety, Fuel Cell, enclosure, passive ventilation, helium, louvre vent

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1 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz


In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom side temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.

Keywords: Numerical Solution, natural convection, enclosure, nusselt number, triangular

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