Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

emulsion Related Abstracts

10 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk


Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: Stability, Ultrasound, injection, surfactant, release, emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, light scattering

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9 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento


Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: Stability, Polymer, Chemical Modification, emulsion, polysaccharide

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8 Effect of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Parameters on the Moringa oleifera Oil Yield and Formation of Emulsion

Authors: Masni Mat Yusoff, Michael H. Gordon, Keshavan Niranjan


The study reports on the effect of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) parameters on the Moringa oleifera (MO) oil yield and the formation of emulsion at the end of the process. A mixture of protease and cellulase enzymes was used at 3:1 (w/w) ratio. The highest oil yield of 19% (g oil/g sample) was recovered with the use of a mixture of pH 6, 1:4 material/moisture ratio, and incubation temperature, time, and shaking speed of 50 ⁰C, 12.5 hr, and 300 stroke/min, respectively. The use of pH 6 and 8 resulted in grain emulsions, while solid-intact emulsion was observed at pH 4. Upon fixing certain parameters, higher oil yield was extracted with the use of lower material/moisture ratio and higher shaking speed. Longer incubation time of 24 hr resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) similar oil yield with that of 12.5 hr, and an incubation temperature of 50 ⁰C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher oil yield than that of 60 ⁰C. In overall, each AEE parameter showed significant effects on both the MO oil yields and the emulsions formed. One of the major disadvantages of an AEE process is the formation of emulsions which require further de-emulsification step for higher oil recovery. Therefore, critical studies on the effect of each AEE parameter may assist in minimizing the amount of emulsions formed whilst extracting highest total MO oil yield possible.

Keywords: enzyme, oil yield, Moringa oleifera, emulsion

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7 Synthesis of Cardanol Oil Building Blocks for Polymer Synthesis

Authors: Sylvain Caillol


Uncertainty in terms of price and availability of petroleum, in addition to global political and institutional tendencies toward the principles of sustainable development, urge chemical industry to a sustainable chemistry and particularly the use of renewable resources in order to synthesize biobased chemicals and products. We propose a platform approach for the synthesis of various building blocks from cardanol in one or two-steps syntheses. Cardanol, which is a natural phenol, is issued from Cashew Nutshell Liquid (CNSL), a non-edible renewable resource, co-produced from cashew industry in large commercial volumes. Cardanol is particularly interesting to replace fossil aromatic groups in polymers and materials. Our team studied various routes for the synthesis of cardanol-derived biobased building blocks used after that in polymer syntheses. For example, we used phenolation to dimerize/oligomerize cardanol to propose increase functionality of cardanol. Thio-ene was used to synthesize new reactive amines. Epoxidation and (meth)acrylation were also used to insert oxirane or (meth)acrylate groups in order to synthesize polymers and materials.

Keywords: epoxy, emulsion, latex, cardanol, cashew nutshell liquid, vinyl ester

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6 Lab Activities for Introducing Nanoscience to Teachers and Students

Authors: Riam Abu-Much, Muhamad Hugerat


Nanoscience has become one of the main science fields in the world; its importance is reflected in both society and industry; therefore, it is very important to intensify educational programs among teachers and students that aim to introduce "Nano Concepts" to them. Two different lab activities were developed for demonstrating the importance of nanoscale materials using unique points of view. In the first, electrical conductive films made of silver nanoparticles were fabricated. The silver nanoparticles were protected against aggregation using electrical conductive polypyrrole, which acts also as conductive bridge between them. The experiments show a simpler way for fabricating conductive thin film than the much more complicated and costly conventional method. In the second part, the participants could produce emulsions of liposome structures using Phosphatidylcholine as a surfactant, and following by minimizing the size of it from micro-scale to nanometer scale (400 nm), using simple apparatus called Mini-Extruder, in that way the participants could realize the change in solution transparency, and the effect of Tyndall when the size of the liposomes is reduced. Freshmen students from the Academic Arab College for Education in Haifa, Israel, who are studying to become science teachers, participated in this lab activity as part of the course "Chemistry in the Lab". These experiments are appropriate for teachers, high school and college students.

Keywords: Case study, Colloid, surfactant, emulsion, liposome

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5 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas


The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: emulsion, demulsifier, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

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4 Ultrasonic Techniques to Characterize and Monitor Water-in-Oil Emulsion

Authors: A. Prakash, E. A. Alshaafi


Oil-water emulsions are commonly encountered in various industrial operations and at different stages of crude oil production and processing. Emulsions are often difficult to track and treat and can cause a number of costly problems which need to be avoided. The characteristics of the emulsion phase can vary with crude composition and types of impurities present in oil. The objectives of this study are the development of ultrasonic techniques to track and characterize emulsion phase generated during production and cleaning of crude oil. The position of emulsion layer is monitored with the help of ultrasonic probes suitably placed in the vessel. The sensitivity of the technique and its potential has been demonstrated based on extensive testing with different oil samples. The technique is also being developed to monitor emulsion phase characteristics such as stability, composition, and droplet size distribution. The ultrasonic parameters recorded are changes in acoustic velocity, signal attenuation and its frequency spectrum. Emulsion has been prepared with light mineral oil sample and the effects of various factors including mixing speed, temperature, surfactant, and solid particles concentrations have been investigated. The applied frequency for ultrasonic waves has been varied from 1 to 5 MHz to carry out a sensitivity analysis. Emulsion droplet structure is observed with optical microscopy and stability is examined by tracking the changes in ultrasonic parameters with time. A model based on ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy is being developed and tested to track changes in droplet size distribution with time.

Keywords: Characterization, emulsion, droplet size, ultrasonic techniques

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3 Characteristics of Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stabilized with Pregelatinized Waxy Rice Starch

Authors: R. Yulianingsih, S. Gohtani


Characteristics of pregelatinized waxy rice starch (PWR) gelatinized at different temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C, abbreviated as PWR 65, 75 and 85 respectively) and their emulsion-stabilizing properties at different starch concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 9%) were studied. The yield stress and consistency index value of PWR solution increased with an increase in starch concentration. The pseudoplasticity of PWR 65 solution increased and that for both PWR 75 and 85 solution decreased with an increase in starch concentration. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles analyzed by Kratky Plot indicated that PWR 65 is natively unfolded particles while PWR 75 and 85 are the globular particles. The characteristics of emulsions stabilized with PWR were influenced by the temperature of gelatinization process and starch concentration. Elevated concentration of starch decreased the value of yield stress and increased the consistency index. PWR 65 produce stable emulsion to creaming at starch concentrations more than 5%, while PWR 85 is able to produce stable emulsion to both creaming and coalescence of droplets.

Keywords: Rheology, emulsion, small-angle X-ray scattering, gelatinization temperature, waxy rice starch

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2 Resolving Increased Water-Cut in South and East Kuwait Areas through Water Knock-Out Facility Project

Authors: Sunaitan Al Mutairi, Batool Ismaeel, Kumar Vallatharasu


The Water Knock-Out (WKO) facility project is to handle the undesirable impact of the increasing water production rate in South and East Kuwait (S&EK) areas and break the emulsions and ensure sufficient separation of water at the new upstream facility, to reduce the load on the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers (GC). As the existing separation equipment in the Gathering Centers are not efficient to separate the emulsions, the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) and Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technologies have been selected for enhancing the liquid-liquid separation by using the alternating voltage/frequency on electrical fields, to handle the increasing water-cut in S&EK. In the Compact Electrostatic Coalescer (CEC) technology method, the CEC equipment is installed downstream of the inlet separator externally, whereas in the Vessel Internal Electrostatic Coalescer (VIEC) technology method, the VIEC is built inside the treater vessel, downstream of the inlet separator with advanced internals for implementing electrocoalescence of water particles and hence enhancing liquids separation. The CEC and VIEC technologies used in the Water Knockout Facility project has the ability to resolve the increasing water cut in the S&EK area and able to enhance the liquid-liquid separation in the WKO facility separation equipment. In addition, the WKO facility is minimizing the load on the existing Gathering Center’s separation equipment, by tackling the high water-cut wells, upstream of each GC. The required performances at the outlet of the WKO facility are Oil in Water 100ppmv, Water in Oil 15% volume, liquid carryover in gas 0.1 US gal/MMSCFD, for the water cut ranging from 37.5 to 75% volume. The WKO facility project is used to sustain, support and maintain Greater Burgan production at 1.7 Million Barrels of Oil Per Day (MMBOPD), by handling the increasing water production rate.

Keywords: Production, Separation Equipment, emulsion, increasing water-cut

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1 Micro/Nano-Sized Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Cucumber Downy Mildew

Authors: Kai-Fen Tu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin


Cucumber is a major economic crop in the world. The global production of cucumber in 2017 was more than 71 million tonnes. Nonetheless, downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating and common disease on cucumber in around 80 countries and causes severe economic losses. The long-term usage of fungicide also leads to the occurrence of fungicide resistance and decreases host resistance. In this study, six types of oil (neem oil, moringa oil, soybean oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, and camellia oil) were selected to synthesize micro/nano-sized emulsions, and the disease control efficacy of micro/nano-sized emulsions were evaluated. Moreover, oil concentrations (0.125% - 1%) and droplet size of emulsion were studied. Results showed cinnamon-type emulsion had the best efficacy among these oils. The disease control efficacy of these emulsions increased as the oil concentration increased. Both disease incidence and disease severity were measured by detached leaf and pot experiment, respectively. For the droplet size effect, results showed that the 114 nm of droplet size synthesized by 0.25% cinnamon oil emulsion had the lowest disease incidence (6.67%) and lowest disease severity (33.33%). The release of zoospore was inhibited (5.33%), and the sporangia germination was damaged. These results suggest that cinnamon oil emulsion will be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to control cucumber downy mildew. The economic loss caused by plant disease could also be reduced.

Keywords: emulsion, downy mildew, oil droplet size, plant protectant

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