Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Empowerment Related Abstracts

58 The Impact of HRM Practices and Brand Performance on Financial Institution Performance: An Empirical Study

Authors: M. Khasro Miah, Chowdhury Hossan Golam, Muhammed Siddique Hossain

Abstract:

Recently, financial institution brand image is turning out to be pretty weak due to the presence of strong local competitors and this in term is affecting their firm performance also. In this study, four major HR practices, namely employee commitment, empowerment, loyalty, and engagement are considered in order to measure its effects on the brand and financial performance of banking organization. This study finds that the banking institutions of Bangladesh are more customer oriented rather than internal employee oriented, which makes it quite obvious that the internal HR practices will have little or no effect on the banks brand performance. Employee Commitment has emerged out to be the most important predictor, followed by employee loyalty and empowerment. The employees are well-empowered, engaged, and shows loyalty towards the organization, but their activities are not well linked with the brand. Firms should concentrate to create a congenial working atmosphere and employees should feel like a part of the organization.

Keywords: Finance, Empowerment, HR in bank, employee commitment, loyalty and engagement

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57 Evaluating and Prioritizing the Effective Management Factors of Human Resources Empowerment and Efficiency in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study on Fars’ Livestock and Poultry Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Sima Radmanesh, Mohsen Yaghmor

Abstract:

Rapid environmental changes have been threatening the life of many organizations. Enabling and productivity of human resource should be considered as the most important issue in order to increase performance and ensure survival of the organizations. In this research, the effectiveness of management factory in productivity and inability of human resource have been identified and reviewed at glance. Afterwards, answers were sought to questions "What are the factors effecting productivity and enabling of human resource?" and "What are the priority order based on effective management of human resource in Fars Poultry Complex?". A specified questionnaire has been designed regarding the priorities and effectiveness of the identified factors. Six factors were specified consisting of: individual characteristics, teaching, motivation, partnership management, authority or power submission and job development that have most effect on organization. Then a questionnaire was specified for priority and effect measurement of specified factors that were reached after collecting information and using statistical tests of Keronchbakh alpha coefficient r = 0.792, so that we can say the questionnaire has sufficient reliability. After information analysis of specified six factors by Friedman test their effects were categorized. Measurement on organization respectively consists of individual characteristics, job development or enrichment, authority submission, partnership management, teaching and motivation. Lastly, approaches has been introduced to increase productivity of manpower.

Keywords: Teaching, Productivity, Motivation, Enrichment, Empowerment, authority submission, partnership management

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56 Evaluating and Prioritizing the Effective Management Factors of Human Resources Empowerment and Efficiency in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study of Fars’ Livestock and Poultry Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Sima Radmanesh, Mohsen Yaghmoor

Abstract:

Rapid environmental changes have been threaten the life of many organizations .Enabling and productivity of human resource should be considered as the most important issue in order to increase performance and ensure survival of the organizations. In this research, the effectiveness of management factory in productivity & inability of human resource have been identified and reviewed at glance. Afterward there were two questions they are “what are the factors effecting productivity and enabling of human resource” . And ”what are the priority order based on effective management of human resource in Fars Poultry Complex". A specified questionnaire has been designed in order to priorities and effectiveness of the identified factors. Six factors specify to consist of: Individual characteristics, teaching, motivation, partnership management, authority or power submission and job development that have most effect on organization. Then specify a questionnaire for priority and effect measurement of specified factor that reach after collect information and using statistical tests of keronchbakh alpha coefficient r=0.792 that we can say the questionnaire has sufficient reliability. After information analysis of specified six factors by Friedman test categorize their effect. Measurement on organization respectively consists of individual characteristics, job development or enrichment, authority submission, partnership management, teaching and motivation. At last it has been indicated to approaches to increase making power full and productivity of manpower.

Keywords: Teaching, Productivity, Motivation, Enrichment, Empowerment, authority submission, partnership management

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55 How to Empower People to Provide Good Nutrition to Children: Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrition Workshop)

Authors: Anggun Yuliana Putri, Melisa Rahmadini

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The Ministry of National Development Planning in Indonesia has reported that more than eight million Indonesian children are still malnourished. Based on national statistics, and a recent ranking from NGO Save the Children, Indonesia is one of 15 countries making the fastest gains in cutting child malnutrition among 165 developing countries. According to a United Nations Children’s Fund, at least 7.6 million Indonesian children under the age of 5 or one out of every three suffer from stunted growth, a primary manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood, the report ranked Indonesia as having the fifth largest number of children under 5 suffering from stunted growth worldwide. Addressing the problem of malnutrition in Indonesia, Aksi Cepat Tanggap (ACT) Foundation, a humanitarian organization working with Carrefour, acts as donor and pursues several solutions to the problem, especially of malnourished children and infants in South Tangerang area, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to examine the community empowerment driven by ACT Foundation in order to maintain the good status continuity of child and toddler after the children malnutrition recovered. Research was conducted using qualitative approach through in-depth interview and observation to find out how the Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrion Workshop) programs make people empowered. Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (BGT) is divided into 3 sequences of activities, there were: integrated malnutrition rehabilitation; provision of health education to mothers of infants and young children; and family economic empowerment to head of household. Results showed that after empowerment process has been done through training and provision of knowledge to the mothers and families about the important of nutrition and health, there were 30 of 100 mothers who participated actively. Then, there were 45 of 100 heads of household who participated in business training were able to open a business on their own which provided and controlled by ACT as stakeholder in this program. The further findings revealed that BGT programs are able to form community health workers and provide employment opportunities to community. This study believes that integrated nutrition workshop program is the solution to maintain good nutrition among children in South Tangerang, through empowerment of parents and community members, via education and business training program. Both programs prepared parents with economic sustenance and necessary information, a pre-requisite to end malnutrition in children.

Keywords: Malnutrition, training, Community, Empowerment

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54 The Influence of the Vocational Teachers Empowerment toward the Vocational High Schools’ Performance Based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia

Authors: Abdul Haris Setiawan

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Teachers empowerment is one of the important factors considered to contribute significantly to the achievement of the national education goals. This study was conducted to determine the influence on the vocational teachers empowerment toward the performance of the vocational high schools based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia. The population of the study was all vocational teachers at the State Vocational High schools in Surakarta, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling technique. This study used a quantitative descriptive statistical analysis techniques. The data was collected using questionnaires. The data has been collected and then tested using analysis requirements test. Having tested using the requirements analysis and then the data processed using regression analysis between the independent and dependent variables to determine the effect and the regression equation. The results of the study found that the level of vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia was 74.29%, including in the high category; the level of vocational teachers empowerment was 76.20%, including in the high category; there was a positive influence of vocational teachers empowerment toward the vocational high schools’ performance based on the Education National Standards of Indonesia with a correlation coefficient of 0,886, and a contribution of 78.50% with the regression equation Y = 79.431 +0.534 X.

Keywords: Empowerment, vocational teachers, vocational high school, the education national standards

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53 The Impact of Constitutional and Legal Provisions on the Indian Women’s Status in 21st Century

Authors: Mamta Chandrashekhar

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Women’s participation in mainstream political and social activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. This research work will highlights some of the key issues that concerned with the impact of constitutional & Legal provision on the Indian women Status in present century. The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The main objective of this research is to analyzed the status of Indian women and the existing wide gap between the goals enunciated in the Constitution, legislation, policies, plans, programmes, and related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, This work encourage and inspire to women empowerment, will be beneficial to build a well-organized ideal society through Gender Equality and Development & Peace in the 21st century.

Keywords: Development, Constitution, awareness, Empowerment

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52 Empowerment Means Decision-Making: How Does It Empower Women: Case of Slum Areas of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Nurunnaher Nurunnaher

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of women’s participation in microcredit on women’s decision making in the slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. There is confusion in the literature about whether women’s empowerment is or is not a trickle down impact of poverty alleviation or household well-being, and the studies use more or less similar indicators to measure the status of household and the status of women. Studies very rarely conceptualize and operationalize the term ‘empowerment’ as the word is often used without proper care by policy makers and development practitioners instead of household wellbeing. Currently, decision making in many studies has been used as an indicator of women’s empowerment when assessing the impact of microcredit programs on women. Based on a qualitative and feminist study this paper operationalizes women’s empowerment through the development of a conceptual framework, the identification of assessment criteria and the development of proper indicators that guided the whole study. The testimonies of participants, both men and women, were the basis of exploration of women’s lived experiences, which is the most appropriate method to explore the impact of such programs on women’s empowerment. The study considers empowerment as a process that affects various levels of life and gender relationships. The study found that there is a positive change in women’s position in decision making when women have developed an independent economic base with credit money. However, predominantly, women’s decision making is shared with men with the final decision still in the men’s hands. It can be said that women’s microcredit participation has not significantly challenged the social norms, therefore it is not surprising that women who hand over credit to their husband rarely have any power in intra-household bargaining process. Nevertheless, overall it is evident that women are continuously struggling toward the freedom to have the authority over household, economic and personal matters. It is concluded that while making strategic choices or gaining empowerment requires several steps, women’s participation in decision-making has several implications on their lives and potentially challenges patriarchy.

Keywords: Decision Making, Women, Microcredit, Empowerment, Bangladesh, gender inequality/equality, slums, Dhaka

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51 Microfinance and Gender Empowerment Discourse: Rethinking Minimalist View of Microcredit Programmes

Authors: Thomas Yeboah

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In recent times, micro-finance programmes targeting women have become the central means of donor poverty alleviation strategies. In view of the renewed focus on post-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty reduction strategies, there is the likelihood that funding might increase in the next coming decades to support different initiatives by donor agencies. In this paper, we critically examine the role of microfinance in shaping gender relations and empowerment outcomes of women. It is widely argued that providing and reaching out to women with credit methodologies serves as a means of increasing women’s bargaining power and challenging existing gender subordination thereby releasing them from power structures which dominate their lives. This paper cautions this view and instead show that the mainstream argument surrounding microfinance and gender empowerment is much complex than what the popular rhetoric preaches. Drawing on empirical cases on microfinance literature, we argue that lack of systematic strategy to incorporate men and the wider socio-cultural dynamics within which women’s lives are embedded radically constraints the empowerment potential of microcredit programmes and in some context may lead to unintended consequences for women.

Keywords: Microfinance, Women, Empowerment, men, gender relations

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50 Impact of Violence against Women on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Rural Sindh: A Case Study of Kandhkot

Authors: Mohammad Shoaib Khan, Abdul Sattar Bahalkani

Abstract:

This research investigates the violence and their impact on SMEs in Sindh. The main objective of current research is to examine the women empowerment through women participation in small and medium enterprises in upper Sindh. The data were collected from 500 respondents from Kandhkot District, by using simple random technique. A structural questionnaire was designed as an instrument for measuring the impact of SMEs business in women empowerment in rural Sindh. It was revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing themselves to outside the boundaries of the house. It was revealed that rural women have a major contribution in social, economic, and political development. It was further revealed that women are getting low wages and due to non-availability of market facility they are paying low wages. The negative impact of husbands’ income and having children at the age of 0-6 years old are also significant. High income of other household member raises the reservation wage of mothers, thus lowers the probability of participation when the objective of working is to help family’s financial need. The impact of childcare on mothers’ labor force participation is significant but not as the theory predicted. The probability of participation in labor force is significantly higher for women who lived in the urban areas where job opportunities are greater compared to the rural.

Keywords: Rural, SMEs, Violence Against Women, Empowerment

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49 Empowering the Citizens: The Potential of Zimbabwean Library and Information Science Schools in Contributing towards Socio-Economic Transformation

Authors: Collence Takaingenhamo Chisita, Munyaradzi Shoko

Abstract:

Library and Information Science Schools play significant roles in socio–economic transformation but in most cases they are downplayed or overshadowed by other institutions, and professions. Currently Zimbabwe boasts of high literacy rate in Africa and this success would have been impossible without the contributions of library schools and related institutions. Libraries and librarians are at the epicentre of socio-economic development and their role cannot be downplayed. It is out of this context that the writer will explore the extent to which library schools are contributing towards socio-economic transformation, for example, human capital development and facilitating access to information. The writer will seek to explain and clarify how LIS schools are engaged in socio-economic transformation through supporting education and culture through community engagement. The paper will examine the LIS education models, for example, general education and Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) or Competency Based Education and Training (CBET). It will also seek to find out how LIS Schools are contributing to the information/knowledge economy through education, training and research. The writer will also seek to find out how LIS Education is responding to socio-economic and political dynamics in Zimbabwe amidst forces of globalisation and cultural identities. Furthermore, the writer will explore the extent to which LIS education can help to reposition Zimbabwe in the global knowledge economy. The author will examine how LIS schools integrate culture and technology.

Keywords: Development, Culture, Collaboration, Globalisation, Empowerment, information/knowledge economy

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48 Community Development and Empowerment

Authors: Shahin Marjan Nanaje

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The present century is the time that social worker faced complicated issues in the area of their work. All the focus are on bringing change in the life of those that they live in margin or live in poverty became the cause that we have forgotten to look at ourselves and start to bring change in the way we address issues. It seems that there is new area of needs that social worker should response to that. In need of dialogue and collaboration, to address the issues and needs of community both individually and as a group we need to have new method of dialogue as tools to reach to collaboration. The social worker as link between community, organization and government play multiple roles. They need to focus in the area of communication with new ability, to transfer all the narration of the community to those organization and government and vice versa. It is not relate only in language but it is about changing dialogue. Migration for survival by job seeker to the big cities created its own issues and difficulty and therefore created new need. Collaboration is not only requiring between government sector and non-government sectors but also it could be in new way between government, non-government and communities. To reach to this collaboration we need healthy, productive and meaningful dialogue. In this new collaboration there will not be any hierarchy between members. The methodology that selected by researcher were focusing on observation at the first place, and used questionnaire in the second place. Duration of the research was three months and included home visits, group discussion and using communal narrations which helped to bring enough evidence to understand real need of community. The sample selected randomly was included 70 immigrant families which work as sweepers in the slum community in Bangalore, Karnataka. The result reveals that there is a gap between what a community is and what organizations, government and members of society apart from this community think about them. Consequently, it is learnt that to supply any service or bring any change to slum community, we need to apply new skill to have dialogue and understand each other before providing any services. Also to bring change in the life of those marginal groups at large we need to have collaboration as their challenges are collective and need to address by different group and collaboration will be necessary. The outcome of research helped researcher to see the area of need for new method of dialogue and collaboration as well as a framework for collaboration and dialogue that were main focus of the paper. The researcher used observation experience out of ten NGO’s and their activities to create framework for dialogue and collaboration.

Keywords: Collaboration, Dialogue, Community Development, Empowerment

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47 Immigration and Gender Equality – An Analysis of the Labor Market Characteristics of Turkish Migrants Living in Germany

Authors: C. Asarkaya, S. Z. Siretioglu Girgin

Abstract:

Turkish migrants constitute the largest group among people with migration background living in Germany. Turkish women’s labor market participation is of significant importance for their social and economic integration to the German society. This paper thus aims to investigate their labor market positions. Turkish migrant women participate less in the labor market compared to men, and are responsible for most of the housework, child care, and elderly care. This is due to their traditional roles in the family, educational level, insufficient knowledge of German language, and insufficient professional experience. We strongly recommend that wide-reaching integration policies for women are formulated, so as to encourage participation of not only migrant women but also their husbands, fathers and/or brothers, and natives.

Keywords: Migration, Women, Turkish, Labor Market, Empowerment, Germany

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46 Can Empowering Women Farmers Reduce Household Food Insecurity? Evidence from Malawi

Authors: Christopher Manyamba

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Women in Malawi produce perform between 50-70 percent of all agricultural tasks and yet the majority remain food insecure. The aim of his paper is to build on existing mixed evidence that indicates that empowering women in agriculture is conducive to improving food security. The WEAI is used to provide evidence on the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and household food security. A multinomial logistic regression is applied to the Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) components and the Household Hunger Scale. The overall results show that the WEAI can be used to determine household food insecurity; however it has to be contextually adapted. Assets ownership, credit, group membership and leisure time are positively associated with food security. Contrary to other literature, empowerment in having control and decisions on income indicate negative association with household food security. These results could potentially better inform public, private and civil society stakeholders’ dialogues in creating the most effective and sustainable interventions to help women attain long-term food security.

Keywords: Food Security, Gender, Empowerment, agriculture index, framework for African food security, household hunger scale

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45 The Fadama Initiative: Implications for Human Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, Yahya M. Abdullahi

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The impact of poverty on individual and society is grave, hence the efforts by the government to eradicate or alleviate. In Nigeria the various efforts to reduce rural poverty by empowering them and making the process of their development self-sustaining have ended dismally. That notwithstanding, government determination to conquer poverty has not diminish as in the early 1990s the government with financial collaboration from the World Bank and African Development Bank introduced the fadama project. It is against this backdrop that this paper uses the documentary and analytical research methods to examine the implication the fadama development project has for community capacity development and human security in Nigeria. From the analysis it was discovered the fadama project improved household income of fadama farmers, community empowerment, participatory development planning and support for demand driven productive investment in farm and non-farm activities including community infrastructures. Despite this impressive result the fadama project is challenged by conflict especially in northern Nigeria and late delivery of necessary farm consumables that aid improved productivity. It was therefore recommended that the government should strengthen her various state security institutions to proactively mitigate conflicts and to ensure that farm consumables and other support services reach farmers timely.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, human security, Empowerment, Poverty Reduction, Fadama, capacity development, theory of change

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44 The Foundation of Islamic Center of Thailand Made Valuable Contributions to Thai Society

Authors: Tosaporn Mahamud

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The foundation of the Islamic center of Thailand plays a vital role in order to bring diverse Muslim communities in a common place. The center itself is a bridge between Muslims in Thailand and Islamic world. The operational task of the center runs by many organizations through the funds and funds use for different activities for empowerment of Thai society in general and Muslim community in particular. This paper aims to focus on the role of the foundation of the Islamic center of Thailand to the Thai society. This paper also finds out the historical background of the center in term of building structure and design and functions.

Keywords: Society, Design, Islamic, Empowerment

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43 Textile Cottage Industry: A Facilitator for Capacity Building and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Salihu Maiwada

Abstract:

The large scale textile industry in Nigeria was at one time the second largest employer of labor after government. With recent developments and changing situations, there is a serious decline in this sector which consequently forced the local textile industries to close down and the workers retrenched. the category of people worst hit was the youths and the middle age. This paper examines the potentials of the textile cottage industry as a facilitator for capacity building and economic empowerment among the Nigerian youths. The paper focuses on economic viability, persistence, and above-all, its potentials for poverty reduction as well as self employment. The methodology used in the study is the survey method and the instrument used to collect the necessary information is field interview. The results obtained showed that the textile cottage industries are flourishing and the Nigerian youths are engaged in the practice. In addition, the paper suggests areas that require government's financial intervention which will facilitate the establishment and ensure the sustainability of the textile cottage industry. The paper concludes with some recommendations for the youths and for the government.

Keywords: Economic, Sustainability, Capacity building, Empowerment, youths, persistence

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42 Upon Further Reflection: More on the History, Tripartite Role, and Challenges of the Professoriate

Authors: Jeffrey R. Mueller

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This paper expands on the role of the professor by detailing the origins of the profession, adding some of the unique contributions of North American Universities, as well as some of the best practice recommendations, to the unique tripartite role of the professor. It describes current challenges to the profession including the ever-controversial student rating of professors. It continues with the significance of empowerment to the role of the professor. It concludes with a predictive prescription for the future of the professoriate and the role of the university-level educational administrator toward that end.

Keywords: Challenges, Empowerment, professoriate history, tripartite role, shared governance, administratization

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41 Perceived Influence of Information Communication Technology on Empowerment Amongst the College of Education Physical and Health Education Students in Oyo State

Authors: I. O. Oladipo, Olusegun Adewale Ajayi, Omoniyi Oladipupo Adigun

Abstract:

Information Communication Technology (ICT) have the potential to contribute to different facets of educational development and effective learning; expanding access, promoting efficiency, improve the quality of learning, enhancing the quality of teaching and provide important mechanism for the economic crisis. Considering the prevalence of unemployment among the higher institution graduates in this nation, in which much seems not to have been achieved in this direction. In view of this, the purpose of this study is to create an awareness and enlightenment of ICT for empowerment opportunities after school. A self-developed modified 4-likert scale questionnaire was used for data collection among Colleges of Education, Physical and Health Education students in Oyo State. Inferential statistical analysis of chi-square set at 0.05 alpha levels was used to analyze the stated hypotheses. The study concludes that awareness and enlightenment of ICT significantly influence empowerment opportunities and recommended that college of education students should be encouraged on the application of ICT for job opportunity after school.

Keywords: Physical Education, Employment, Information Communication Technology, Empowerment

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40 Mobile Phones, (Dis) Empowerment and Female Headed Households: Trincomalee, Sri Lanka

Authors: S. A. Abeykoon

Abstract:

This study explores the empowerment potential of the mobile phone, the widely penetrated and greatly affordable communication technology in Sri Lanka, for female heads of households in Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka-an area recovering from the effects of a 30-year civil war and the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami. It also investigates how the use of mobile phones by these women is shaped and appropriated by the gendered power relations and inequalities in their respective communities and by their socio-economic factors and demographic characteristics. This qualitative study is based on the epistemology of constructionism; interpretivist, functionalist and critical theory approaches; and the process of action research. The data collection was conducted from September 2014 to November 2014 in two Divisional Secretaries of the Trincomalee District, Sri Lanka. A total of 30 semi-structured depth interviews and six focus groups with the female heads of households of Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnicities were conducted using purposive, representative and snowball sampling methods. The Grounded theory method was used to analyze transcribed interviews, focus group discussions and field notes that were coded and categorized in accordance with the research questions and the theoretical framework of the study. The findings of the study indicated that the mobile phone has mainly enabled the participants to balance their income earning activities and family responsibilities and has been useful in maintaining their family and social relationships, occupational duties and in making decisions. Thus, it provided them a higher level of security, safety, reassurance and self-confidence in carrying out their daily activities. They also practiced innovative strategies for the effective and efficient use of their mobile expenses. Although participants whose husbands or relatives have migrated were more tended to use smart phones, mobile literacy level of the majority of the participants was at a lower level limited to making and receiving calls and using SMS (Short Message Service) services. However, their interaction with the mobile phone was significantly shaped by the gendered power relations and their multiple identities based on their ethnicity, religion, class, education, profession and age. Almost all the participants were precautious of giving their mobile numbers to and have been harassed with ‘nuisance calls’ from men. For many, ownership and use of their mobile phone was shaped and influenced by their children and migrated husbands. Although these practices limit their use of the technology, there were many instances that they challenged these gendered harassments. While man-made and natural destructions have disempowered and victimized the women in the Sri Lankan society, they have also liberated women making them stronger and transforming their agency and traditional gender roles. Therefore, their present position in society is reflected in their mobile phone use as they assist such women to be more self-reliant and liberated, yet making them disempowered at some time.

Keywords: Empowerment, mobile phone, gender power relations, female heads of households

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39 Empowering Rural Women Entrepreneurs via Microcredit

Authors: Salwana Hassan, Rashidah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Poverty in rural Malaysia remains unresolved and contribute 7.8% to the whole poverty figure in Malaysia. Among the rural folks, 50% is women. Thus, women, as the significant human capital to fight the long lost battle of poverty , is indispensable. This will also serve as an equal opportunity for women to play active and positive roles to develop the society that has been the tasks for men all this while. More importantly rural women folks have the potential to offer better quality of life for their family by providing extra income and monetary support whenever their husbands are not able to work. The reality in this, however, cannot be solved easily as there are many factors that stand in the way and prevent the resolutions to be observed.In this regard, this paper describes a model that has been used to resolve such issues in rural Malaysia. The model utilizes a synergetic effort between an academic institution, an NGO that govern the rural women folks and a private trading company that sell the finished product. The project was conducted in rural area of Selangor and has been in operations since the end of 2013. It shows positive outcome and could be used in other rural areas of Malaysia. The project captures the influence of the NGO programs upon rural women entrepreneurship and how a private trading company can facilitate to help develop a community. As a result the project reveals that self-income generating activities by entrepreneurship are the important contributing factor to empowering rural women folks in Malaysia.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Rural, Poverty, Community, Empowerment

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38 Girl Child Education: A Veritable Tool to Gender Equality and Empowerment

Authors: Egena Obaje Innocent

Abstract:

In Africa generally and Nigeria in particular one the major setbacks for the girl-child is her deprivation or denial if you like to equal opportunity to education. In most Nigerian communities which are male dominated parents make no pretense of their preference of the male children when it come to the choice of who to send to school between the male and female child. Indeed, certain inhibiting cultural and religious practices are the root cause of this annually. It is against this background that this paper looked at the phenomenon the girl-child education, causes of the negligent its effects on the girl child and nation remedies and conclusion.

Keywords: Education, Gender equality, Empowerment, girl child

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37 Female’s Involvement in Real Estate Business in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State

Authors: Osaretin Rosemary Uyi, A. O. Ogungbemi

Abstract:

Female involvement in policy making and partnership in a man-driven-world is fast gaining international recognition. The Nigeria commercial real estate is one of the sectors of the economy that has a significant number of the male in the business. This study was conducted to assess the participation of females in estate management in Lagos state, Nigeria. Lagos is the commercial nerve center of Nigeria having the highest number of real estate practitioners and investors. The population due to the daily influx of people has made real estate business to continue to grow in this part of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire duly pre-tested and validated was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were presented using tables and charts and were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages, were used to test the hypothesis. The results also indicated that most females that participated in commercial real estate business are educated (80%), fell within 31-40 years of age (75%) and of high income status (88%) earn above ₦800,000 per year, while 10% are real estate investors and 82% of the female in the sector are employee. The study concluded that the number of female participating in various aspect of commercial real estate business in the study area was moderate while the numbers of female investors are low when compared to male. This might be due to the problems associated with rent collection, land disputes and other issues that are associated with property management in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that females in real estate should be empowered and encouraged to match with their male counterpart.

Keywords: Female, Participation, Commercial real estate, Empowerment, Property Management

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36 Investigating the Effects of Empowering the Employees in Managing Crimes by the Police

Authors: Mehdi Moghimi, Akbar Salimi

Abstract:

Goal: The human resource empowerment is a new strategy in achieving a competitive advantage. The aim of the research is to understand crime management by the police by using this strategy. Method: The research is applied in terms of goal and it is a survey type research. The sample intended include all the police officers of a police station for as many as 52 people. The data were collected by a researcher made four choice questionnaire after the validity and reliability were confirmed. Findings: By regarding the Melhem pattern as the framework, four dimensions of empowerment were identified and the triangle of crime was explained and then four hypotheses proportionate to it were formulated. Results: Given the fact that the sample was all counted, all the four hypotheses were supported by using the average data received and by regarding the %50 as the criterion.

Keywords: Management, Police, Empowerment, employees

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35 Looking at Women’s Status in India through Different Lenses: Evidence from Second Wave of IHDS Data

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

In every society, males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, and in every culture, those expectation, values and norms are different and vary accordingly. Many of the inequalities between men and women are rooted in institutional structure such as in educational field, labour market, wages, decision-making power, access to services as well as in accessing the health and well-being care also. The marriage and kinship pattern shape both men’s and women’s lives. Earlier many studies have highlighted the gender disparities which vary tremendously between regions, social classes, and communities. This study will try to explore the prominent indicators to show the status of women and well-being condition in Indian society. Primarily this paper concern with firstly identification of indicators related to gender in each area like education, work status, mobility, women participation in public and private decision making, autonomy and domestic violence etc. And once the indicators are identified next task is to define them. The indicators which are selected here are for a comparison of women’s status across Indian states. Recent Indian Human Development Survey, 2011-12 has been procured to show the current situation of women. Result shows that in spite of rising levels of education and images of growing westernization in India, love marriages remain in rarity even among urban elite. In India marriage is universal, and most of the men and women marry at relatively young age. Even though the legal age of marriage is 18, but more than 60 percent are married before the legal age. Not surprisingly, but Bihar and Rajasthan are the states with earliest age at marriage. Most of them reported that they have very limited contact with their husband before marriages. Around 69 percent of women met their husbands on the day of the wedding or shortly before. In spite of decline in fertility, still childbearing remains essential to women’s lives. Mostly women aged 25 and older had at least one child. Women’s control over household resources, physical space and mobility is also limited. Indian women’s, mostly rely on men to purchase day to day necessities, as well as medicines, as well as other necessary items. This ultimately reduces the likelihood that women have cash in hand for such purchases. The story is quite different when it comes to have control over decision over purchasing household assets such as TVs or refrigerator, names on the bank account, and home ownership papers. However, the likelihood of ownership rises among urbanite educated women’s. Women’s still have to the cultural norms and the practice of purdah or ghunghat, familial control over women’s physical movement. Wife beating and domestic violence still remain pervasive, and beaten for minor transgression like going out without permission. Development of India cannot be realized without the very significant component of gender. Therefore detailed examinations of different indicators are required to understand, strategize, plan and formulate programmes.

Keywords: Gender, Violence, Autonomy, Empowerment

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34 The Nexus between Child Marriage and Women Empowerment with Physical Violence in Two Culturally Distinct States of India

Authors: Enu Anand, Jayakant Singh

Abstract:

Background: Child marriage is widely prevalent in India. It is a form of gross human right violation that succumbs a child bride to be subservient to her husband within a marital relation. We investigated the relationship between age at marriage of women and her level of empowerment with physical violence experienced 12 months preceding the survey among young women aged 20-24 in two culturally distinct states- Bihar and Tamil Nadu of India. Methods: We used the information collected from 10514 young married women (20-24 years) at all India level, 373 in Bihar and 523 in Tamil Nadu from the third round of National Family Health Survey. Empowerment index was calculated using different parameters such as mobility, economic independence and decision making power of women using Principal Component Analysis method. Bivariate analysis was performed primarily using chi square for the test of significance. Logistic regression was carried out to assess the effect of age at marriage and empowerment on physical violence. Results: Lower level of women empowerment was significantly associated with physical violence in Tamil Nadu (OR=2.38, p<0.01) whereas child marriage (marriage before age 15) was associated with physical violence in Bihar (OR=3.27, p<0.001). The mean difference in age at marriage between those who experienced physical violence and those who did not experience varied by 7 months in Bihar and 10 months in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion: Culture specific intervention may be a key to reduction of violence against women as the results showed association of different factors contributing to physical violence in Bihar and Tamil Nadu. Marrying at an appropriate age perhaps is protective of abuse because it equips a woman to assert her rights effectively. It calls for an urgent consideration to curb both violence and child marriage with stricter involvement of family, civil society and the government. In the meanwhile physical violence may be recognized as a public health problem and integrate appropriate treatment to the victims within the health care institution.

Keywords: India, Empowerment, child marriage, physical violence

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33 Media and Women Empowerment: An Exploration of TV Popular Shows in India

Authors: Mamita Panda

Abstract:

Popular shows are considered to be powerful medium for bringing social change and development. It has the responsibility for not only entertaining, but spreading awareness among common mass which it results social intervention in the major social institutions. Gender construction in one of these social institutions where one can build their capacity to construct a better human society. Mass media in general, TV in particular has an important intervening factor in responding to these processes. The obligatory role of media not only through news but popular shows (serials) becomes compulsion for social formation including construction through gender. This paper attempts to map and examine the gendered contents from serials including viewer’s response to understand the level of influence. The regression analysis shows that socio-economic factors have wider influence on understanding of gender equality including TV popular contents. The social construction of gender through serials remains a serious debatable issue and concern thereafter.

Keywords: Gender, Construction, Empowerment, media and women

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32 Women's Rights in the Constitution of Nepal: 2015

Authors: Sudir Silwal, Surendra KC

Abstract:

Nepalese legal system was derived from Hindu sacred before the democratic movement in 1990. Before this movement, Nepal had a patrimonial system. Nepal has ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Women organizations of the various political parties, different social organizations and women activists are playing the significant role to empower the women through the social awareness campaign across the country. As a result, 33% women representation in the local government has ascertained by the current constitution. The Constitution of Nepal-2015 has mentioned the rights of women as a fundamental right and it also has provisioned the National Women Commission as the constitutional body. This constitution is the model of gender friendly constitution in the world. As per this constitution, the Citizenship certificate is issued based on the lineage of the mother or father along with gender identity. The current constitution has guaranteed 33% women participation in judiciary, bureaucracy and legislation. This constitution further states that the parliament must elect a woman either as the president or the vice president. Similarly same rule is applied to elect the speaker and the deputy speaker in the parliament. In the same constitution, rights of the third gender also has guaranteed. The guiding principles of the constitution further explain that the constitution has followed the rule of positive discrimination and proportional representation of women in all elements of the state. This study shows that the state is not only focused in the representation of women in all structure of the nation but also need to emphasize the enhancement of the capability of the women to make them equal to the men.

Keywords: Constitution, Representation, Women's Rights, Empowerment

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31 Action Research of Local Resident Empowerment in Prambanan Cultural Heritage Area in Yogyakarta

Authors: Destha Titi Raharjana

Abstract:

The finding of this research results from three action researches conducted in three rurals, namely Bokoharjo, Sambirejo, and Tirtomartani. Those rurals are close to Prambanan, a well-known cultural heritage site located in Sleman Regency, Indonesia. This action research is conducted using participative method through observation, interview, and focus group discussion with local residents as the subjects. This research aims to (a) present identifications of potencies, obstacles, and opportunities existed in development process, which is able to give more encouragement, involvement and empowerment for local residents in maintaining the cultural heritage area, (b) present participatory empowerment programs which adjust the needs of local residents and human resources, and (c) identify potential stakeholders that can support empowerment programs. Through action research method, this research is able to present (a) potential mapping; difficulties and opportunities in the development process in each rural, (b) empowerment program planning needed by local residents as a follow-up of this action research. Moreover, this research also presents identifications of potential stakeholders who are able to do an empowerment program follow-up. It is expected that, at the end of the programs, the local residents are able to maintain Prambanan, as one of cultural heritage sites that needs to be protected, in a more sustainable way.

Keywords: Empowerment, Indonesia, action research, Sleman, local resident, cultural heritage area, Prambanan

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30 The Nexus between Social Entrepreneurship and Youth Empowerment

Authors: Aaron G. Laylo

Abstract:

This paper mainly assumes that social entrepreneurship contributes significantly to youth empowerment i.e., work and community engagement. Two questions are thus raised in order to establish this hypothesis: 1) First, how does social entrepreneurship contribute to youth empowerment?; and 2) secondly, why is social entrpreneurship significantly incremental to youth empowerment? This research aims a) to investigate on the social aspect of entrepreneurship; b) to explore challenges in youth empowerment particularly in respect to work and community engagement; and c) to inquire into whether social enterprises have truly served as a catalyst for, thus an effective response to, youth empowerment. It must be emphasized that young people, which comprise 1.8 billion in a world of seven billion are an asset; Apparently, how to maximize that potential is crucial. By utilizing exploratory research design, the paper endeavors to generate new ideas in regards to both components, develop tentative theories on social entrepreneurship, and refine certain issues that are under observation and seek scholarly attention— a rather emerging phenomenon vis a vis the challenge to empower a significant cluster of the society. Case studies will be utilized as an approach in order to comparatively analyze youth-driven social enterprises in the Philippines that have been widely recognized as successful insofar as social impact is concerned. As most scholars attested, social entrepreneurship is still at its infancy stage. Youth empowerment, meanwhile, is yet a vast area to explore insofar as academic research is concerned. Programs and projects that advocate the pursuit of these components abound. However, academic research is yet to be undertaken to see and understand their social and economic relevance. This research is also an opportunity for scholars to explore, understand, and make sense of the promise that lies in social entrepreneurship research and how it can serve as a catalyst for youth empowerment. Youth-driven social enterprises can be an influential tool in sustaining development across the globe as they intend to provide opportunities for optimal economic productivity that recognizes social inclusion. Ultimately, this study should be able to contribute to both research and development-in-practice communities for the greater good of the society. By establishing the nexus between these two components, the research may contribute to fostering greater exploration of the benefits that both may yield to human progress as well as the gaps that have to be filled in by various policy stakeholders relevant to these units.

Keywords: Youth, Social Inclusion, Empowerment, social entpreneurship

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29 Female Sex Workers and Their Association with Self-Help Groups in Thane, Maharashtra, India: A Comparative Analysis in the Context of HIV Program Outcome

Authors: Awdhesh Yadav, P. S. Saravanamurthy, Shaikh Tayyaba, Uma Shah, Ashok Agarwal

Abstract:

Objectives: HIV interventions in India has leveraged Self-Help Group (SHG) as one of the key strategies under structural intervention to empower female sex workers (FSW) to reduce their risk exposure and vulnerability to STI/HIV. Understanding the role of SHGs in light of the evolving dynamics of sex work needs to be delved into to strategize HIV interventions among FSWs in India. This paper aims to study the HIV program outcome among the FSWs associated with SHGs and FSWs not associated with SHGs in Thane, Maharashtra. Study Design: This cross-sectional study, was undertaken from the Behavioral Tracking Survey (BTS) conducted among 503 FSWs in Thane in 2015. Two-stage probability based conventional sampling was done for selection of brothel and bar based FSWs, while Time Location Cluster (TLC) sampling was done for home, lodge and street-based sex workers. Methods: Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to compare and contrast between FSWs associated with SHG and those not associated with SHG with respect to the utilization of HIV related services by them. ‘Condom use’, ‘consistent condom use’, ‘contact with peer-educators’, ‘counseling sessions’ and ‘HIV testing’ were chosen as indicators on HIV service utilization. Results: 8% (38) of FSWs are registered with SHG; 92% aged ≥ 25 years, 47% illiterate, and 71% are currently married. The likelihood of utilizing HIV services including, knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its mode of transmission (OR:5.54; CI: 1.87-16.60; p < 0.05),accessed drop-in Centre (OR: 6.53; CI: 2.15-19.88; p < 0.10), heard about joint health camps (OR: 4.71; CI:2.12-10.46); p < 0.05), negotiated or stood up against police/broker/local goonda/clients (OR: 2.26; CI: 1.08-4.73; p < 0.05), turned away clients when they refused to use condom during sex (OR: 3.76; CI: 1.27-11.15; p < 0.05) and heard of ART (OR; 4.55; CI: 2.18-9.48; p < 0.01) were higher among FSWs associated with SHG in comparison to FSWs not associated with SHG. Conclusions: Considering the improved HIV program outcomes among FSWs associated with SHG; HIV interventions among FSWs could consider facilitating the formation of SHGs with FSWs as one of the key strategies to empower the community for ensuring better program outcomes.

Keywords: HIV, Empowerment, female sex workers, Thane, self-help group

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