Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Employment Related Abstracts

34 Identify the Factors Affecting Employment and Prioritize in the Economic Sector Jobs of Increased Employment MADM approach of using SAW and TOPSIS and POSET: Ministry of Cooperatives, Do Varamin City Social Welfare

Authors: Mina Rahmani Pour

Abstract:

Negative consequences of unemployment are: increasing age at marriage, addiction, depression, drug trafficking, divorce, immigration, elite, frustration, delinquency, theft, murder, etc., has led to addressing the issue of employment by economic planners, public authorities, chief executive economic conditions in different countries and different time is important. All countries are faced with the problem of unemployment. By identifying the influential factors of occupational employment and employing strengths in the basic steps can be taken to reduce unemployment. In this study, the most significant factors affecting employment has identified 12 variables based on interviews conducted Choose Vtasyrafzaysh engaged in three main business is discussed. DRGAM next question the 8 expert ministry to respond to it is distributed and for weight Horns AZFN Shannon entropy and the ranking criteria of the (SAW, TOPSIS) used. According to the results of the above methods are not compatible with each other, to reach a general consensus on the rating criteria of the technique of integrating (POSET) involving average, Borda, copeland is used. Ultimately, there is no difference between the employments in the economic sector jobs of increased employment.

Keywords: Employment, effective techniques, SAW, TOPSIS

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33 Local Investment Climate and the Role of (Sustainable) FDI: The Case Of Georgia

Authors: Vakhtang Charaia

Abstract:

The article focuses on the role of FDI in Georgia’s economic development for the last decade. To attract as much FDI as possible a proper investment climate should be on the place-institutional, policy and regulatory environment. Well-developed investment climate is the chance and motivation for both, local economy and foreign companies, to generate maximum income, create new work places and improve the quality of life. FDI trend is one of the best indicators of country’s economic sustainability and its attractiveness. Especially for small and developing countries, the amount of FDI matters, therefore, most of such countries are trying to compete with each other through improving their investment climate according to different world famous indexes. As a result of impressive reforms since 2003, Georgian economy was benefited with large invasion of FDI. However, the level of per capita GDP is still law in comparison to Eastern European countries and it should be improved. The main idea of the paper is to show a real linkage between FDI and employment ration, on the case of Georgian economy.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Employment, Corruption, Taxes, Economic growth, Foreign Direct Investment

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32 Employment Opportunities in Automobile Sector-Indian Scenario

Authors: N. P. Patidar, A. K. Sarathe

Abstract:

The Indian automobile sector is comprised of independent manufacturers and joint ventures with their foreign counterpart companies by making use of the Foreign Direct Investment policy of the Government of India. These manufacturers started capturing the hearts of Indian customers with their choice of technological and innovative product features, with quality and reliability. This transformed the automobile scene from a “sellers market to buyers market”. The potential benefits from the auto sector have been recognized by the planners, managers, and administrators of both the sectors –government and private. Generation of employment for the readily available technical workforce has been achieved not only through the manufacturers, but also through the growing ancillaries and service providers of the auto industries. The main purpose of this paper is to come up with the identification of possible working areas and associated job functions of mechanical and automobile diploma holders having employment opportunities in auto sector of India.

Keywords: Employment, automobile sector, diploma holder, job description

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31 Vocational Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities: Employment Rates, Job Persistence and Wages

Authors: Hester Fass, Ofir Pinto

Abstract:

Research indicates gaps in education, employment rates and wages between people with disabilities and those without disabilities. One of the main tools available to reduce these gaps is vocational rehabilitation. In order to examine the effects of vocational rehabilitation, a follow-up study, based on comprehensive administrative data, was conducted. The study included 88,286 people with disabilities who participated in vocational rehabilitation of the National Insurance Institute of Israel (NII), and completed the process between 1999 and 2012. Research variables included: employment rates, job persistence and wage levels. This research, the first of its kind in Israel, has several unique aspects: a)a long-range follow-up study on people who completed vocational rehabilitation; b) examination of a broad population spectrum, including also people that are not eligible to disability pensions ; c) a comparison among those with work-related injuries, those injured in hostile acts and those injured in other circumstances; and finally d) the identification of the characteristics of those who are entitled to vocational rehabilitation but who do not participate in any vocational rehabilitation plan. The most notable results include: 1. Vocational rehabilitation contributed to employment, job persistence and wage levels. Participation in vocational rehabilitation resulted in an employment rate of 65% within two years after completing the program, and 73% eventually. Participation in a vocational rehabilitation plan also contributed to job persistence and wage levels. 2. Vocational rehabilitation plans aimed at integration in universal frameworks increased the chances of being employed, persisting at the job and receiving a higher wage than did the vocational rehabilitation aimed at selective frameworks (such as sheltered workshops). 3. The type of disability affected the chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan and in the labor market. People with a disability from birth had greater chances of integration in a vocational rehabilitation plan, while the type of disability and its severity affected the chances of the person with disabilities to find employment.

Keywords: Employment, Vocational Rehabilitation, job persistence, wages

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30 Role of MGNREGA(s) in Seasonal Labour Migration: Micro Evidence from Telangana State, India

Authors: Vijay Korra

Abstract:

The main focus of this paper is to examine the performance, outcomes and impacts of MGNREGA Scheme in particular on migrant beneficiary households. This article is based on a field survey carried out in 2010 in three randomly selected villages in Mahabubnagar district of Telangana State, India. It was found that majority of the job card holders are only able to get employment/work between 30-60 days and receive wages maximum between Rs.60 to 70 per day wherein wage discrimination was prevalent in line with gender. It concludes by saying that the government sponsored employment programme has indeed given rural poor a sense of hope about livelihood security through guaranteed employment. On the other hand, the scheme is defected in providing full employment days, wages, and thus unable to prevent the working class from migrating to cities/towns in search of employment mainly due to malpractices involved in the implementation of the scheme.

Keywords: Employment, Labour, Seasonal Migration, livelihood, wages, MGNREGA(s)

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29 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya, Refik Uyanöz

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: Employment, vocational high school, employment problems, vocational students

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28 Swot Analysis for Employment of Graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh

Abstract:

Employment problem, especially university graduates is the most important challenges in the decade ahead. The purpose of this study is the SWOT analysis for employment of graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran. The sample of this research consist of 115 (35.5 + 8.0 years) of physical education and sport sciences faculty members of higher education institutions, major sport managers and graduates of physical education and sport sciences. Library method, interview and questioners were used to collect data. The questionnaires were made in four parts: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats with Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.94. After data collection, means, standard deviation (SD) and percentage were calculated by using SPSS software. Fridman was used for the statical analysis at P < 0.05. The results showed that Employment of graduates of Physical Education and Sport Sciences in Iran Located In the worst position possible (T-W area) in Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix) SPACEM), and there are more weaknesses than strengths (2.02 < 2.5) in internal evaluation and there are more threats than opportunities(2.36 < 2.5) in external evaluation.

Keywords: Employment, SWOT analysis, graduate, physical education and sport sciences

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27 Sericulture a Way for Bio-Diversity Conservation, Employment Generation and Socio-Economic Change: A-Comparison of Two Tribal Block of Raigarh, India

Authors: S. K. Dewangan, K. R. Sahu, S. Soni

Abstract:

Unemployment is today’s basic socio-economic problem eroding national income and living standards, aggravating national development and poverty alleviation. The farmers are encouraged to take up non-agriculture practices which are integrated with Sericulture. Sericulture is one of the primary occupations for livelihood of poor people in tribal area. Most of tribal are involved in Sericulture. Tasar, Eri are the main forest-based cultivation. Among these sericultures is the major crop adopted by the Tribal’s and practiced in respective areas. Out of the 6, 38,588 villages in India, sericultures are practiced in about 69000 villages providing employment to about 7.85 million people. Sericulture is providing livelihood for 9, 47,631 families. India continues to be the second largest producer of silk in the World. Among the four varieties of silk produced, as in 2012-13, Mulberry accounts for 18,715 MT, Eri 3116 MT, Tasar 1729 MT and Muga 119MT of the total raw silk production in the country. Sericulture with its unique features plays an important role in upgrading the socio-economic conditions of the rural folk and with employment opportunities to the educated rural youth and women. In view of the importance of sericulture enterprise for the biodiversity conservation as well as its cultural bondage, the paper tries to enlighten and discuss the significance of sericulture and strategies to be taken for the employment generation in Indian sericulture industry. The present paper explores the possible employment opportunities derived from problem analysis and strategies to be adopted aiming at revolutionary biodiversity conservation in the study area. The paper highlights the sericulture is a way for biodiversity conservation, employment generation in Raigarh district, their utilization and needs as they act as a tool for socio-economic change for tribal. The study concludes with some suggestions to improve the feasibility of sericulture in long term.

Keywords: Employment, Sericulture, Bio-diversity, Income, socio-economic, tribal

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26 Perceived Influence of Information Communication Technology on Empowerment Amongst the College of Education Physical and Health Education Students in Oyo State

Authors: I. O. Oladipo, Olusegun Adewale Ajayi, Omoniyi Oladipupo Adigun

Abstract:

Information Communication Technology (ICT) have the potential to contribute to different facets of educational development and effective learning; expanding access, promoting efficiency, improve the quality of learning, enhancing the quality of teaching and provide important mechanism for the economic crisis. Considering the prevalence of unemployment among the higher institution graduates in this nation, in which much seems not to have been achieved in this direction. In view of this, the purpose of this study is to create an awareness and enlightenment of ICT for empowerment opportunities after school. A self-developed modified 4-likert scale questionnaire was used for data collection among Colleges of Education, Physical and Health Education students in Oyo State. Inferential statistical analysis of chi-square set at 0.05 alpha levels was used to analyze the stated hypotheses. The study concludes that awareness and enlightenment of ICT significantly influence empowerment opportunities and recommended that college of education students should be encouraged on the application of ICT for job opportunity after school.

Keywords: Physical Education, Employment, Information Communication Technology, Empowerment

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25 Alzheimer’s Disease Measured in Work Organizations

Authors: Katherine Denise Queri

Abstract:

The effects of sick workers have an impact in administration of labor. This study aims to provide knowledge on the disease that is Alzheimer’s while presenting an answer to the research question of when and how is the disease considered as a disaster inside the workplace. The study has the following as its research objectives: 1. Define Alzheimer’s disease, 2. Evaluate the effects and consequences of an employee suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, 3. Determine the concept of organizational effectiveness in the area of Human Resources, and 4. Identify common figures associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The researcher gathered important data from books, video presentations, and interviews of workers suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and from the internet. After using all the relevant data collection instruments mentioned, the following data emerged: 1. Alzheimer’s disease has certain consequences inside the workplace, 2. The occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease in an employee’s life greatly affects the company where the worker is employed, and 3. The concept of workplace efficiency suggests that an employer must prepare for such disasters that Alzheimer’s disease may bring to the company where one is employed. Alzheimer’s disease can present disaster in any workplace.

Keywords: Employment, Disaster, Administration, Conflict, alzheimer's disease

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24 Human Resource Utilization Models for Graceful Ageing

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

In this study, a systematic framework of graceful ageing has been used to explore the possible human resource utilization models for graceful ageing purpose. This framework is based on the Chinese culture. We call ‘Nine-old’ target. They are ageing gracefully with feeding, accomplishment, usefulness, learning, entertainment, care, protection, dignity, and termination. This study is focused on two areas: accomplishment and usefulness. We exam the current practices of initiatives and laws of promoting labor participation. That is to focus on how to increase Labor Force Participation Rate of the middle aged as well as the elderly and try to promote the elderly to achieve graceful ageing. Then we present the possible models that support graceful ageing.

Keywords: Employment, human resource utilization model, labor participation, graceful ageing

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23 Disclosure Experience of Working People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Dorcas I. Adeoye

Abstract:

Disclosure experience of people living with HIV/AIDS has been a public health concern, it has also been attributed to effective way of limiting the spread of the disease. However, among working people living with HIV, it is a great issue that attracts several consequences, it is also a way of managing HIV and balancing their emotional, physical and social aspect of life. The economic, social and political aspect has been affected since the emergent of HIV. It is also not a medical problem that only needs a medical approach; it is a psychological problem that needs not to be ignored. Work attitude model and consequential theory were used to understanding the experience of disclosure or non-disclosure in the workplace. Work attitude model explains the job satisfaction and the organisational commitment of an employee that have effect on the decision and well-being in the workplace; it can also influence a decision to disclosure one’s health condition, however, consequential theory comes to play when a decision is being made, either to disclose or not, and that will attract consequences (either negative or positive) in which ever decision made. A phenomenological study was conducted among employed people that are infected with HIV/AIDS in a south-eastern region of Nigeria where unemployment rate is high. A one-to-one semi-structured interview was used to gather in-depth information about the experience of 20 working people living with HIV. Participants were recruited in a hospital and for some, hospital serves as their workplace. The outcome of the research shows that participants’ experiences vary. One thing that stood out and was found similar among all participants including participants that have disclosed, planning to disclose, or never intended to disclose, is that workplace is a place not to be trusted despite the positive outcomes disclosure could give in the workplace, and disclosure decision needs to be carefully taken. The study was concluded with recommendations that cover various aspects; however, clearer policies should be followed by all organisations to protect people living with HIV in the workplace.

Keywords: Employment, HIV/AIDS, workplace, disclosure, Nigeria

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22 Barriers of Successful Employment of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Mubarak Aldosari

Abstract:

The focus of this qualitative study was to explore the main barriers of successful employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: The semi-structured interviews were used to explore perception of a sample of eight managers/supervisors of employees who had ID regarding the main barriers that face successful employment of individuals with ID. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed four major themes that impede successful employment of individuals with ID: experiences of work, (b) social skills, (c) attitudes to individuals with ID, and (d) transportation. Conclusion: The current study was designed to provide important information to policymakers, officials, educators and parents regarding the challenges and barriers that face the successful employment of individuals with ID. The study show the importance of the support as well as effective and planned preparation for individuals with ID during schools to be qualified and have skills that they to be successful in the employment. Additionally, the results of this study will encourage further study of transition to post schools for individuals with ID in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Employment, Social Skills, barriers, individuals with mild intellectual disabilities

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21 International Trade, Manufacturing and Employment: The First Two Decades of South African Democracy

Authors: Anna M. Pretorius, Phillip F. Blaauw

Abstract:

South Africa re-entered the international economy in the early 1990s, after Apartheid, at a time when globalisation was gathering momentum. Globalisation led to a more open economy, increased export volumes and a changed export mix. Manufacturing goods gained ground relative to mining products. After 21 years of democracy, South African researchers and policymakers need to evaluate the impact of international trade on the level of employment and compensation of employees in the South African manufacturing industry. This is important given the consistent and high levels of unemployment in South Africa. This paper has this evaluation as its aim. Two complimenting approaches are utilised. The 27 sub divisions of the South African manufacturing industry are classified according to capital/labour ratios. Possible trends in employment levels and employee compensation for these categories are then identified when comparing levels in 1995 to those in 2014. The supplementing empirical approach is cross-sectional and panel data regressions for the same period. The aim of the regression analysis is to explain the observed changes in employment and employee compensation levels between 1995 and 2014. The first part of the empirical approach revealed that over the 20-year period the intermediate capital intensive, labour intensive an ultra-labour intensive manufacturing industries all showed massive declines in overall employment. Only three of the 19 industries for these classifications showed marginal overall employment gains. The only meaningful gains were recorded in three of the eight capital intensive manufacturing industries. The overall performance of the South African manufacturing industry is therefore dismal at best. This scenario plays itself out for the skilled section of the intermediate capital intensive, labour intensive an ultra-labour intensive manufacturing industries as well. 18 out of the 19 industries displayed declines even for the skilled section of the labour force. The formal regression analysis supplements the above results. Real production growth is a statistically significant (95 per cent confidence level) explanatory variable of the overall employment level for the period under consideration, albeit with a small positive coefficient. The variables with the most significant negative relationship with changes in overall employment were the dummy variables for intermediate capital intensive and labour intensive manufacturing goods. Disaggregating overall changes in employment further in terms of skill levels revealed that skilled employment in particular responded negatively to increases in the ratio between imported and local inputs for manufacturing. The dummy variable for the labour intensive sectors remained negative and statistically significant, indicating that the labour intensive sectors of South African manufacturing remain vulnerable to the loss of employment opportunities. Whereas the first period (1995 to 2001) after the opening of the South African economy brought positive changes for skilled employment, continued increases in imported inputs displaced some of the skilled labour as well, putting further pressure on the South African economy with already high and persistent unemployment levels. Given the negative for the world commodity cycle and a stagnant local manufacturing sector, the challenge for policymakers is getting even more pronounced after South Africa’s political coming of age.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Employment, employee compensation, capital/labour ratios

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20 Gender Discrimination and Pay Gap on Tourism Labor Market

Authors: Alka Obadić

Abstract:

The research concentrates on the role of tourism in generating female employment and on impact of gender discrimination in tourism sector. Unfortunately, in many countries there are still some barriers to the inclusion of women at all hierarchical levels of tourism labor market. Research analysis focuses on EU countries where tourism is a main employer of women. The analysis shows that women represent over third persons employed in the non-financial business economy and almost two thirds in core tourism activities. Women's gross hourly earnings in accommodation and food services were below those of men in the European Union and only countries who recorded increase of gender pay gap from the beginning of crisis are Bulgaria and Croatia. Women in tourism industry are still overrepresented in lower status jobs with fewer opportunities for career progression and are often treated unequally.

Keywords: Employment, Tourism, Gender Discrimination, women’s participation

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19 The Impact of Entrepreneur to Develop Economy in Indonesia

Authors: Alif Nur Irvan, M. Varaby Wahyu

Abstract:

Indonesia is a country that have a lot of natural resources and as one of the most populous people in the world. In the last few years, the world economic is growing rapid, and then Indonesia must be able to develop his economy like the other country. The number of graduates in Indonesia always increase every year and the employment in Indonesia is getting decreased, this situation leads to rise unemployment in Indonesia. Limited employment makes people look for the ways to live decently. From this situation, entrepreneurs become an alternative in Indonesia to develop the economy. Being an entrepreneur means being able to find opportunities to utilize existing resources to take advantage of these opportunities. With the increasing number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia can increase employment, improve the quality of life, income distribution, utilize and mobilize resources to improve national productivity, and improve the welfare of government. The main sources for economic growth are the investments that improve the quality of capital or human resources, which in turn managed to increase the quantity of productive resources and can raise the productivity of all resources through new discoveries, innovations, creativity and technological progress. This paper is talking about the topic, discussions, and it offers the solutions to support entrepreneurs in Indonesia, and also talk about entrepreneurial problems that occurred in Indonesia, and the right solution to solve the problems of entrepreneurship in Indonesia and also discusses the role of government to support entrepreneurship to encourage the economy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Government, Employment, Economy

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18 The Determinants of Female Participation to the Labour Force in Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Rahime Hulya Ozturk

Abstract:

Located in developing countries but with the successful performance in recent years have shown in emerging economies , the labor factor has undoubtedly an important place in Turkish economy. The theorists have emphasized the importance of labor and human capital factors for many years. The importance of human capital is emerging in the process of determining the labor force participation rate. It is relatively easy to employ qualified labor force but employment of unskilled labor is particularly difficult. Another factor affecting the gender differences are employment opportunities in the labor force. In our country, the employment conditions of men and women differ. Factors causing these differentials are inherent job requirements, the social structure of society, women's point of view, working hours, working conditions. Crisis in our country in recent years have significantly affect the labor force participation rates. In particular, women's labor force participation rates have shown a decrease in crisis.In crisis female laborforce leave their job and go their home. It is the sole provider of social perception of men so in crisis period it is considered that woman lost their job. In the first part of this study the current situation in the world of female participation in the labor force in Turkey will examine. In the second part of the study literature will be examined. In the third and last part of the study factors of determinants of female labor force participation rate analysis will done by Granger Causality Analysis.

Keywords: Turkey, Employment, female labour force, labor force

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17 [Keynote Talk]: New Generations and Employment: An Exploratory Study about Tensions between the Psycho-Social Characteristics of the Generation Z and Expectations and Actions of Organizational Structures Related with Employment (CABA, 2016)

Authors: Esteban Maioli

Abstract:

Generational studies have an important research tradition in social and human sciences. On the one hand, the speed of social change in the context of globalization imposes the need to research the transformations are identified both the subjectivity of the agents involved and its inclusion in the institutional matrix, specifically employment. Generation Z, (generally considered as the population group whose birth occurs after 1995) have unique psycho-social characteristics. Gen Z is characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that impact in their concrete action in organizational structures. On the other hand, managers often have to deal with generational differences in the workplace. Organizations have members who belong to different generations; they had never before faced the challenge of having such a diverse group of members. The members of each historical generation are characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that are manifest in their concrete action in organizational structures. Gen Z it’s the only one who can fully be considered "global," while its members were born in the consolidated context of globalization. Some salient features of the Generation Z can be summarized as follows. They’re the first fully born into a digital world. Social networks and technology are integrated into their lives. They are concerned about the challenges of the modern world (poverty, inequality, climate change, among others). They are self-expressive, more liberal and open to change. They often bore easily, with short attention spans. They do not like routine tasks. They want to achieve a good life-work balance, and they are interested in a flexible work environment, as opposed to traditional work schedule. They are critical thinkers, who come with innovative and creative ideas to help. Research design considered methodological triangulation. Data was collected with two techniques: a self-administered survey with multiple choice questions and attitudinal scales applied over a non-probabilistic sample by reasoned decision. According to the multi-method strategy, also it was conducted in-depth interviews. Organizations constantly face new challenges. One of the biggest ones is to learn to manage a multi-generational scope of work. While Gen Z has not yet been fully incorporated (expected to do so in five years or so), many organizations have already begun to implement a series of changes in its recruitment and development. The main obstacle to retaining young talent is the gap between the expectations of iGen applicants and what companies offer. Members of the iGen expect not only a good salary and job stability but also a clear career plan. Generation Z needs to have immediate feedback on their tasks. However, many organizations have yet to improve both motivation and monitoring practices. It is essential for companies to take a review of organizational practices anchored in the culture of the organization.

Keywords: Employment, Organizational Culture, Organizations, Expectations, generation Z, psycho-social characteristics

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16 Fast-Tracking University Education for Youth Employment: Empirical Evidence from University Graduates in Rwanda

Authors: Fred Alinda, Marjorie Negesa, Gerald Karyeija

Abstract:

Like elsewhere in the world, youth unemployment remains a big problem more so to the most educated youth and female. In Rwanda, unemployment is estimated at 13.2% among youth graduates compared to 10.9% and 2.6 among secondary and primary graduates respectively. Though empirical evidence elsewhere associate youth unemployment with education level, relevance of skills and access to business support opportunities, mixed evidence still exist on the significance of these factors to youth employment. As youth employment strategies in countries like Rwanda continue to recognize the potential role university education can play to enhance employment, there is a need to understand the catalysts or barriers. This paper, therefore, draws empirical evidence from a survey on the influence of education qualification, skills relevance and access to business support opportunities on employment of the youth university graduates in Masaka sector, Rwanda. The analysis tested four hypotheses; access to university education significantly affects youth employment, Relevance of university education significantly contributes to youth employment; access to business support opportunities significantly contributes to youth employment, and significant gender differences exist in the employment of youth university graduates. A cross-section survey was used in lieu of the need to explore the prevailing status of youth employment and contributing factors across the sector. A questionnaire was used to collect data on a large sample of 269 youth to allow statistical analysis. This was beefed up with qualitative views of leaders and technical officials in the sector. The youth University graduates were selected using simple random sampling while the leaders and technical officials were selected purposively. Percentages were used to describe respondents in line with the variables under while a regression model for youth employment was fitted to determine the significant factors. The model results indicated a significant influence (p<0.05) of gender, education level and access to business support opportunities on employment of youth university graduates. This finding was also affirmed by the qualitative views of key informants. Qualitative views pointed to the fact that university education generally equipped the youth with skills that enabled their transition into employment mainly for a salary or wage. The skills were, however, deficient in technical and practical aspects. In addition, the youth generally lacked limited access to business support opportunities particularly guarantees for loans, business advisory, and grants for business as well as training in business skills that would help them gain salaried employment or transit into self-employment. The study findings bear an implication on the strategy for catalyzing youth employment through university education. The findings imply that university education should be embraced but with greater emphasis on or supplementation with specialized training in practical and technical skills as well as extending business support opportunities to the youth. This will accelerate the contribution of university education to youth employment.

Keywords: Education, Employment, Youth, Self-Employment

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15 Empowering Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia: Translating the Disability Law into Practice

Authors: Marthella Rivera Roidatua

Abstract:

Since the release of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, disability became a mainstreamed global issue. Many developed countries have shown the continuous effort to improve their disability employment policy, for example, the US and the UK with their integrated support system through disability benefits. Relative little recent research on developing country is available. Surprisingly, Indonesia, just enacted the Law No.8/2016 on Disability that bravely highlighted on integrating disabled people into the workforce. It shows a positive progress shifting traditional perspective to what Tom Shakespeare’s concept of a social model of disability. But, the main question is how can this law support the disabled people to access and maintain paid work. Thus, besides the earlier literature reviews, interviews with leading sectors, Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of Manpower, was conducted to examine government’s attitude towards the disabled worker. Insights from two local social enterprises on disability were also engaged in building better perspective. The various source of data was triangulated then analysed with a thematic approach. Results were encouraging the Indonesian government to have a better collaboration with other impactful local organisations in promoting the disability employment. In the end, this paper also recommends the government to make a reasonable adjustment and practical guideline for companies in hiring disabled.

Keywords: Disability, Employment, Policy, Collaboration, Indonesia, guidelines

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14 Combating and Preventing Unemployment in Sweden

Authors: Beata Wentura-Dudek

Abstract:

In Sweden the needs of the labor market are regularly monitored. Test results and forecasts translate directly into the education system in this country, which is largely a state system. Sweden is one of the first countries in Europe that has used active labor market policies. It is realized that there is an active unemployment which includes a wide range of activities that can be divided into three groups: Active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms that affect the labor supply and active forms for people with disabilities. Most of the funding is allocated there for subsidized employment and training. Research conducted in Sweden shows that active forms of counteracting unemployment focused on the long-term unemployed can significantly raise the level of employment in this group.

Keywords: Employment, Unemployment, labour market, Sweden, research conducted in Sweden, labour market policies, active forms of influencing the creation of new jobs, active forms of counteracting unemployment, subsidized employment education

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13 Modern Agriculture and Employment Generation in Nigeria: A Recursive Model Approach

Authors: Ese Urhie, Olabisi Popoola, Obindah Gershon

Abstract:

Several policies and programs initiated to address the challenge of unemployment in Nigeria seem to be inadequate. The desired structural transformation which is expected to absorb the excess labour in the economy is yet to be achieved. The agricultural sector accounts for almost half of the labour force with very low productivity. This could partly explain why the much anticipated structural transformation has not been achieved. A major reason for the low productivity is the fact that the production process is predominantly based on the use of traditional tools. In view of the underdeveloped nature of the agricultural sector, Nigeria still has huge potentials for productivity enhancement through modern technology. Aside from productivity enhancement, modern agriculture also stimulates both backward and forward linkages that promote investment and thus generate employment. Contrary to the apprehension usually expressed by many stake-holders about the adoption of modern technology by labour-abundant less-developed countries, this study showed that though there will be job loss initially, the reverse will be the case in the long-run. The outcome of this study will enhance the understanding of all stakeholders in the sector and also encourage them to adopt modern techniques of farming. It will also aid policy formulation at both sectoral and national levels. The recursive model and analysis adopted in the study is useful because it exhibits a unilateral cause-and-effect relationship which most simultaneous equation models do not. It enables the structural equations to be ordered in such a way that the first equation includes only predetermined variables on the right-hand side, while the solution for the final endogenous variable is completely determined by all equations of the system. The study examines the transmission channels and effect of modern agriculture on agricultural productivity and employment growth in Nigeria, via its forward and backward linkages. Using time series data spanning 1980 to 2014, the result of the analyses shows that: (i) a significant and positive relationship between agricultural productivity growth and modern agriculture; (ii) a significant and negative relationship between export price index and agricultural productivity growth; (iii) a significant and positive relationship between export and investment; and (iv) a significant and positive relationship between investment and employment growth. The unbalanced growth theory will be a good strategy to adopt by developing countries such as Nigeria.

Keywords: Employment, Productivity, Modern Agriculture, recursive model

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12 Preventing Perpetuation of Structural Violence in the Workplace: An Australian Settlement Services Case Study

Authors: Jordan Fallow

Abstract:

Service and advocacy organisations that serve refugee populations are often staffed by a large percentage of former refugees themselves, and this carries a number of implications for refugee rights, specifically economic and social rights. This paper makes an argument for the importance of introducing an understanding of intersectionality theory into organizations who provide services to and employ, refugee staff. The benefits of this are threefold; on an individual level it reduces the risks of burn out, vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue while increasing employee satisfaction and development, at an organizational level services become more effective, and at a systems level it helps reduce structural violence, which may itself have been a contributing factor in the movement of refugee staff from their origin countries. In support of this argument, a case study of an Australian settlement services organization is provided. Mixed methods research, utilising both qualitative and quantitative data, measured the perceived efficacy of diversity management tools at the organization and the impact this had on staff performance, retention and wellbeing. The paper also draws on strategic human resource and reward management, diversity management, international development and intersectionality texts.

Keywords: Employment, Human resource management, intersectionality‎, structural violence

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11 The Impact of Agricultural Product Export on Income and Employment in Thai Economy

Authors: Anucha Wittayakorn-Puripunpinyoo

Abstract:

The research objectives were 1) to study the situation and its trend of agricultural product export of Thailand 2) to study the impact of agricultural product export on income of Thai economy 3) the impact of agricultural product export on employment of Thai economy and 4) to find out the recommendations of agricultural product export policy of Thailand. In this research, secondary data were collected as yearly time series data from 1990 to 2016 accounted for 27 years. Data were collected from the Bank of Thailand database. Primary data were collected from the steakholders of agricultural product export policy of Thailand. Data analysis was applied descriptive statistics such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation. The forecasting of agricultural product was applied Mote Carlo Simulation technique as well as time trend analysis. In addition, the impact of agricultural product export on income and employment by applying econometric model while the estimated parameters were utilized the ordinary least square technique. The research results revealed that 1) agricultural product export value of Thailand from 1990 to 2016 was 338,959.5 Million Thai baht with its growth rate of 4.984 percent yearly, in addition, the forecasting of agricultural product export value of Thailand has increased but its growth rate has been declined 2) the impact of agricultural product export has positive impact on income in Thai economy, increasing in agricultural product export of Thailand by 1 percent would lead income increased by 0.0051 percent 3) the impact of agricultural product export has positive impact on employment in Thai economy, increasing in agricultural product export of Thailand by 1 percent would lead income increased by 0.079 percent and 4) in the future, agricultural product export policy would focused on finished or semi-finished agricultural product instead of raw material by applying technology and innovation in to make value added of agricultural product export. The public agricultural product export policy would support exporters in private sector in order to encourage them as agricultural exporters in Thailand.

Keywords: Employment, Income, Thai economy, agricultural product export

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10 The Difficulties Witnessed by People with Intellectual Disability in Transition to Work in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel S. Alanazi

Abstract:

The transition of a student with a disability from school to work is the most crucial phase while moving from the stage of adolescence into early adulthood. In this process, young individuals face various difficulties and challenges in order to accomplish the next venture of life successfully. In this respect, this paper aims to examine the challenges encountered by the individuals with intellectual disabilities in transition to work in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, this study has undertaken a qualitative research-based methodology; wherein interpretivist philosophy has been followed along with inductive approach and exploratory research design. The data for the research has been gathered with the help of semi-structured interviews, whose findings are analysed with the help of thematic analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities, officials, supervisors and specialists of two vocational rehabilitation centres providing training to intellectually disabled students, in addition to that, directors of companies and websites in hiring those individuals. The total number of respondents for the interview was 15. The purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents for the interview. This sampling method is a non-probability sampling method which draws respondents from a known population and allows flexibility and suitability in selecting the participants for the study. The findings gathered from the interview revealed that the lack of awareness among their parents regarding the rights of their children who are intellectually disabled; the lack of adequate communication and coordination between various entities; concerns regarding their training and subsequent employment are the key difficulties experienced by the individuals with intellectual disabilities. Training in programmes such as bookbinding, carpentry, computing, agriculture, electricity and telephone exchange operations were involved as key training programmes. The findings of this study also revealed that information technology and media were playing a significant role in smoothing the transition to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, religious and cultural attitudes have been identified to be restricted for people with such disabilities in seeking advantages from job opportunities. On the basis of these findings, it can be implied that the information gathered through this study will serve to be highly beneficial for Saudi Arabian schools/ rehabilitation centres for individuals with intellectual disability to facilitate them in overcoming the problems they encounter during the transition to work.

Keywords: Employment, Intellectual Disability, transition services, rehabilitation centre

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9 Analysis of Employed and Unemployed Mother’s Perspectives Towards Story Narration in Typically Developing Children between 2 to 5 Years

Authors: Jayashree S. Bhat, Bindu S., Malavika Anakkathil Anil

Abstract:

The dyadic interaction between the parent and child during story narration facilitates the emergence of early literacy skills. Early shared reading experiences positively predict better reading and language outcomes in children who experience rich communicative and effective interactions during shared book reading. However, research is yet to systematically explore mother’s perspective towards story narration and how employment may influence their perspectives. The study analysed the perspectives of employed and unemployed mothers of typically developing children between the age ranges of 2 to 5 years through a questionnaire which covered domains on story narration exposure and parental attitudes & beliefs. The results indicate no statistical difference between employed mothers (M=8.5, SD=3.4) and unemployed mothers (M=10.1, SD=1.06). Whereas, post-hoc comparisons using the scheffe test, revealed a significant difference in scores. An increasing score was obtained as the age of the child increased. This change could be attributed due to the integration of children in preschools which could have contributed to the change of perception towards story narration. Older children’s mother perceive story narration to be an important part of their curriculum, which could facilitate rich vocabulary and language output. Younger children’s parents are however not realising the significance of story narration and its impact on the emergent literacy skills. Parent-child interaction is a significant contributor to a healthy social and cultural development. The study emphasises on the need of mothers to engage in preliteracy based activities which contribute to better academic performance in later stages.

Keywords: Employment, Language development, early literacy skill, mother’s perspective, story narration

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8 Precarious Employment Experience; Developing a Precariousness Scale

Authors: Gul Selin Erben

Abstract:

Precariousness can be evaluated as the new employment climate of the neo-liberal employment markets. As the word refers to a new mode of employment experience and working practices, it was felt as a necessity to reveal the basic characteristics of this kind of employment experience. Furthermore, according to the literature, precarious employment practices have some negative outcomes such as alienation, sense of anger, and anomy. Thus, it has quite significant to reveal the conditions' characteristics and practices of precarious employment. This study has the purpose to develop an instrument which measures the precarious employment practices. In order to develop a precariousness scale, the relevant literature was examined, and 30 statements were established as a result of the literature review. The development and validation of the scale were done by a sample of 123 individuals who work in different sectors in İstanbul as a white color employee. Convenience sampling was used as a sampling methodology. Reliability and factor analysis were conducted. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, 3 dimensions were gathered.

Keywords: Employment, scale development, employment experience, precariousness

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7 Integrated Livestock and Cropping System and Sustainable Rural Development in India: A Case Study

Authors: Nizamuddin Khan

Abstract:

Integrated livestock and cropping system is very old agricultural practice since antiquity. It is an eco-friendly and sustainable farming system in which both the resources are optimally and rationally utilized through the recycling and re-utilization of their by-products. Indian farmers follow in- farm integrated farming system unlike in developed countries where both farm and off-farm system prevailed. The data on different components of the integrated farming system is very limited and that too is not widely available in published form. The primary source is the only option for understanding the mechanism, process, evaluation and performance of integrated livestock cropping system. Researcher generated data through the field survey of sampled respondents from sampled villages from Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. The present paper aims to understand the component group of system, degree, and level of integration, level of generation of employment, income, improvement in farm ecology, the economic viability of farmers and check in rural-urban migration. The study revealed that area witnessed intra farm integration in which both livestock and cultivation of crops take place on the same farm. Buffalo, goat, and poultry are common components of integration. Wheat, paddy, sugarcane and horticulture are among the crops. The farmers are getting 25% benefit more than those who do not follow the integrated system. Livestock husbandry provides employment and income through the year, especially during agriculture offseason. 80% of farmers viewed that approximately 35% of the total expenditure incurred is met from the livestock sector. Landless, marginal and small farmers are highly benefited from agricultural integration. About 70% of farmers acknowledged that using wastes of animals and crops the soil ecology is significantly maintained. Further, the integrated farming system is helpful in reducing rural to urban migration. An incentive with credit facilities, assured marketing, technological aid and government support is urgently needed for sustainable development of agriculture and farmers.

Keywords: Employment, Sustainability, Integrated, Soil Ecology, recycle

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6 A Critical Discourse Analysis: Embedded Inequalities in the UK Disability Social Security System

Authors: Cara Williams

Abstract:

In 2006, the UK Labour government published a Green Paper introducing Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as a replacement for Incapacity Benefit (IB), as well as a new Work Capability Assessment (WCA); signalling a controversial political and economic shift in disability welfare policy. In 2016, the Conservative government published Improving Lives: The Work, Health, and Disability Green Paper, as part of their social reform agenda, evidently to address the ‘injustice’ of the ‘disability employment gap’. This paper contextualises ESA in the wider ideology and rhetoric of ‘welfare to work’, ‘dependency’ and ‘responsibility’. Using the British ‘social model of disability’ as a theoretical framework, the study engages in a critical discourse analysis of these two Green Papers. By uncovering the medicalised conceptions embedded in the texts, the analysis has revealed ESA is linked with late capitalisms concern with the ‘disability category’.

Keywords: Disability, Employment, Social Security, welfare

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5 Innovation and Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda Microdata

Authors: Milton Ayoki, Edward Bbaale

Abstract:

This paper analyses the relationship between innovation and employment at firm level with the objective of understanding the contribution of the different innovation strategies in fostering employment growth in Uganda. We use National Innovation Survey (micro-data of 705 Ugandan firms) for the period 2011-2014 and follow closely Harrison et al. (2014) structured approach, and relate employment growth to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. We find positive effects of product innovation on employment at firm level, while process innovation has no discernable impact on employment. Although there is evidence to suggest displacement of labour in some cases where firms only introduce new process, this effect is compensated by growth in employment from new products, which for most firms are introduced simultaneously with new process. Results suggest that source of innovation as well as size of innovating firms or end users of innovation matter for job growth. Innovation that develops from within the firm itself (user) and involving larger firms has greater impact on employment than that developed from outside or coming from within smaller firms. In addition, innovative firms are one and half times more likely to survive in the innovation driven economy environment than those that do not innovate. These results have important implications for policymakers and stakeholders in innovation ecosystem. Supporting policies need to be correctly tailored since the impacts depend on the innovation strategy (type) and characteristics and sector of the innovative firms (small, large, industry, etc.). Policies to spur investment, particularly in innovative sectors and firms with high growth potential would have long lasting effects on job creation. JEL Classification: D24, J0, J20, L20, O30.

Keywords: Employment, Product Innovation, Process innovation, Sub-Saharan Africa

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