Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Empathy Related Abstracts

20 Improving Customer Service through Empathy

Authors: Abiola Olukemi Ogunyemi


Many organizations would like to gain customer loyalty, and to achieve this they invest in customer management systems which help them to learn and anticipate the customers’ needs, get feedback from them and serve them. One of the most elementary ways to achieve customer loyalty is for employees to be able to empathize with their customers, and to be able to feel what they feel when the company betrays their trust, which usually otherwise shown in patronage and loyalty. Unfortunately, the staff and management of organizations do not always realize the negative impact of treating customers badly, because they do not stop to think how these customers feel. If they did, they would be more careful and more respectful of these people who are human beings just like they are. They would be wiser, since this would ultimately make them more profitable businesses. This paper looks at thirteen descriptions of situations in which customers felt treated badly by organizations they trusted, and focuses on the feelings of these customers. If the organization (made of people) could empathize with the customer, then customer service would be surely enhanced. It is expected that these stories, real experiences narrated by young professionals working in Nigeria, can awaken greater empathy for consumers within organizations. Thus, they may help the organization to learn empathy and to incorporate it into their foundational principles for ethical behavior. The paper’s contents contribute to a heightened appreciation of empathy as an organizing mechanism by showing how putting one in the consumer’s shoes can help managers to understand how he or she feels. This will lead organizations to be even more innovative in finding ways to meet their customers’ needs and to deserve and win their loyalty. It addresses an issue that cuts across cultures, and therefore can be quite thought-provoking for every business owner or for team leads within organizations. By trying to stimulate empathy across the seller-buyer divide, it necessarily contributes to a deeper understanding of empathy as a building block for a sustainable society.

Keywords: Customer Service, Empathy, ethical behavior, respectfulness

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19 The Problem of Relation between Concepts Empathy and Decentration in Psychology

Authors: Elina Asriyan, Lusine Stepanyan


This article is devoted to the study of connection between empathy and decentration. We have discovered a positive connection between these two indicators. Empathy is a variety of emotional decentration, and due to the decentration development process. To understand the investigated phenomenon it was applied a complex approach. The recorded results state that empathy and decentralization are interconnected with each other; empathy being a type of emotional decentralization is conditioned by the formation process of decentration.

Keywords: Empathy, Egocentricity, decentration, emotional decentration

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18 Assessing Empathy of Deliquent Adolescents

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Naidu Narainsamy


Empathy has been identified by researchers to be a crucial factor in helping adolescents to refrain from delinquent behavior. Adolescent delinquent behavior is a social problem that has become a source of concern to parents, psychologists, educators, correctional services, researchers as well as governments of nations. Empathy is a social skill that enables an individual to understand and to share another’s emotional state. An individual with a high level of empathy will avoid any act or behavior that will affect another person negatively. The need for this study is predicated on the fact that delinquent adolescent behavior could lead to adult criminality. This, in the long run, has the potential of resulting in an increase in crime rate thereby threatening public safety. It has therefore become imperative to explore the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents who have committed crime and are awaiting trial. It is the conjecture of this study that knowledge of the empathy level of delinquent adolescents will provide an opportunity to design an intervention strategy to remediate the deficit. This study was therefore designed to determine the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents. In addition, this study provides a better understanding of factors that may prevent adolescents from developing delinquent behavior, in this case, delinquents’ empathy levels. In the case of participants who have a low level of empathy, remediation strategies to improve their empathy level would be designed. Two research questions were raised to guide this study. A mixed methods research design was employed for the study. The sample consists of fifteen male adolescents who are between 13-18 years old with a mean age of 16.5 years old. The participants are adolescents who are awaiting trial. The non-probability sampling technique was used to obtain the sample for the quantitative study while purposive sampling was used in the case of the qualitative study. A self–report questionnaire and structured interview were used to assess the level of empathy of participants. The data obtained was analysed using the simple percentages for the quantitative data and transcribing the qualitative data. The result indicates that most of the participants have low level of empathy. It is also revealed that there is a difference in the empathy level on the basis of whether they are from parents living together and those whose parents are separated. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the level of empathy of participants be improved through training and emphasizing the importance of stimulating family environment for children. It is also recommended that programs such as youth mentoring and youth sheltering be established by the government of South Africa to address the menace of delinquent adolescents.

Keywords: Behavior, Adolescents, Empathy, delinquents

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17 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh


The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: Empathy, Emotional Intelligence, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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16 Dynamic EEG Desynchronization in Response to Vicarious Pain

Authors: Justin Durham, Chanda Rooney, Robert Mather, Mickie Vanhoy


The psychological construct of empathy is to understand a person’s cognitive perspective and experience the other person’s emotional state. Deciphering emotional states is conducive for interpreting vicarious pain. Observing others' physical pain activates neural networks related to the actual experience of pain itself. The study addresses empathy as a nonlinear dynamic process of simulation for individuals to understand the mental states of others and experience vicarious pain, exhibiting self-organized criticality. Such criticality follows from a combination of neural networks with an excitatory feedback loop generating bistability to resonate permutated empathy. Cortical networks exhibit diverse patterns of activity, including oscillations, synchrony and waves, however, the temporal dynamics of neurophysiological activities underlying empathic processes remain poorly understood. Mu rhythms are EEG oscillations with dominant frequencies of 8-13 Hz becoming synchronized when the body is relaxed with eyes open and when the sensorimotor system is in idle, thus, mu rhythm synchrony is expected to be highest in baseline conditions. When the sensorimotor system is activated either by performing or simulating action, mu rhythms become suppressed or desynchronize, thus, should be suppressed while observing video clips of painful injuries if previous research on mirror system activation holds. Twelve undergraduates contributed EEG data and survey responses to empathy and psychopathy scales in addition to watching consecutive video clips of sports injuries. Participants watched a blank, black image on a computer monitor before and after observing a video of consecutive sports injuries incidents. Each video condition lasted five-minutes long. A BIOPAC MP150 recorded EEG signals from sensorimotor and thalamocortical regions related to a complex neural network called the ‘pain matrix’. Physical and social pain are activated in this network to resonate vicarious pain responses to processing empathy. Five EEG single electrode locations were applied to regions measuring sensorimotor electrical activity in microvolts (μV) to monitor mu rhythms. EEG signals were sampled at a rate of 200 Hz. Mu rhythm desynchronization was measured via 8-13 Hz at electrode sites (F3 & F4). Data for each participant’s mu rhythms were analyzed via Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and multifractal time series analysis.

Keywords: Neurophysiology, Social Cognition, Dynamical Systems Theory, Empathy, desynchronization, electroencephalography (EEG), multifractal time series analysis, mu waveform, pain simulation

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15 People Who Live in Poverty Usually Do So Due to Circumstances Far Beyond Their Control: A Multiple Case Study on Poverty Simulation Events

Authors: Tracy Smith-Carrier


Burgeoning research extols the benefits of innovative experiential learning activities to increase participants’ engagement, enhance their individual learning, and bridge the gap between theory and practice. This presentation discusses findings from a multiple case study on poverty simulation events conducted with two samples: undergraduate students and community participants. After exploring the nascent research on the benefits and limitations of poverty simulation activities, the study explores whether participating in a poverty simulation resulted in changes to participants’ beliefs about the causes and effects of poverty, as well as shifts in their attitudes and actions toward people experiencing poverty. For the purposes of triangulation, quantitative and qualitative data from a variety of sources were analyzed: participant feedback surveys, qualitative responses, and pre, post, and follow-up questionnaires. Findings show statistically significant results (p<.05) from both samples on cumulative scores of the modified Attitudes Toward Poverty Scale, indicating an improvement in participants’ attitudes toward poverty. Although generally positive about their experiences, participating in the simulation did not appear to have prompted participants to take specific actions to reduce poverty. Conclusions drawn from the research study suggest that poverty simulation planners should be wary of adopting scenarios that emphasize, or fail to adequately contextualize, behaviours or responses that might perpetuate individual explanations of poverty. Moreover, organizers must carefully consider how to ensure participants in their audience currently experiencing low-income do not become emotionally distressed, triggered or further marginalized in the process. While overall participants were positive about their experiences in the simulation, the events did not appear to have prompted them to action. Moving beyond the goal of increasing participants’ understandings of poverty, interventions that foster greater engagement in poverty issues over the long-term are necessary.

Keywords: Empathy, Experiential Learning, poverty awareness, poverty simulation

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14 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez


Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: Education, Theatre, Social Work, Empathy

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13 Reciprocity and Empathy in Motivating Altruism among Sixth Grade Students

Authors: Rylle Evan Gabriel Zamora, Micah Dennise Malia, Abygail Deniese Villabona


The primary motivators of altruism are usually viewed as mutually exclusive. In this study, we wanted to know if the two primary motivators, reciprocity and empathy, can work together in motivating altruism. Therefore, we wanted to find out if there is a significant interaction of effects between reciprocity and empathy. To show how this may occur, we devised the combined altruism model, which is based on Batson’s empathy altruism hypothesis. A sample of 120, 6th-grade students were randomly selected and then randomly assigned to four treatment groups. A 2x2 between subjects’ design was used, which had empathy and reciprocity as independent variables, and altruism as the dependent variable. The study made use of materials that were effort based, where subjects were required to complete a task or a puzzle to help a person in a given scenario, two videos, one to prime empathy were also used. This along with Witt & Boleman’s adapted Self-Reported Altruism Scale was used to determine an individual’s altruism. It was found that both variables were significant in motivating altruism, with empathy being the greater of the two. However, there was no significant interaction of effects between the two variables. To explain why this occurred, we turned to the combined altruism model, where it was found that when empathically primed, we tend to not think of ourselves when helping others. Future studies could focus on other variables, especially age which is said to be one of the greatest factors that influenced the results of the experiment.

Keywords: Social Psychology, Experimental psychology, Empathy, Altruism, reciprocity

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12 Training in Communicational Skills in Students of Medicine: Differences in Bilingualism

Authors: Naiara Ozamiz Etcebarria, Sonia Ruiz De Azua Garcia, Agurtzane Ortiz Jauregi, Virginia Guillen Cañas


Introduction: The most relevant competencies of a health professional are an adequate communication capacity, which will influence the satisfaction of professionals and patients, therapeutic compliance, conflict prevention, clinical outcomes´ improvement and efficiency of health services. The ability of Active listening , empathy, assertiveness and social skills, are important abilities to develop in all professions in which there is a relationship with other people. In the field of health, it is even more important to have adequate qualities so that the treatment with the patient will be adequate and satisfactory. We conducted a research with students of third year in the Degree of Medicine with the objectives: - to know how the active listening, empathy, assertiveness and social skills of students are. - to know if there are differences according to different demographic variables, such as sex, language, age, number of siblings and interest in the subject. Material and Methods: The students of the Third year in the Degree of Medicine (N = 212) participated voluntarily. Sociodemographic data were collected. Descriptive and comparative analysis of the averages of the students with respect to active listening, empathy, assertiveness and social skills were performed. Once the questionnaires were collected, they were entered into the SPSS 21 database. Four communicational aspects were evaluated: The active listening questionnaire, the TECA empathy questionnaire, the ACDA questionnaire and the EHS questionnaire Social Skills Scale. The active listening questionnaire assesses these factors: Listening without interruption and less contradiction, Listening with 100% attention, Listening beyond words, Listening encouraging the other to go deeper. The TECA questionnaire of cognitive and affective empathy evaluates: Adoption of perspectives, Emotional Comprehension, Emphasizing stress, Empathic joy. The EHS questionnaire Social Skills Scale: Self-expression in social situations, Defending one's own rights as a consumer, Expressing anger or dissatisfaction, Refusing to do and cutting interactions off, Making requests, Initiating positive interactions with the other sex. The ACDA questionnaire Assertiveness Assessment Scale evaluates self-assertiveness and heteroaservitivity. Applicability: To train these skills is so important for clinical practice of medical students and these capabilities that can be measured in a longitudinal way time. Ethical-legal aspects: The data were anonymous. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: The students of the Third year in the Degree of Medicine (34.4% Basque speakers and 65.6% Spanish speakers) with average age 20.93, (27.8% men and 72.2% women). There are no differences in social skills between men and women. The Basque speaker students of are more heteroactive (ACDA) than Spanish students. Active listening has a high correlation with social skills, especially with self-expression in social situations. Listening without interruption has a high correlation with self-expression in social situations and initiating positive interactions with the opposite sex. Adoption of perspectives presents a high correlation with auto- assertiveness. Emotional understanding presents a high correlation with positive interactions with the opposite sex. Empathic joy correlates with self-assertiveness, self-expression in social situations, and initiating positive interactions with the opposite sex.

Keywords: Empathy, assertiveness, active listening, communicational skills, students of medicine

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11 Increased Envy and Schadenfreude in Parents of Newborns

Authors: Sandra Baez, Hernando Santamaria-Garcia, Ana-María Gómez-Carvajal, Mateo Bernal, Mario Valderrama, Daniela Lizarazo, Juliana Restrepo, María Fernanda Barreto, Angélica Parra, Paula Torres, Diana Matallana, Jaime Silva, José Santamaría-García


Higher levels of oxytocin are associated with better performance on social cognition tasks. However, higher levels of oxytocin have also been associated with increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. Considering these antecedents, this study aims to explore social emotions (i.e., envy and schadenfreude) and other components of social cognition (i.e. ToM and empathy), in women in the puerperal period and their respective partners, compared to a control group of men and women without children or partners. Control women should be in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or taking oral contraceptives as they allow oxytocin levels to remain stable. We selected this population since increased levels of oxytocin are present in both mothers and fathers of newborn babies. Both groups were matched by age, sex, and education level. Twenty-two parents of newborns (11 women, 11 men) and 15 controls (8 women, 7 men) performed an experimental task designed to trigger schadenfreude and envy. In this task, each participant was shown a real-life photograph and a description of two target characters matched in age and gender with the participant. The task comprised two experimental blocks. In the first block, participants read 15 sentences describing fortunate events involving either character. After reading each sentence, participants rated the event in terms of how much envy they felt for the character (1=no envy, 9=extreme envy). In the second block, participants read and reported the intensity of their pleasure (schadenfreude, 1=no pleasure, 9=extreme pleasure) in response to 15 unfortunate events happening to the characters. Five neutral events were included in each block. Moreover, participants were assessed with ToM and empathy tests. Potential confounding variables such as general cognitive functioning, stress levels, hours of sleep and depression symptoms were also measured. Results showed that parents of newborns showed increased levels of envy and schadenfreude. These effects are not explained by any confounding factor. Moreover, no significant differences were found in ToM or empathy tests. Our results offer unprecedented evidence of specific differences in envy and schadenfreude levels in parents of newborns. Our findings support previous studies showing a negative relationship between oxytocin levels and negative social emotions. Further studies should assess the direct relationship between oxytocin levels in parents of newborns and the performance in social emotions tasks.

Keywords: Theory of Mind, Empathy, oxytocin, envy, Schadenfreude, social emotions

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10 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede


Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: Empathy, Self-efficacy, Job Performance, psychological well-being, self-knowledge

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9 Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers

Authors: Maria Malliarou, Theodosios Paralikas, Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mairy Gouva, Manolis Mentis, Stiliani Stavrotheodorou, Stiliani Kotrotsiou


There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.

Keywords: stress, Empathy, Social Workers, Job Satisfaction

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8 A Comparative Study of Resilience in Third Culture Kids and Non Third Culture Kids

Authors: Shahanaz Aboobacker Ahmed, P. Ajilal


We live in the ‘age of migration’ where global migration and repatriation is the stark reality of human lives in the contemporary world. With increasing number of people migrating and repatriating for education, work, or crisis situations, there is an ever-growing need for active research into the effects of repatriation and migration on the psychological well-being of the migrants and expatriates. Moving across borders has resulted in individual developing a third culture and hence such individual are known as Third Culture Kids (TCKs). The aim of the study was to understand the difference in the resilience between Third Culture Kids and Non- Third Culture Kids and gain an insight into how resilience is shaped by migratory experience. The sample comprised of 200 participants that included 100 TCKs and 100 Non-TCKs. The participants were in the age range group of 17-26 years and were pursuing their college education in various parts of the world. The variable of Resilience was measured using the Resilience scale developed and standardized on TCK population which included subtests; Emotional Regulation, Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Self Efficacy, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. The data was obtained from in-person sessions and over Skype. The data was analyzed using independent sample t-tests. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between TCKs and Non-TCKs on Impulse Control, Causal Analysis, Realistic Optimism, Empathy and Reaching Out. However, no significant difference was found on the sub-variables of Self Efficacy and Emotional Regulation.

Keywords: Resilience, Immigration, Empathy, Self-efficacy, Cross-cultural Psychology, Emotional Regulation, repatriation, impulse control, third culture kids, emotional maturity, causal analysis, realistic optimism, reaching out

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7 A Conundrum of Teachability and Learnability of Deaf Adult English as Second Language Learners in Pakistani Mainstream Classrooms: Integration or Elimination

Authors: Amnah Moghees, Saima Abbas Dar, Muniba Saeed


Teaching a second language to deaf learners has always been a challenge in Pakistan. Different approaches and strategies have been followed, but they have been resulted into partial or complete failure. The study aims to investigate the language problems faced by adult deaf learners of English as second language in mainstream classrooms. Moreover, the study also determines the factors which are very much involved in language teaching and learning in mainstream classes. To investigate the language problems, data will be collected through writing samples of ten deaf adult learners and ten normal ESL learners of the same class; whereas, observation in inclusive language teaching classrooms and interviews from five ESL teachers in inclusive classes will be conducted to know the factors which are directly or indirectly involved in inclusive language education. Keeping in view this study, qualitative research paradigm will be applied to analyse the corpus. The study figures out that deaf ESL learners face severe language issues such as; odd sentence structures, subject and verb agreement violation, misappropriation of verb forms and tenses as compared to normal ESL learners. The study also predicts that in mainstream classrooms there are multiple factors which are affecting the smoothness of teaching and learning procedure; role of mediator, level of deaf learners, empathy of normal learners towards deaf learners and language teacher’s training.

Keywords: Empathy, Mainstream Classrooms, deaf English language learner, previous language knowledge of learners, role of mediator, language teachers' training

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6 Neurosciences in Entrepreneurship: The Multitasking Case in Favor of Social Entrepreneurship Innovation

Authors: Berger Aida


Social entrepreneurship has emerged as an active area of practice and research within the last three decades and has called for a focus on Social Entrepreneurship innovation. Areas such as academics, practitioners , institutions or governments have placed Social Entrepreneurship on the priority list of reflexion and action. It has been accepted that Social entrepreneurship (SE) shares large similarities with its parent, Traditional Entrepreneurship (TE). SE has grown over the past ten years exploring entrepreneurial cognition and the analysis of the ways of thinking of entrepreneurs. The research community believes that value exists in grounding entrepreneurship in neuroscience and notes that SE, like Traditional Entrepreneurship, needs to undergo efforts in clarification, definition and differentiation. Moreover, gaps in SE research call for integrative multistage and multilevel framework for further research. The cognitive processes underpinning entrepreneurial action are similar for SE and TE even if Social Entrepreneurship orientation shows an increased empathy value. Theoretically, there is a need to develop sound models of how to process functions and how to work more effectively as entrepreneurs and research on efficiency improvement calls for the analysis of the most common practices in entrepreneurship. Multitasking has been recognized as a daily and unavoidable habit of entrepreneurs. Hence, we believe in the need of analyzing the multiple task phenomena as a methodology for skill acquisition. We will conduct our paper including Social Entrepreneurship within the wider spectrum of Traditional Entrepreneurship, for the purpose of simplifying the neuroscientific lecture of the entrepreneurial cognition. A question to be inquired is to know if there is a way of developing multitasking habits in order to improve entrepreneurial skills such as speed of information processing , creativity and adaptability . Nevertheless, the direct link between the neuroscientific approach to multitasking and entrepreneurship effectiveness is yet to be uncovered. That is why an extensive Literature Review on Multitasking is a propos.

Keywords: Cognitive, Entrepreneurial, Empathy, Multitasking

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5 Audience Members' Perspective-Taking Predicts Accurate Identification of Musically Expressed Emotion in a Live Improvised Jazz Performance

Authors: Omer Leshem, Michael F. Schober


This paper introduces a new method for assessing how audience members and performers feel and think during live concerts, and how audience members' recognized and felt emotions are related. Two hypotheses were tested in a live concert setting: (1) that audience members’ cognitive perspective taking ability predicts their accuracy in identifying an emotion that a jazz improviser intended to express during a performance, and (2) that audience members' affective empathy predicts their likelihood of feeling the same emotions as the performer. The aim was to stage a concert with audience members who regularly attend live jazz performances, and to measure their cognitive and affective reactions during the performance as non-intrusively as possible. Pianist and Grammy nominee Andy Milne agreed, without knowing details of the method or hypotheses, to perform a full-length solo improvised concert that would include an ‘unusual’ piece. Jazz fans were recruited through typical advertising for New York City jazz performances. The event was held at the New School’s Glass Box Theater, the home of leading NYC jazz venue ‘The Stone.’ Audience members were charged typical NYC jazz club admission prices; advertisements informed them that anyone who chose to participate in the study would be reimbursed their ticket price after the concert. The concert, held in April 2018, had 30 attendees, 23 of whom participated in the study. Twenty-two minutes into the concert, the performer was handed a paper note with the instruction: ‘Perform a 3-5-minute improvised piece with the intention of conveying sadness.’ (Sadness was chosen based on previous music cognition lab studies, where solo listeners were less likely to select sadness as the musically-expressed emotion accurately from a list of basic emotions, and more likely to misinterpret sadness as tenderness). Then, audience members and the performer were invited to respond to a questionnaire from a first envelope under their seat. Participants used their own words to describe the emotion the performer had intended to express, and then to select the intended emotion from a list. They also reported the emotions they had felt while listening using Izard’s differential emotions scale. The concert then continued as usual. At the end, participants answered demographic questions and Davis’ interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a 28-item scale designed to assess both cognitive and affective empathy. Hypothesis 1 was supported: audience members with greater cognitive empathy were more likely to accurately identify sadness as the expressed emotion. Moreover, audience members who accurately selected ‘sadness’ reported feeling marginally sadder than people who did not select sadness. Hypotheses 2 was not supported; audience members with greater affective empathy were not more likely to feel the same emotions as the performer. If anything, members with lower cognitive perspective-taking ability had marginally greater emotional overlap with the performer, which makes sense given that these participants were less likely to identify the music as sad, which corresponded with the performer’s actual feelings. Results replicate findings from solo lab studies in a concert setting and demonstrate the viability of exploring empathy and collective cognition in improvised live performance.

Keywords: Cognition, emotion, Improvisation, Empathy, Collective Cognition, audience, expressed emotion, felt emotion, live performance, recognized emotion

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4 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra


While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: Assessment, Ethology, Empathy, Guilt, Species, Dogs, prosocial approach behavior

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3 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere


Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: Empathy, entrepreneurial orientation, institutional level, social entrepreneurial intentions

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2 Relationship between Liking the Personal Robot Papero and Personality Traits: A Psychological Perspective

Authors: Toshiki Ito, Maiko Kiyohara


When designing personal robots, traits of the humans who interact with them are important (such as their personalities and experiences with personal robots). Thus, we focused on the personality of those who interact with personal robots, as different personalities may influence people’s attitudes toward personal robots. This study examined the relationship between people’s liking of the personal robot “PaPeRo” developed by NEC, and their personality traits. Liking of PaPeRo was assessed using a scale with three sub-categories: prettiness, humanity, and function. To assess personality traits of participants, we utilized the Interpersonal Trust Scales, the Multidimensional Empathy Scale, and the Internal Working Model Scale. Results showed those who were attached to PaPeRo(H group) were more empathetic than those who were not attached; the H group exhibited more ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles than those who were moderately attached to PaPeRo(M group). T-tests indicated that, in groups defined with respect to their total liking scores, interpersonal trust scores tended to be higher in the M group (n = 92) than in the H group (n = 31; t (121) = 1.68, p < .10). There were no differences in other personality traits. In groups defined with respect to their prettiness subscale scores, t-tests showed that interpersonal trust scores tended to be higher in the M (n = 97) than in the H group (n = 34; t (121) = 1.68, p < .10), avoidant scores tended to be higher in the H1 than in the M group (t (129) = 1.68, p < .10), and ambivalent scores tended to be higher in the H than in the M group (t (129) = 2.00, p < .05). In H and M groups defined based on their humanity subscale scores, t-tests showed that scores tended to be higher in the H group (n = 36) than the M group (n = 78) for sympathetic interest (t (112) = 1.68, p < .10), imagining others’ feelings (t (112) = 1.77, p < .10), and avoidant (t (112) = 1.80, p < .10). In H and M groups defined based on their function subscale scores, t-tests showed that scores were higher in the M (n = 81) than in the H1 group (n = 38) for interpersonal trust (t (117) = 2.28, p < .05) and secure (t (117) = 2.06, p < .05). Avoidant scores (t (117) = 1.77, p < .10) tended to be higher in the H than in the M group Those with insecure attachment styles felt they could not rely on others; hence, they felt more familiar toward PaPeRo, who provided security and seemed like he would not betray them, unlike another human being. When designing personal robots, the personalities of the people who will interact with such robots should be considered.

Keywords: Empathy, Interpersonal Trust, internal working model, personal robot, PaPeRo

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1 The Virtues and Vices of Leader Empathy: A Review of a Misunderstood Construct

Authors: John G. Vongas, Raghid Al Hajj


In recent years, there has been a surge in research on empathy across disciplines ranging from management and psychology to philosophy and neuroscience. In organizational behavior, in particular, scholars have become interested in leader empathy given the rise of workplace diversity and the growing perception of leaders as managers of group emotions. It would appear that the current zeitgeist in behavioral and philosophical science is that empathy is a cornerstone of morality and that our world would be better off if only more people – and by extension, more leaders – were empathic. In spite of these claims, however, researchers have used different terminologies to explore empathy, confusing it at times with other related constructs such as emotional intelligence and compassion. Second, extant research that specifies what empathic leaders do and how their behavior affects organizational stakeholders, including themselves, does not devolve from a unifying theoretical framework. These problems plague knowledge development in this important research domain. Therefore, to the authors' best knowledge, this paper provides the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on leader empathy by drawing on disparate yet complementary fields of inquiry. It clarifies empathy from other constructs and presents a theoretical model that elucidates the mechanisms by which a leader’s empathy translates into behaviors that could be either beneficial or harmful to the leaders themselves, as well as to their followers and groups. And third, it specifies the boundary conditions under which a leader’s empathy will become manifest. Finally, it suggests ways in which training could be implemented to improve empathy in practice while also remaining skeptical of its conceptualization as a moral or even effective guide in human affairs.

Keywords: Leadership, Empathy, compassion, group outcomes

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