Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

emotion Related Abstracts

27 Understanding Mental Constructs of Language and Emotion

Authors: Sakshi Ghai

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The word ‘emotion’ has been microscopically studied through psychological, anthropological and biological lenses and have indubitably been one of the most researched concepts as, in all situations and reactions that constitute human life, emotions form the very niche of our mutual existence. While understanding the social aspects of cognition, one can realize that emotions are deeply interwoven with language and thereby are pivotal in inducing human actions and behavior. The society or the outward social structure is the result of the inward psychological structure of our human relationships, for the individual is the result of the total experience, knowledge and conduct of man. The aim of this paper is threefold: first, to establish the relation between mental representations of emotions and its neuropsychological connection with language on a conscious and sub-conscious level; secondly, to describe how innate, basic and higher cognitive emotions affect the constantly changing state of an agent and peruse its assistance in determining the moral compass within all beings. Lastly, in the course of this paper, the concept of the architecture of mind is explored considering how it has developed an ability to display adaptive emotional states and responses, which are in sync with the language of thought. For every response to the social environment is so deeply determined by the very social milieu in which one is situated, language has a fundamental role in constructing emotions and articulating behavior. Being linguistic beings, we tend to associate emotion, feelings and other aspects of inwards mental states intrinsically with the language we use. This paper aims to devise a discursive approach to understand how emotions are fabricated, intertwined with the mental constructs further expressed and communicated through the various units of language.

Keywords: Psychology, Language, emotion, mental representation

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26 The Role of Emotion in Attention Allocation

Authors: Michaela Porubanova

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In this exploratory study to examine the effects of emotional significance on change detection using the flicker paradigm, three different categories of scenes were randomly presented (neutral, positive and negative) in three different blocks. We hypothesized that because of the different effects on attention, performance in change detection tasks differs for scenes with different effective values. We found the greatest accuracy of change detection was for changes occurring in positive and negative scenes (compared with neutral scenes). Secondly and most importantly, changes in negative scenes (and also positive scenes, though not with statistical significance) were detected faster than changes in neutral scenes. Interestingly, women were less accurate than men in detecting changes in emotionally significant scenes (both negative and positive), i.e., women detected fewer changes in emotional scenes in the time limit of 40s. But on the other hand, women were quicker to detect changes in positive and negative images than men. The study makes important contributions to the area of the role of emotions on information processing. The role of emotion in attention will be discussed.

Keywords: Attention, emotion, flicker task, IAPS

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25 Broadening Attentional Scope by Seeing Happy Faces

Authors: John McDowall, Crysta Derham

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Broaden and build theory of emotion describes how experiencing positive emotions, such as happiness, broadens our ‘thought-action repertoire’ leading us to be more likely to go out and act on our positive emotions. This results in the building of new relationships, resources and skills, which we can draw on in times of need throughout life. In contrast, the experience of negative emotion is thought to narrow our ‘thought-action repertoire’, leading to specific actions to aid in survival. Three experiments aimed to explore the effect of briefly presented schematic faces (happy, sad, and neutral) on attentional scope using the flanker task. Based on the broaden and build theory it was hypothesised that there would be an increase in reaction time in trials primed with a happy face due to a broadening of attention, leading to increased flanker interference. A decrease in reaction time was predicted for trials primed with a sad face, due to a narrowing of attention leading to less flanker interference. Results lended partial support to the broaden and build hypothesis, with reaction times being slower following happy primes in incongruent flanker trials. Recent research is discussed in regards to potential mediators of the relationship between emotion and attention.

Keywords: Attention, emotion, broaden and build, flanker task

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24 The Effects of Online Video Gaming on Creativity

Authors: Chloe Shu-Hua Yeh

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Effects of videogame play on players cognitive abilities is a growing research field in the recent decades, however, little is known about how ‘out-of-school’ use of videogame influences creativity. This interdisciplinary research explores the cognitive and emotional effects of two different types of online videogames (an action videogame and a non-action videogame) on subsequent creativity performances using a within-participant design study with 36 participants. Results showed that after playing the action game participants performed higher originality, elaboration and flexibility than after playing the causal game. The results explored effects of emotional states elicited during playing the games suggesting that arousal may be a significant emotional factor which influence subsequent creativity performance. The cognitive and emotional effects of videogame were discussed followed with implications for emotion-creativity-videogame play research, game designers, educational practitioners and parents.

Keywords: Creativity, emotion, attentional breadth, videogame play

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23 Gender Differences in the Perception of Advertising in Postmodern Era

Authors: J. Zavodny Pospisil, L. S. Zavodna, K. Cerna

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The goal of this paper is to identify the main differences in the way men and women perceive TV ads. This paper is based on a research project conducted partly as a review of relevant papers, which deals with gender influence on the cognitive process and postmodern perception of advertising. In addition to that, qualitative research was conducted by means of interviews and structured questionnaires. Furthermore, data acquired from the research were used to evaluate our objectives and hypotheses. The goal of this paper is to compare women's and men's perception of advertisement. Although women are able to perceive more details than men, men are more susceptible to sexual appeals in advertising. Significant differences were also found in the perception of sexual appeals in the context of gender.

Keywords: Advertising, Gender, Consumer, emotion, psychology of advertising

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22 How Can Food Retailing Benefit from Neuromarketing Research: The Influence of Traditional and Innovative Tools of In-Store Communication on Consumer Reactions

Authors: Jakub Berčík, Elena Horská, Ľudmila Nagyová

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Nowadays, the point of sale remains one of the few channels of communication which is not oversaturated yet and has great potential for the future. The fact that purchasing decisions are significantly affected by emotions, while up to 75 % of them are implemented at the point of sale, only demonstrates its importance. The share of impulsive purchases is about 60-75 %, depending on the particular product category. Nevertheless, habits predetermine the content of the shopping cart above all and hence in this regard the role of in-store communication is to disrupt the routine and compel the customer to try something new. This is the reason why it is essential to know how to work with this relatively young branch of marketing communication as efficiently as possible. New global trend in this discipline is evaluating the effectiveness of particular tools in the in-store communication. To increase the efficiency it is necessary to become familiar with the factors affecting the customer both consciously and unconsciously, and that is a task for neuromarketing and sensory marketing. It is generally known that the customer remembers the negative experience much longer and more intensely than the positive ones, therefore it is essential for marketers to avoid this negative experience. The final effect of POP (Point of Purchase) or POS (Point of Sale) tools is conditional not only on their quality and design, but also on the location at the point of sale which contributes to the overall positive atmosphere in the store. Therefore, in-store advertising is increasingly in the center of attention and companies are willing to spend even a third of their marketing communication budget on it. The paper deals with a comprehensive, interdisciplinary research of the impact of traditional as well as innovative tools of in-store communication on the attention and emotional state (valence and arousal) of consumers on the food market. The research integrates measurements with eye camera (Eye tracker) and electroencephalograph (EEG) in real grocery stores as well as in laboratory conditions with the purpose of recognizing attention and emotional response among respondents under the influence of selected tools of in-store communication. The object of the research includes traditional (e.g. wobblers, stoppers, floor graphics) and innovative (e.g. displays, wobblers with LED elements, interactive floor graphics) tools of in-store communication in the fresh unpackaged food segment. By using a mobile 16-channel electroencephalograph (EEG equipment) from the company EPOC, a mobile eye camera (Eye tracker) from the company Tobii and a stationary eye camera (Eye tracker) from the company Gazepoint, we observe the attention and emotional state (valence and arousal) to reveal true consumer preferences using traditional and new unusual communication tools at the point of sale of the selected foodstuffs. The paper concludes with suggesting possibilities for rational, effective and energy-efficient combination of in-store communication tools, by which the retailer can accomplish not only captivating and attractive presentation of displayed goods, but ultimately also an increase in retail sales of the store.

Keywords: emotion, eye tracker, electroencephalograph (EEG), in-store communication

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21 How to Affect Brand Attitude with Authenticity in Advertising

Authors: Tang, Yun-Chia, Chiu, Hung-Chang

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Authenticity in advertising, is the cornerstone of modern marketing. Despite research advances related to the role of authenticity in marketing, it remains unclear why customers respond to authentic brand stories. This study shows that different personality traits moderate the influence of various types of authenticity on people’s levels of emotion. Both indexical and iconic authenticity advertising evoke more positive emotions among extroverts and open and agreeable people. When neurotic people and conscientious people read iconic authenticity advertisements, rather than indexical authenticity ones, they produce more negative emotions. The emotion evoked by advertising in turn has a positive impact on brand attitude. These findings provide managerial implications and directions for practitioners.

Keywords: Advertising, emotion, Authenticity, Personality Traits

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20 Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation

Authors: Piotr Podlipniak

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Social consolidation has often been indicated as an adaptive function of music which led to the evolution of music faculty. According to many scholars this function is possible thanks to musical rhythm that enables sensorimotor synchronization to a musical beat. The ability to synchronize to music allows performing music collectively which enhances social cohesion. However, the collective performance of music consists also in spectral synchronization that depends on musical pitch structure. Similarly to rhythmic synchronization, spectral synchronization is a result of ‘brain states alignment’ between people who collectively listen to or perform music. In order to successfully synchronize pitches performers have to adequately expect the pitch structure. The most common form of music which predominates among all human societies is tonal music. In fact tonality understood in the broadest sense as such an organization of musical pitches in which some pitch is more important than others is the only kind of musical pitch structure that has been observed in all currently known musical cultures. The perception of such a musical pitch structure elicits specific emotional reactions which are often described as tensions and relaxations. These facts provoke some important questions. What is the evolutionary reason that people use pitch structure as a form of vocal communication? Why different pitch structures elicit different emotional states independent of extra-musical context? It is proposed in the current presentation that in the course of evolution pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially before it became an evolutionary innovation of Homo sapiens. It means that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. The hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of tonal pitch structure will be proposed. In this scenario social forces such as a need for closer cooperation play the crucial role.

Keywords: Evolution, emotion, tonality, social consolidation

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19 The Emotional Experience of Urban Ruins and the Exploration of Urban Memory

Authors: Yan Jia China

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The ruins is a kind of historical intention, which is also the current real existence of developing city. Zen culture of ancient China has a profound esthetic emotion, similarly, the west establish the concept of aesthetics of relic along with the Romanism’s (such as Rousseau etc.) sentiment to historical ruins at the end of 18th century. Nowadays, with the decline of traditional industrial society as well as the rise of post-industrial age, contemporary society must face the ruins and garbage problem which is left by industrial society. Commencing from the perspective of emotion and memory, this paper analyzes the importance for emotional needs as well as their existing status of several projects, such as the Capital Steelworks in Beijing (industrial devastation), the Shibati old section in Chongqing (urban slums) and the Old Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem (ruins of war). It emphasizes urban design which is started from emotion and the sustainable development of city memory through managing the urban ruins which is criticized by people with the perspective of ecology and art.

Keywords: Ecology, Cultural Heritage, emotion, urban ruins, sustainable urban memory

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18 Some Theoretical Approaches on the Style of Lyrical Subject of the Confessional Poetry

Authors: Lemac Tin

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This paper deals with the lyrical subject of the confessional poetry which is the main part of her stylistic strucuture. We concluded two types of this subject in the classical confessional poetic discourse; reflexive and authentic subject. We offer the model of their genesis, textual features and appeareance realisations. Genesis is related to the theories of deriving poetry from emotion and magic and their similar position in the primitive lyrics and lyrics of the ancient civilizations. Textual features are related to the emotive and semiotic analysis of each type. Appearance realisations of these two types are I-subject, We-subject, transvocal and objectified subject. We check this approaches on some of the poems from World literature.

Keywords: emotion, confessional poetry, confessional lyrical subject, magic, emotive analysis, semiotic analysis

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17 Human Facial Emotion: A Comparative and Evolutionary Perspective Using a Canine Model

Authors: Catia Correia Caeiro, Kun Guo, Daniel Mills

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Despite its growing interest, emotions are still an understudied cognitive process and their origins are currently the focus of much debate among the scientific community. The use of facial expressions as traditional hallmarks of discrete and holistic emotions created a circular reasoning due to a priori assumptions of meaning and its associated appearance-biases. Ekman and colleagues solved this problem and laid the foundations for the quantitative and systematic study of facial expressions in humans by developing an anatomically-based system (independent from meaning) to measure facial behaviour, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). One way of investigating emotion cognition processes is by applying comparative psychology methodologies and looking at either closely-related species (e.g. chimpanzees) or phylogenetically distant species sharing similar present adaptation problems (analogy). In this study, the domestic dog was used as a comparative animal model to look at facial expressions in social interactions in parallel with human facial expressions. The orofacial musculature seems to be relatively well conserved across mammal species and the same holds true for the domestic dog. Furthermore, the dog is unique in having shared the same social environment as humans for more than 10,000 years, facing similar challenges and acquiring a unique set of socio-cognitive skills in the process. In this study, the spontaneous facial movements of humans and dogs were compared when interacting with hetero- and conspecifics as well as in solitary contexts. In total, 200 participants were examined with FACS and DogFACS (The Dog Facial Action Coding System): coding tools across four different emotionally-driven contexts: a) Happiness (play and reunion), b) anticipation (of positive reward), c) fear (object or situation triggered), and d) frustration (negation of a resource). A neutral control was added for both species. All four contexts are commonly encountered by humans and dogs, are comparable between species and seem to give rise to emotions from homologous brain systems. The videos used in the study were extracted from public databases (e.g. Youtube) or published scientific databases (e.g. AM-FED). The results obtained allowed us to delineate clear similarities and differences on the flexibility of the facial musculature in the two species. More importantly, they shed light on what common facial movements are a product of the emotion linked contexts (the ones appearing in both species) and which are characteristic of the species, revealing an important clue for the debate on the origin of emotions. Additionally, we were able to examine movements that might have emerged for interspecific communication. Finally, our results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective adding to the recent line of work that supports an ancient shared origin of emotions in a mammal ancestor and defining emotions as mechanisms with a clear adaptive purpose essential on numerous situations, ranging from maintenance of social bonds to fitness and survival modulators.

Keywords: emotion, comparative and evolutionary psychology, facial expressions, FACS

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16 The Role of Emotions in the Consumer: Theoretical Review and Analysis of Components

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

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The early eighties saw the rise of a new research trend in several prestigious journals, mainly articles that related emotions with the decision-making processes of the consumer, and stopped treating them as external elements. That is why we ask questions such as: what are emotions? Are there different types of emotions? What components do they have? Which theories exist about them? In this study, we will review the main theories and components of emotion analysing the cognitive factor and the different emotional states that are generally recognizable with a focus in the classic debate as to whether they occur before the cognitive process or the affective process.

Keywords: Decision Making, Consumer behaviour, emotion, Feelings

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15 Enriching the Effects of Art Therapy Intervention: Reflecting upon Artworks Produced during Intervention to Restructure Adolescent’s Art Expression of Feelings and Emotions

Authors: L. K. Akila

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Art activities can fund as a clinical support tool (CST) between interventions in Art Therapy to direct the client back towards better outcome goals. In the present study, during free art sessions, researcher examined the possibilities of motivating the adolescent group to involve in art making process by reflecting upon art intervention administered. Results show that adolescents’ reflecting upon their art works generated during the intervention; could change their perceptions and cognitions to improve their positive approach by restructuring their art expressions. Consequently, such reflections triggered and improved their emotions, feelings and ideas, and produced secure attachment between family, peers and teachers. By the end of interference, transformations experienced were effective more upon depression, self-image, and self-efficacy, and to a certain extent on aggressive patterns represented.

Keywords: Cognition, Depression, Art, Adolescent, emotion, Adolescent Psychology, Aggression, self-image, art therapy

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14 The Significant Effect of Wudu’ and Zikr in the Controlling of Emotional Pressure Using Biofeedback Emwave Technique

Authors: Mohd Anuar Awang Idris, Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab, Nora Yusma Mohamed Yusoff

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Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr are amongst some of the spiritual tools which may help an individual control his mind, emotion and attitude. These tools are deemed to be able to deliver a positive impact on an individual’s psychophysiology. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of Wudu’ (Ablution) and Zikr therapy using the biofeedback emWave application and technology. For this research, 13 students were selected as samples from the students’ representative body at the University Tenaga National, Malaysia. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used to help with the assessment and measurement of each student’s ability in controlling his or her emotions before and after the therapies. The biofeedback emWave technology was utilized to monitor the student’s psychophysiology level. In addition, the data obtained from the Heart rate variability (HRV) test have also been used to affirm that Wudu’ and Zikr had had significant impacts on the student’s success in controlling his or her emotional pressure.

Keywords: Psychophysiology, emotion, biofeedback EmWave, wudu’, zikr

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13 A Multi-Agent Simulation of Serious Games to Predict Their Impact on E-Learning Processes

Authors: Ibtissem Daoudi, Raoudha Chebil, Wided Lejouad Chaari

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Serious games constitute actually a recent and attractive way supposed to replace the classical boring courses. However, the choice of the adapted serious game to a specific learning environment remains a challenging task that makes teachers unwilling to adopt this concept. To fill this gap, we present, in this paper, a multi-agent-based simulator allowing to predict the impact of a serious game integration in a learning environment given several game and players characteristics. As results, the presented tool gives intensities of several emotional aspects characterizing learners reactions to the serious game adoption. The presented simulator is tested to predict the effect of basing a coding course on the serious game ”CodeCombat”. The obtained results are compared with feedbacks of using the same serious game in a real learning process.

Keywords: Serious Games, emotion, learning process, multi-agent simulation

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12 Measuring Emotion Dynamics on Facebook: Associations between Variability in Expressed Emotion and Psychological Functioning

Authors: Nikki S. Rickard, Elizabeth M. Seabrook

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Examining time-dependent measures of emotion such as variability, instability, and inertia, provide critical and complementary insights into mental health status. Observing changes in the pattern of emotional expression over time could act as a tool to identify meaningful shifts between psychological well- and ill-being. From a practical standpoint, however, examining emotion dynamics day-to-day is likely to be burdensome and invasive. Utilizing social media data as a facet of lived experience can provide real-world, temporally specific access to emotional expression. Emotional language on social media may provide accurate and sensitive insights into individual and community mental health and well-being, particularly with focus placed on the within-person dynamics of online emotion expression. The objective of the current study was to examine the dynamics of emotional expression on the social network platform Facebook for active users and their relationship with psychological well- and ill-being. It was expected that greater positive and negative emotion variability, instability, and inertia would be associated with poorer psychological well-being and greater depression symptoms. Data were collected using a smartphone app, MoodPrism, which delivered demographic questionnaires, psychological inventories assessing depression symptoms and psychological well-being, and collected the Status Updates of consenting participants. MoodPrism also delivered an experience sampling methodology where participants completed items assessing positive affect, negative affect, and arousal, daily for a 30-day period. The number of positive and negative words in posts was extracted and automatically collated by MoodPrism. The relative proportion of positive and negative words from the total words written in posts was then calculated. Preliminary analyses have been conducted with the data of 9 participants. While these analyses are underpowered due to sample size, they have revealed trends that greater variability in the emotion valence expressed in posts is positively associated with greater depression symptoms (r(9) = .56, p = .12), as is greater instability in emotion valence (r(9) = .58, p = .099). Full data analysis utilizing time-series techniques to explore the Facebook data set will be presented at the conference. Identifying the features of emotion dynamics (variability, instability, inertia) that are relevant to mental health in social media emotional expression is a fundamental step in creating automated screening tools for mental health that are temporally sensitive, unobtrusive, and accurate. The current findings show how monitoring basic social network characteristics over time can provide greater depth in predicting risk and changes in depression and positive well-being.

Keywords: Social Media, Mental Health, emotion, experience sampling methods

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11 Emotional State and Cognitive Workload during a Flight Simulation: Heart Rate Study

Authors: Damien Mouratille, Antonio R. Hidalgo-Muñoz, Nadine Matton, Yves Rouillard, Mickael Causse, Radouane El Yagoubi

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Background: The monitoring of the physiological activity related to mental workload (MW) on pilots will be useful to improve aviation safety by anticipating human performance degradation. The electrocardiogram (ECG) can reveal MW fluctuations due to either cognitive workload or/and emotional state since this measure exhibits autonomic nervous system modulations. Arguably, heart rate (HR) is one of its most intuitive and reliable parameters. It would be particularly interesting to analyze the interaction between cognitive requirements and emotion in ecologic sets such as a flight simulator. This study aims to explore by means of HR the relation between cognitive demands and emotional activation. Presumably, the effects of cognition and emotion overloads are not necessarily cumulative. Methodology: Eight healthy volunteers in possession of the Private Pilot License were recruited (male; 20.8±3.2 years). ECG signal was recorded along the whole experiment by placing two electrodes on the clavicle and left pectoral of the participants. The HR was computed within 4 minutes segments. NASA-TLX and Big Five inventories were used to assess subjective workload and to consider the influence of individual personality differences. The experiment consisted in completing two dual-tasks of approximately 30 minutes of duration into a flight simulator AL50. Each dual-task required the simultaneous accomplishment of both a pre-established flight plan and an additional task based on target stimulus discrimination inserted between Air Traffic Control instructions. This secondary task allowed us to vary the cognitive workload from low (LC) to high (HC) levels, by combining auditory and visual numerical stimuli to respond to meeting specific criteria. Regarding emotional condition, the two dual-tasks were designed to assure analogous difficulty in terms of solicited cognitive demands. The former was realized by the pilot alone, i.e. Low Arousal (LA) condition. In contrast, the latter generates a high arousal (HA), since the pilot was supervised by two evaluators, filmed and involved into a mock competition with the rest of the participants. Results: Performance for the secondary task showed significant faster reaction times (RT) for HA compared to LA condition (p=.003). Moreover, faster RT was found for LC compared to HC (p < .001) condition. No interaction was found. Concerning HR measure, despite the lack of main effects an interaction between emotion and cognition is evidenced (p=.028). Post hoc analysis showed smaller HR for HA compared to LA condition only for LC (p=.049). Conclusion. The control of an aircraft is a very complex task including strong cognitive demands and depends on the emotional state of pilots. According to the behavioral data, the experimental set has permitted to generate satisfactorily different emotional and cognitive levels. As suggested by the interaction found in HR measure, these two factors do not seem to have a cumulative impact on the sympathetic nervous system. Apparently, low cognitive workload makes pilots more sensitive to emotional variations. These results hint the independency between data processing and emotional regulation. Further physiological data are necessary to confirm and disentangle this relation. This procedure may be useful for monitoring objectively pilot’s mental workload.

Keywords: emotion, Mental workload, Heart Rate, cognitive demands, flight simulator

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10 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

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Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: emotion, Cosmetic Formulations, sensory, ingredients' influence

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9 Vicarious Cues in Portraying Emotion: Musicians' Self-Appraisal

Authors: W. Linthicum-Blackhorse, P. Martens

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This present study seeks to discover attitudinal commonalities and differences within a musician population relative to the communication of emotion via music. We hypothesized that instrument type, as well as age and gender, would bear significantly on musicians’ opinions. A survey was administered to 178 participants; 152 were current music majors (mean age 20.3 years, 62 female) and 26 were adult participants in a community choir (mean age 54.0 years, 12 female). The adult participants were all vocalists, while student participants represented the full range of orchestral instruments. The students were grouped by degree program, (performance, music education, or other) and instrument type (voice, brass, woodwinds, strings, percussion). The survey asked 'How important are each of the following areas to you for portraying emotion in music?' Participants were asked to rate each of 15 items on a scale of 1 (not at all important) to 10 (very important). Participants were also instructed to leave blank any item that they did not understand. The 15 items were: dynamic contrast, overall volume, phrasing, facial expression, staging (placement), pitch accuracy, tempo changes, bodily movement, your mood, your attitude, vibrato, rubato, stage/room lighting, clothing type, and clothing color. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no overall effect of gender or age, and neither did any single response item show a significant difference due to these subject parameters. Among the student participants, however, one-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of degree program on the rated importance of four items: dynamic contrast, tempo changes, vibrato, and rubato. Significant effects of instrument type were found in the responses to eight items: facial expression, staging, body movement, vibrato, rubato, lighting, clothing type, and clothing color. Post hoc comparisons (Tukey) show that some variation follows from obvious differences between instrument types (e.g. string players are more concerned with vibrato than everyone but woodwind players; vocalists are significantly more concerned with facial expression than everyone but string players), but other differences could point to communal mindsets toward vicarious cues within instrument type. These mindsets could be global (e.g. brass players deeming body movement significantly less important than string players, being less often featured as soloists and appearing less often at the front of the stage) or local (e.g. string players being significantly more concerned than all other groups about both clothing color and type, perhaps due to the strongly-expressed opinions of specific teachers). Future work will attempt to identify the source of these self-appraisals, whether enculturated via explicit pedagogy, or whether absorbed from individuals' observations and performance experience.

Keywords: Communication, Performance, emotion, vicarious cues

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8 2017 Survey on Correlation between Connection and Emotions for Children and Adolescents

Authors: Ya-Hsing Yeh, I-Chun Tai, Ming-Chieh Lin, Li-Ting Lee, Ping-Ting Hsieh, Yi-Chen Ling, Jhia-Ying Du, Li-Ping Chang, Guan-Long Yu

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Objective: To understand the connection between children/adolescents and those who they miss, as well as the correlation between connection and their emotions. Method: Based on the objective, a close-ended questionnaire was made into a formal questionnaire after experts evaluated its validity. In February 2017, the paper-based questionnaire was adopted. Twenty-one elementary schools and junior high schools in Taiwan were sampled by purposive sampling approach and the fifth to ninth graders were our participants. A total of 2,502 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Results: Forty-four-point three percent of children/adolescents missed a person in mind, or they thought a person as a significant other in mind, but they had no connection with them. The highest proportion of those they wanted to contact with was ‘Friends and classmates’, and the others were ‘immediate family’, such as parents and grandparents, and ‘academic or vocational instructors, such as home-room teachers, coaches, cram school teachers and so on, respectively. Only 14% of children/adolescents would actively contact those they missed. The proportion of what children/adolescents ‘often’ actively keeping in touch with those they missed felt happy or cheerful was higher compared with those who ‘seldom’ actively keeping in touch with people they missed whenever they recalled who they missed, or the person actively contacted with them. Sixty-one-point seven percent of participants haven’t connected with those they missed for more than one year. The main reason was ‘environmental factors’, such as school/class transfer or moving, and then ‘academic or personal factors’, ‘communication tools’, and ‘personalities’, respectively. In addition to ‘greetings during festivals and holidays’, ‘hearing from those they missed’, and ‘knowing the latest information about those they missed on their Internet communities’, children/adolescents would like to actively contact with them when they felt ‘happy’ and ‘depressed or frustrated. The first three opinions of what children/adolescents regarded truly connection were ‘listening to people they missed attentively’, ‘sharing their secrets’, and ‘contacting with people they regularly missed with real actions’. In terms of gender, girls’ proportion on ‘showing with actions, including contacting with people they missed regularly or expressing their feelings openly’, and ‘sharing secrets’ was higher than boys’, while boy’s proportion on ‘the attitudes when contacting people they missed, including listening attentively or without being distracted’ was higher than girls’. Conclusions: I. The more ‘active’ connection they have, the more happiness they feel. II. Teachers can teach children how to manage their emotions and express their feelings appropriately. III. It is very important to turn connection into ‘action.’ Teachers can set a good example and share their moods with others whatever they are in the mood. This is a kind of connection.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, emotion, connection

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7 Effects of Crisis-Induced Emotions on in-Crisis Protective Behavior and Post-Crisis Perception: An Analysis of Survey Data for the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea

Authors: Myoungsoon You, Heejung Son

Abstract:

Background: In the current study, we investigated the effects of emotions induced by an infectious disease outbreak on the various protective behaviors taken during the crisis and on the perception after the crisis. The investigation was based on two psychological theories of appraisal tendency and action tendency. Methods: A total of 900 participants in South Korea who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak were sampled by a professional survey agency. To assess the influence of the emotions fear and anger, a regression approach was used. The effect of emotions on various protective behaviors and perceptions was observed using a hierarchical regression method. Results: Fear and anger induced by the infectious disease outbreak were both associated with increased protective behaviors during the crisis. However, the differences between the emotions were observed. While protective behaviors with avoidance tendency (adherence to recommendations, self-mitigation), were raised by both fear and anger, protective behaviors with approach tendency (information-seeking) were increased by anger, but not fear. Regarding the effect of emotion on the risk perception after the crisis, only fear was associated with a higher level of risk perception. Conclusions: This study confirmed the role of emotions in crisis protective behaviors and post-crisis perceptions regarding an infectious disease outbreak. These findings could enhance understanding of the public’s protective behaviors during infectious disease outbreaks and afterward risk perception corresponding to emotions. The results also suggested strategies for communicating with the public that takes into account emotions that are prominently induced by crises associated with disease outbreaks.

Keywords: emotion, Risk Perception, Crisis Communication, Protective Behavior, infectious disease outbreak

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6 Surveyed Emotional Responses to Musical Chord Progressions Imbued with Binaural Pulsations

Authors: Jachin Pousson, Valdis Bernhofs

Abstract:

Applications of the binaural sound experience are wide-ranged. This paper focuses on the interaction between binaural tones and human emotion with an aim to apply the resulting knowledge artistically. For the purpose of this study, binaural music is defined as musical arrangements of sound which are made of combinations of binaural difference tones. Here, the term ‘binaural difference tone’ refers to the pulsating tone heard within the brain which results from listening to slightly differing audio frequencies or pure pitches in each ear. The frequency or tempo of the pulsations is the sum of the precise difference between the frequencies two tones and is measured in beats per second. Polyrhythmic pulsations that can be heard within combinations of these differences tones have shown to be able to entrain or tune brainwave patterns to frequencies which have been linked to mental states which can be characterized by different levels of attention and mood.

Keywords: emotion, music composition, binaural auditory pulsations, brainwave entrainment

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5 Everyday Solitude, Affective Experiences, and Well-Being in Old Age: The Role of Culture versus Immigration

Authors: Da Jiang, Helene H. Fung, Jennifer C. Lay, Maureen C. Ashe, Peter Graf, Christiane A. Hoppmann

Abstract:

Being alone is often equated with loneliness. Yet, recent findings suggest that the objective state of being alone (i.e., solitude) can have both positive and negative connotations. The present research aimed to examine (1) affective experience in daily solitude; and (2) the association between everyday affect in solitude and well-being. We examined the distinct roles of culture and immigration in moderating these associations. Using up to 35 daily life assessments of momentary affect, solitude, and emotional well-being in two samples (Vancouver, Canada, and China), the study compared older adults who aged in place (local Caucasians in Vancouver Canada and local Hong Kong Chinese in Hong Kong, China) and older adults of different cultural heritages who immigrated to Canada (immigrated Caucasians and immigrated East Asians). We found that older adults of East Asian heritage experienced more positive and less negative affect when alone than did Caucasians. Reporting positive affect in solitude was more positively associated with well-being in older adults who had immigrated to Canada as compared to those who had aged in place. These findings speak to the unique effects of culture and immigration on the affective correlates of solitude and their associations with well-being in old age.

Keywords: Culture, Immigration, age, emotion, solitude

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4 A Systematic Review Emotion Regulation through Music in Children, Adults, and Elderly

Authors: Antonio Oliveira, Patricia Oliveira-Silva, Fabiana Ribeiro, Ana Moreno

Abstract:

Music is present in our daily lives, and to our knowledge music is often used to change the emotions in the listeners. For this reason, the objective of this study was to explore and synthesize results examining the use and effects of music on emotion regulation in children, adults, and elderly, and clarify if the music is effective across ages to promote emotion regulation. A literature search was conducted using ISI Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Scopus, inclusion criteria comprised children, adolescents, young, and old adults, including health population. Articles applying musical intervention, specifically musical listening, and assessing the emotion regulation directly through reports or neurophysiological measures were included in this review. Results showed age differences in the function of musical listening; initially, adolescents revealed age increments in emotional listening compared to children, and young adults in comparison to older adults, in which the first use music aiming to emotion regulation and social connection, while older adults also utilize music as emotion regulation searching for personal growth. Moreover, some of the studies showed that personal characteristics also would determine the efficiency of the emotion regulation strategy. In conclusion, it was observed that music could beneficiate all ages investigated, however, this review detected a necessity to develop adequate paradigms to explore the use of music for emotion regulation.

Keywords: Music, Regulation, emotion, musical listening

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3 Audience Members' Perspective-Taking Predicts Accurate Identification of Musically Expressed Emotion in a Live Improvised Jazz Performance

Authors: Omer Leshem, Michael F. Schober

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new method for assessing how audience members and performers feel and think during live concerts, and how audience members' recognized and felt emotions are related. Two hypotheses were tested in a live concert setting: (1) that audience members’ cognitive perspective taking ability predicts their accuracy in identifying an emotion that a jazz improviser intended to express during a performance, and (2) that audience members' affective empathy predicts their likelihood of feeling the same emotions as the performer. The aim was to stage a concert with audience members who regularly attend live jazz performances, and to measure their cognitive and affective reactions during the performance as non-intrusively as possible. Pianist and Grammy nominee Andy Milne agreed, without knowing details of the method or hypotheses, to perform a full-length solo improvised concert that would include an ‘unusual’ piece. Jazz fans were recruited through typical advertising for New York City jazz performances. The event was held at the New School’s Glass Box Theater, the home of leading NYC jazz venue ‘The Stone.’ Audience members were charged typical NYC jazz club admission prices; advertisements informed them that anyone who chose to participate in the study would be reimbursed their ticket price after the concert. The concert, held in April 2018, had 30 attendees, 23 of whom participated in the study. Twenty-two minutes into the concert, the performer was handed a paper note with the instruction: ‘Perform a 3-5-minute improvised piece with the intention of conveying sadness.’ (Sadness was chosen based on previous music cognition lab studies, where solo listeners were less likely to select sadness as the musically-expressed emotion accurately from a list of basic emotions, and more likely to misinterpret sadness as tenderness). Then, audience members and the performer were invited to respond to a questionnaire from a first envelope under their seat. Participants used their own words to describe the emotion the performer had intended to express, and then to select the intended emotion from a list. They also reported the emotions they had felt while listening using Izard’s differential emotions scale. The concert then continued as usual. At the end, participants answered demographic questions and Davis’ interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a 28-item scale designed to assess both cognitive and affective empathy. Hypothesis 1 was supported: audience members with greater cognitive empathy were more likely to accurately identify sadness as the expressed emotion. Moreover, audience members who accurately selected ‘sadness’ reported feeling marginally sadder than people who did not select sadness. Hypotheses 2 was not supported; audience members with greater affective empathy were not more likely to feel the same emotions as the performer. If anything, members with lower cognitive perspective-taking ability had marginally greater emotional overlap with the performer, which makes sense given that these participants were less likely to identify the music as sad, which corresponded with the performer’s actual feelings. Results replicate findings from solo lab studies in a concert setting and demonstrate the viability of exploring empathy and collective cognition in improvised live performance.

Keywords: Cognition, emotion, Improvisation, Empathy, Collective Cognition, audience, expressed emotion, felt emotion, live performance, recognized emotion

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2 Choral Singers' Preference for Expressive Priming Techniques

Authors: Shawn Michael Condon

Abstract:

Current research on teaching expressivity mainly involves instrumentalists. This study focuses on choral singers’ preference of priming techniques based on four methods for teaching expressivity. 112 choral singers answered the survey about their preferred methods for priming expressivity (vocal modelling, using metaphor, tapping into felt emotions, and drawing on past experiences) in three conditions (active, passive, and instructor). Analysis revealed higher preference for drawing on past experience among more experienced singers. The most preferred technique in the passive and instructor roles was vocal modelling, with metaphors and tapping into felt emotions favoured in an active role. Priming techniques are often used in combination with other methods to enhance singing technique or expressivity and are dependent upon the situation, repertoire, and the preferences of the instructor and performer.

Keywords: Teaching, Performance, emotion, Singing, expressivity

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1 The Effect of Emotional Stimuli Related to Body Imbalance in Postural Control and the Phenomenological Experience of Young Healthy Adults

Authors: David Martinez-Pernia, Alvaro Rivera-Rei, Alejandro Troncoso, Gonzalo Forno, Andrea Slachevsky, David Huepe, Victoria Silva-Mack, Jorge Calderon, Mayte Vergara, Valentina Carrera

Abstract:

Background: Recent theories in the field of emotions have taken the relevance of motor control beyond a system related to personal autonomy (walking, running, grooming), and integrate it into the emotional dimension. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies that specifically investigate how emotional stimuli related to motor control modify emotional states in terms of postural control and phenomenological experience. Objective: The main aim of this work is to investigate the emotions produced by stimuli of bodily imbalance (neutral, pleasant and unpleasant) in the postural control and the phenomenological experience of young, healthy adults. Methodology: 46 healthy young people are shown emotional videos (neutral, pleasant, motor unpleasant, and non-motor unpleasant) related to the body imbalance. During the period of stimulation of each of the videos (60 seconds) the participant is standing on a force platform to collect temporal and spatial data of postural control. In addition, the electrophysiological activity of the heart and electrodermal activity is recorded. In relation to the two unpleasant conditions (motor versus non-motor), a phenomenological interview is carried out to collect the subjective experience of emotion and body perception. Results: Pleasant and unpleasant emotional videos have significant changes with respect to the neutral condition in terms of greater area, higher mean velocity, and greater mean frequency power on the anterior-posterior axis. The results obtained with respect to the electrodermal response was that the pleasurable and unpleasant conditions produced a significant increase in the phasic component with respect to the neutral condition. Regarding the electrophysiology of the heart, no significant change was found in any condition. Phenomenological experiences in the two unpleasant conditions differ in body perception and the emotional meaning of the experience. Conclusion: Emotional stimuli related to bodily imbalance produce changes in postural control, electrodermal activity, and phenomenological experience. This experimental setting could be relevant to be implemented in people with motor disorders (Parkinson, Stroke, TBI) to know how emotions affect motor control.

Keywords: emotion, postural control, body imbalance stimuli, phenomenological experience

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