Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Emergency Related Abstracts

14 Health Post A Sustainable Prototype for the Third World

Authors: Chizzoniti Domenico, Beggiora Klizia, Cattani Letizia, Moscatelli Monica

Abstract:

This paper concerns the study of sustainable construction materials applied on the "Health Post", a prototype for the primary health care situated in alienated areas of the world. It's suitable for social and climatic Sub-Saharan context; however, it could be moved in other countries of the world with similar urgent needs. The idea is to create a Health Post with local construction materials that have a low environmental impact and promote the local workforce allowing reuse of traditional building techniques lowering production costs and transport. The aim of Primary Health Care Centre is to be a flexible and expandable structure identifying a modular form that can be repeated several times to expand its existing functions. In this way it could be not only a health care centre but also a socio-cultural facility.

Keywords: Emergency, Health Care, low costs building, sustainable construction materials, green construction system, prototype

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13 Impact of a Training Course in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Primary Care Professionals

Authors: Luiz Ernani Meira Jr., Antônio Prates Caldeira, Gilson Gabriel Viana Veloso, Jackson Andrade

Abstract:

Background: In Brazil, primary health care (PHC) system has developed with multidisciplinary teams in facilities located in peripheral areas, as the entrance doors for all patients. So, professionals must be prepared to deal with patients with simple and complex problems. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and the skills of physicians and nurses of PHC on cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before and after training in Basic Life Support. Methods: This is a before-and-after study developed in a Simulation Laboratory in Montes Claros, Brazil. We included physicians and nurses randomly chosen from PHC services. Written tests on CRA and CPR were carried out and performances in a CPR simulation were evaluated, based on the American Heart Association recommendations. Training practices were performed using special manikins. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon’s test to compare before and after scores. Results: Thirty-two professionals were included. Only 38% had previous courses and updates on emergency care. Most of professionals showed poor skills to attend to CRA in a simulated situation. Subjects showed an increased in knowledge and skills about CPR after training (p-value=0.003). Conclusion: Primary health care professionals must be continuously trained to assist urgencies and emergencies, like CRA.

Keywords: Emergency, Cardiorespiratory, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, primary health care, professional training

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12 Assessing Professionalism, Communication, and Collaboration among Emergency Physicians by Implementing a 360-Degree Evaluation

Authors: Ahmed Al Ansari, Khalid Al Khalifa

Abstract:

Objective: Multisource feedback (MSF), also called the 360-Degree evaluation is an evaluation process by which questionnaires are distributed amongst medical peers and colleagues to assess physician performance from different sources other than the attending or the supervising physicians. The aim of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a 360-Degree process in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: The study was undertaken in Bahrain Defense Force Hospital which is a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Thirty emergency physicians (who represent the total population of the emergency physicians in our hospital) were assessed in this study. We developed an instrument modified from the Physician achievement review instrument PAR which was used to assess Physician in Alberta. We focused in our instrument to assess professionalism, communication skills and collaboration only. To achieve face and content validity, table of specification was constructed and a working group was involved in constructing the instrument. Expert opinion was considered as well. The instrument consisted of 39 items; were 15 items to assess professionalism, 13 items to assess communication skills, and 11 items to assess collaboration. Each emergency physicians was evaluated with 3 groups of raters, 4 Medical colleague emergency physicians, 4 medical colleague who are considered referral physicians from different departments, and 4 Coworkers from the emergency department. Independent administrative team was formed to carry on the responsibility of distributing the instruments and collecting them in closed envelopes. Each envelope was consisted of that instrument and a guide for the implementation of the MSF and the purpose of the study. Results: A total of 30 emergency physicians 16 males and 14 females who represent the total number of the emergency physicians in our hospital were assessed. The total collected forms is 269, were 105 surveys from coworkers working in emergency department, 93 surveys from medical colleague emergency physicians, and 116 surveys from referral physicians from different departments. The total mean response rates were 71.2%. The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.967; Bartlett test significant, p<0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into three factors which counted for 72.6% of the total variance: professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the instrument full scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients (Ep2) were 0.71 for the surveys. Conclusions: Based on the present results, the current instruments and procedures have high reliability, validity, and feasibility in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the emergency room.

Keywords: Emergency, Validity, MSF system, generalizability

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11 The Relationship between First-Day Body Temperature and Mortality in Traumatic Patients

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Sama Haghighi, Ali Hashemaghaee

Abstract:

Background: There are many systems and parameters to evaluate trauma patients in the emergency department. Most of these evaluations are to distinguish patients with worse conditions so that the care systems have a better prediction of condition for a better care-giving. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between axillary body temperature and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple traumas and with other clinical and para-clinical factors. Methods: All patients between 16 and 75 years old with multiple traumas who were admitted into Emergency Department then hospitalized in the ICU were included in our study. An axillary temperature in the first and the second day of admission, Glasgow cola scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, Serum glucose levels, and white blood cell counts of all patients at the admission day were recorded and their relationship with mortality were analyzed by SPSS software with suitable statistical tests. Results: Axillary body temperatures in the first and second day were statistically lower in expired traumatic patients (p=0.001 and p<0,001 respectively). Patients with lower GCS had a significantly lower first-day temperature and a significantly higher mortality. (p=0.006 and p=0.006 respectively). Furthermore, the first-day axillary temperature was significantly lower in patients with a lower first-day systolic blood pressure (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results showed that lower axillary body temperature in the first day is associated with higher mortality, lower GCS, and lower systolic blood pressure. Thus, this could be used as a predictor of mortality in evaluation of traumatic patients in emergency settings.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency, Mortality, fever

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10 Procalcitonin and Other Biomarkers in Sepsis Patients: A Prospective Study

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Arvin Najafi

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Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MRproANP), procalcitonin (PCT), proendothelin-1 (proET-1) levels with sepsis severity in Emergency ward patients. Materials and Methods: We assessed the predictive value of MRproANP, PCT, copeptin, and proET-1 in early sepsis among patients referring to the emergency ward with a suspected sepsis. Results-132 patients were enrolled in this study. 45 (34%) patients had a final diagnosis of sepsis. A higher percentage of patients with definite sepsis had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at initial visit in comparison with no-sepsis patients (P<0.05) and were admitted to the hospital (P<0.05). PCT levels were higher in sepsis patients [P<0.05]. There was no significant differences for MRproANP or proET-1 in sepsis patients (P=0.47). Conclusion: A combination of SIRS criteria and PCT levels is beneficial for the early sepsis diagnosis in emergency ward patients with a suspicious infection disease.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Emergency, sepsis, prolactin

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9 Psychiatric Risk Assessment in the Emergency Department: The Impact of NEAT on the Management of Mental Health Patients

Authors: Euan Donley

Abstract:

Emergency Departments (EDs) are heavily burdened as presentation rates continue to rise. To improve patient flow National Emergency Access Targets (NEAT) were introduced. NEAT implements timelines for ED presentations, such as discharging patients within four hours of arrival. Mental health patients use EDs more than the general population and are generally more complex in their presentations. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of NEAT on psychiatric risk assessment of mental health patients in the ED. Seventy-eight mental health clinicians from 7 Victoria, Australia, hospital EDs participated in a mixed method analysis via anonymous online survey. NEAT was considered helpful as mental health patients were seen quicker, were less likely to abscond, could improve teamwork amongst ED staff, and in some cases administrative processes were better streamlined. However, clinicians felt that NEAT was also responsible for less time with patients and relatives’, resulted in rushed assessments, placed undue pressure on mental health clinicians, was not conducive to training, and the emphasis on time was the wrong focus for patient treatment. The profile of a patient typically likely to be treated within NEAT timelines showed a perfect storm of luck and compliance. If a patient was sober, medically stable, referred early, did not require much collateral information and did not have distressed relatives, NEAT was more likely to be met. Organisationally participants reported no organisational change or training to meet NEAT. Poor mental health staffing, multiple ED presentations and a shortage of mental health beds also hamper meeting NEAT. Findings suggest participants were supportive of NEAT in principle, but a demanding workload and organisational barriers meant NEAT had an overall negative effect on psychiatric risk assessment of mental health patients in ED.

Keywords: Emergency, Risk, Assessment, Psychiatric

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8 Implementation of the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) in an Urgent Care Center in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdullah Arafat, Ali Al-Farhan, Amir Omair

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Objectives: To review and assess the effectiveness of the implemented modified five-levels triage and acuity scale triage system in AL-Yarmook Urgent Care Center (UCC), King Abdulaziz Residential city, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: The applied study design was an observational cross sectional design. A data collection sheet was designed and distributed to triage nurses; the data collection was done during triage process and was directly observed by the co-investigator. Triage system was reviewed by measuring three time intervals as quality indicators: time before triage (TBT), time before being seen by physician (TBP) and total length of stay (TLS) taking in consideration timing of presentation and level of triage. Results: During the study period, a total of 187 patients were included in our study. 118 visits were at weekdays and 68 visits at weekends. Overall, 173 patients (92.5%) were seen by the physician in timely manner according to triage guidelines while 14 patients (7.5%) were not seen at appropriate time.Overall, The mean time before seen the triage nurse (TBT) was 5.36 minutes, the mean time to be seen by physician (TBP) was 22.6 minutes and the mean length of stay (TLS) was 59 minutes. The data didn’t showed significant increase in TBT, TBP, and number of patients not seen at the proper time, referral rate and admission rate during weekend. Conclusion: The CTAS is adaptable to countries beyond Canada and worked properly. The applied CTAS triage system in Al-Yarmook UCC is considered to be effective and well applied. Overall, urgent cases have been seen by physician in timely manner according to triage system and there was no delay in the management of urgent cases.

Keywords: Emergency, Urgent Care, Saudi Arabia, CTAS, triage

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7 Patient Tracking Challenges During Disasters and Emergencies

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli, Mahmoud Keyvanara

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges in disaster and emergencies is patient tracking. The concept of tracking has different denotations. One of the meanings refers to tracking patients’ physical locations and the other meaning refers to tracking patients ‘medical needs during emergency services. The main goal of patient tracking is to provide patient safety during disaster and emergencies and manage the flow of patient and information in different locations. In most of cases, there are not sufficient and accurate data regarding the number of injuries, medical conditions and their accommodation and transference. The objective of the present study is to survey on patient tracking issue in natural disaster and emergencies. Methods: This was a narrative study in which the population was E-Journals and the electronic database such as PubMed, Proquest, Science direct, Elsevier, etc. Data was gathered by Extraction Form. All data were analyzed via content analysis. Results: In many countries there is no appropriate and rapid method for tracking patients and transferring victims after the occurrence of incidents. The absence of reliable data of patients’ transference and accommodation, even in the initial hours and days after the occurrence of disasters, and coordination for appropriate resource allocation, have faced challenges for evaluating needs and services challenges. Currently, most of emergency services are based on paper systems, while these systems do not act appropriately in great disasters and incidents and this issue causes information loss. Conclusion: Patient tracking system should update the location of patients or evacuees and information related to their states. Patients’ information should be accessible for authorized users to continue their treatment, accommodation and transference. Also it should include timely information of patients’ location as soon as they arrive somewhere and leave therein such a way that health care professionals can be able to provide patients’ proper medical treatment.

Keywords: Challenges, Emergency, Disaster, patient tracking

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6 A 20 Year Comparison of Australian Childhood Bicycle Injuries – Have We Made a Difference?

Authors: Bronwyn Griffin, Caroline Acton, Tona Gillen, Roy Kimble

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Background: Bicycle riding is a common recreational activity enjoyed by many children throughout Australia that has been associated with the usual caveat of benefits related to exercise and recreation. Given Australia was the first country in the world to introduce cyclist helmet laws in 1991, very few publications have reviewed paediatric cycling injuries (fatal or non-fatal) since. Objectives: To identify trends in children (0-16 years) who required admission for greater than 24 hours following a bicycle-related injury (fatal and non-fatal) in Queensland. Further, to discuss changes that have occurred in paediatric cycling injury trends in Queensland since a prominent local study/publication in 1995. This paper aims to establish evidence to inform interventions promoting safer riding to parents, children and communities. Methods: Data on paediatric (0-16 years) cycling injuries in Queensland resulting in hospital admission more than 24 hours across three tertiary paediatric hospitals in Brisbane between November 2008-June 2015 was compiled by the Paediatric Trauma Data Registry for non-fatal injuries. The Child Death Review Team at the Queensland Families and Childhood Commission provided data on fatalities in children <17years from (June 2004 –June 2015). Comparing trends to a local study published in 1995 Results: Between 2008-2015 there were 197 patients admitted for greater than 24 hours following a cycling injury. The median age was 11 years, with males more frequently involved (n=139, 87%) compared to females. Mean length of stay was three days, with 47 (28%) children admitted to PICU, location of injury was most often the street (n=63, 37%). Between 2004 –2015 there were 15 fatalities (Incidence rate 0.25/100,000); all were male, 14/15 occurred on the street, with eight stated to have not been wearing a helmet, 11/15 children came from the least advantaged socio-economic group (SEIFA) compared to a local publication in 1995, finding of 94 fatalities between (1981-1992). Conclusions: There has been a notable decrease in incidence of fatalities between the two time periods with incidence rates dropping from 1.75-0.25/100,000. More statistics need to be run to ascertain if this is a true reduction or perhaps a decrease in children riding bicycles. Injuries that occur on the street that come in contact with a car remain of serious concern. The purpose of this paper is not to discourage bicycle riding among child and adolescent populations, rather, inform parents and the wider community about the risks associated with cycling in order to reduce injuries associated with this sport, whilst promoting safe cycling.

Keywords: Trauma, Prevention, Emergency, Cycling, paediatric

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5 Improving Rural Access to Specialist Emergency Mental Health Care: Using a Time and Motion Study in the Evaluation of a Telepsychiatry Program

Authors: Emily Saurman, David Lyle

Abstract:

In Australia, a well serviced rural town might have a psychiatrist visit once-a-month with more frequent visits from a psychiatric nurse, but many have no resident access to mental health specialists. Access to specialist care, would not only reduce patient distress and benefit outcomes, but facilitate the effective use of limited resources. The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) was developed to improve access to specialist emergency mental health care in rural and remote communities using telehealth technologies. However, there has been no current benchmark to gauge program efficiency or capacity; to determine whether the program activity is justifiably sufficient. The evaluation of MHEC-RAP used multiple methods and applied a modified theory of access to assess the program and its aim of improved access to emergency mental health care. This was the first evaluation of a telepsychiatry service to include a time and motion study design examining program time expenditure, efficiency, and capacity. The time and motion study analysis was combined with an observational study of the program structure and function to assess the balance between program responsiveness and efficiency. Previous program studies have demonstrated that MHEC-RAP has improved access and is used and effective. The findings from the time and motion study suggest that MHEC-RAP has the capacity to manage increased activity within the current model structure without loss to responsiveness or efficiency in the provision of care. Enhancing program responsiveness and efficiency will also support a claim of the program’s value for money. MHEC-RAP is a practical telehealth solution for improving access to specialist emergency mental health care. The findings from this evaluation have already attracted the attention of other regions in Australia interested in implementing emergency telepsychiatry programs and are now informing the progressive establishment of mental health resource centres in rural New South Wales. Like MHEC-RAP, these centres will provide rapid, safe, and contextually relevant assessments and advice to support local health professionals to manage mental health emergencies in the smaller rural emergency departments. Sharing the application of this methodology and research activity may help to improve access to and future evaluations of telehealth and telepsychiatry services for others around the globe.

Keywords: Emergency, Rural, Mental Health, Access, time and motion

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4 Characteristics of Acute Bacterial Prostatitis in Elderly Patients Attended in the Emergency Department

Authors: Carles Ferré, Ferran Llopis, Javier Jacob, Jordi Giol, Xavier Palom, Ignasi Bardés

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Objective: To analyze the characteristics of acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) in elderly patients attended in the emergency department (ED). Methods: Observational and cohort study with prospective follow-up including patients with ABP presenting to the ED from January-December 2012. Data were collected for demographic variables, comorbidities, clinical and microbiological findings, treatment, outcome, and reconsultation at 30 days follow up. Findings were compared between patients ≥ 75 years (study group) and < 75 years (control group). Results: During the study period 241 episodes of ABP were included for analysis. Mean age was 62,9 ± 16 years, and 64 (26.5%) were ≥ 75 years old. A history of prostate adenoma was reported in 54 cases (22,4%), diabetes mellitus in 47 patients (19,5%) and prior manipulation of the lower urinary tract in 40 (17%). Mean symptoms duration was 3.38 ± 4.04 days, voiding symptoms were present in 176 cases (73%) and fever in 154 (64%). From 216 urine cultures, 128 were positive (59%) and 24 (17,6%) out of 136 blood cultures. Escherichia coli was the main pathogen in 58.6% of urine cultures and 64% of blood cultures (with resistant strains to fluoroquinolones in 27,7%, cotrimoxazole in 22,9% and amoxicillin/clavulanic in 27.7% of cases). Seventy patients (29%) were admitted to the hospital, and 3 died. At 30-day follow-up, 29 patients (12%) returned to the ED. In the bivariate analysis previous manipulation of the urinary tract, history of cancer, previous antibiotic treatment, resistant E. coli strains to amoxicillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, renal impairment, and admission to the hospital were significantly more frequent (p < 0.05) among patients ≥ 75 years compared to those younger than 75 years. Conclusions: Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate appear not to be good options for the empiric treatment of ABP for patients ≥ 75 years given the drug-resistance pattern in our series, and the proportion of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli should be taken into account. Awaiting bacteria identification and antibiogram from urine and/or blood cultures, treatment on an inpatient basis should be considered in older patients with ABP.

Keywords: Emergency, Antibiotic Resistance, elderly patients, acute bacterial prostatitits

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3 A Bicycle Based Model of Prehospital Care Implanted in Northeast of the Brazil: Initial Experience

Authors: Odaleia de O. Farias, Suzelene C. Marinho, Ecleidson B. Fragoso, Daniel S. Lima, Francisco R. S. Lira, Lara S. Araújo, Gabriel dos S. D. Soares

Abstract:

In populous cities, prehospital care services that use vehicles alternative to ambulances are needed in order to reduce costs and improve response time to occurrences in areas with large concentration of people, such as leisure and tourism spaces. In this context, it was implanted a program called BIKE VIDA, that is innovative quick access and assistance program. The aim of this study is to describe the implantation and initial profile of occurrences performed by an urgency/emergency pre-hospital care service through paramedics on bicycles. It is a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out in the city of Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. The data included service records from July to August 2017. Ethical aspects were respected. The service covers a perimeter of 4.5 km, divided into three areas with perimeter of 1.5 km for each paramedic, attending from 5 am to 9 pm. Materials transported by bicycles include External Automated Defibrillator - DEA, portable oxygen, oximeter, cervical collar, stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, dressing and immobilization materials and personal protective equipment. Occurrences are requested directly by calling the emergency number 192 or through direct approach to the professional. In the first month of the program, there were 93 emergencies/urgencies, mainly in the daytime period (71,0%), in males (59,7%), in the age range of 26 to 45 years (46,2%). The main nature was traumatic incidents (53.3%). Most of the cases (88,2%) did not require ambulance transport to the hospital, and there were two deaths. Pre-hospital service through bicycles is an innovative strategy in Brazil and has shown to be promising in terms of reducing costs and improving the quality of the services offered.

Keywords: Emergency, Response Time, urgency, prehospital care

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2 Assessing Suitability of Earthbag Technology for Temporary Housing: Sustainability Challenge

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Albert de la Fuente, Ana Blanco, Sergio Cavalaro

Abstract:

In emergency situations, it is fundamental to provide with a safe shelter to the population affected. However, the lack of resources and short time often represent a barrier difficult to overcome. A sustainable, rapid and low-cost construction technique is earthbag construction. This technique has spread as an alternative to the construction of emergency shelter, social housing, and even ecovillages. The earthbag construction consists of introducing soil in degradable bags that are stacked to form adobe structures. The present study aims to assess characteristics of the earthbag construction technique based on sustainability requirements and features of other methods used for temporary housing. In this case, after defining the sustainability criteria and emergency situation necessities, this study compares earthbag construction with other types of prefabricated temporary housing. Finally, the most suitable conditions for applying this technique based on the particular local properties and second life scenarios of superadobe temporary housing. The results of the study contribute to promote the earthbag and superadobe techniques as sustainable alternatives for temporary housing. However, the sustainability index of this technology highly depends on affected local conditions and characteristics. Consequently, in order to achieve a high sustainability index, emergency managers need to decide about this technology based on the highlighted results of this study, attention to the importance of specific local conditions and next functions of temporary housing.

Keywords: Emergency, Sustainability, temporary housing, temporary shelter, earthbag, superadobe

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1 Evaluation of Patients' Satisfaction Aspects in Governmental Egyptian Emergency Departments

Authors: N. Rashed, Z. Aysha, M. Fakher

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Patient satisfaction is one of the core objectives of health care facilities. It is difficult to evaluate patients response in the emergency setting. The current study aimed to evaluate patients and family aspects of satisfaction in both adult and pediatric emergency departments and their recommendations for improvement. Cross-section survey(Brief Emergency department Patient Satisfaction Scale (BEPSS), was translated and validated, then performed to evaluate patients satisfaction in two governmental hospitals Emergency departments. Three hundred patients and their families were enrolled in the study. The waiting time in the adult Emergency department ranged from (5 minutes to 120 minutes), and most admissions were at the morning shift while at the pediatric hospital the waiting time ranged from 5 minutes to 100 minutes) and most admissions were at the afternoon shift. The results showed that the main domain of satisfaction in BEPSS in the adult emergency department was respecting the patients family while in the pediatric emergency department, the main domain was the nursing care about treatment. The main recommendation of improvement in pediatric Emergency Department was modifying the procedures while in adult Emergency Department was improving the training of physicians.

Keywords: Emergency, department-patient, satisfaction-adult-pediatric

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