Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Emergency Medicine Related Abstracts

11 Improving the Emergency Medicine Teaching from the Perspective of Faculty Training

Authors: Qin-Min Ge, Shu-Ming Pan

Abstract:

Emergency clinicians usually get teaching qualification after graduating from medical universities without special faculty training in China mainland. Emergency departments are overcrowded places, with large numbers of patients suffering undifferentiated illness. In the field of emergency medicine (EM), improving the faculty competencies and developing the teaching skills are important for medical education, they could enhance learners outcomes and hence affect the patients prognosis indirectly. This article highlights the necessities of faculty training in EM, illustrates the qualities a good clinical educator should qualify, advances the skills as educators in an academic setting and discusses the ways to be good clinical teachers.

Keywords: Teaching, Emergency Medicine, Competence, emergency education, faculty training

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10 Outcome of Emergency Response Team System in In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Jirapat Suriyachaisawat, Ekkit Surakarn

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve early detection and mortality rate of In- Hospital Cardiac arrest, Emergency Response Team (ERT) system was planned and implemented since June 2009 to detect pre-arrest conditions and for any concerns. The ERT consisted of on duty physicians and nurses from emergency department. ERT calling criteria consisted of acute change of HR < 40 or > 130 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure < 90mmHg, respiratory rate <8 or > 28 breaths per minute, O2 saturation < 90%, acute change in conscious state, acute chest pain or worried about the patients. From the data on ERT system implementation in our hospital in early phase (during June 2009-2011), there was no statistic significance in difference in In-Hospital cardiac arrest incidence and overall hospital mortality rate. Since the introduction of the ERT service in our hospital, we have conducted continuous educational campaign to improve awareness in an attempt to increase use of the service. Methods: To investigate outcome of ERT system in In-Hospital cardiac arrest and overall hospital mortality rate. We conducted a prospective, controlled before-and after examination of the long term effect of a ERT system on the incidence of cardiac arrest. We performed Chi -square analysis to find statistic significance. Results: Of a total 623 ERT cases from June 2009 until December 2012, there were 72 calls in 2009, 196 calls in 2010 ,139 calls in 2011 and 245 calls in 2012.The number of ERT calls per 1000 admissions in year 2009-10 was 7.69, 5.61 in 2011 and 9.38 in 2013. The number of Code blue calls per 1000 admissions decreased significantly from 2.28 to 0.99 per 1000 admissions (P value < 0.001). The incidence of cardiac arrest decreased progressively from 1.19 to 0.34 per 1000 admissions and significant in difference in year 2012 (P value < 0.001). The overall hospital mortality rate decreased by 8 % from 15.43 to 14.43 per 1000 admissions (P value 0.095). Conclusions: ERT system implementation was associated with progressive reduction in cardiac arrests over three year period, especially statistic significant in difference in 4th year after implementation. We also found an inverse association between number of ERT use and the risk of occurrence of cardiac arrests, But we have not found difference in overall hospital mortality rate.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Cardiac Arrest, emergency response team, ERT

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9 Autopsy-Based Study of Abdominal Traffic Trauma Death after Emergency Room Arrival

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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We experience the autopsy cases that the deceased was alive in emergency room on arrival. Bleeding is the leading cause of preventable death after injury. This retrospective study aimed to characterize opportunities for performance improvement identified in patients who died from traffic trauma and were considered by the quality improvement of education system. The Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) education program was introduced in 2002. We focused the abdominal traffic trauma injury. An autopsy-based cross-sectional study conducted. A purposive sampling technique was applied to select the study sample of 41 post-mortems of road traffic accident between April 1999 and March 2014 subjected to medico-legal autopsy at the department of Forensic Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science. 16 patients (39.0%) were abdominal trauma injury. The mean period of survival after meet with accident was 13.5 hours, compared abdominal trauma death was 27.4 hours longer. In road traffic accidents, the most injured abdominal organs were liver followed by mesentery. We thought delayed treatment was associated with immediate diagnostic imaging, and so expected to expand trauma management examination.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Autopsy, abdominal traffic trauma, preventable death

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8 The Use of Emergency Coronary Angiography in Patients Following Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Subsequent Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan

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Objectives: 1) To identify if emergency coronary angiography improves outcomes in studies examining OHCA from assumed cardiac aetiology? 2) If so, is it indicated in all patients resuscitated following OHCA, and if not, who is it indicated for? 3) How effective are investigations for screening for the appropriate patients? Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is one of the leading mechanisms of death, and the most common causative pathology is coronary artery disease. In-hospital treatment following resuscitation greatly affects outcomes, yet there is debate over the most effective protocol. Methods: A literature search was conducted over multiple databases to identify all relevant articles published from 2005. An inclusion criterion was applied to all publications retrieved, which were then sorted by type. Results: A total of 3 existing reviews and 29 clinical studies were analysed in this review. There were conflicting conclusions, however increased use of angiography has shown to improve outcomes in the majority of studies, which cover a variety of settings and cohorts. Recommendations: Currently, emergency coronary angiography appears to improve outcomes in all/most cases of OHCA of assumed cardiac aetiology, regardless of ECG findings. Until a better tool for screening is available to reduce unnecessary procedures, the benefits appear to outweigh the costs/risks.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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7 Patient Outcomes Following Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Authors: Scott Ashby, Emily Granger, Mark Connellan

Abstract:

Background: In-hospital management of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) is complex as the aetiologies are varied. Acute coronary angiography has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with coronary occlusion as the cause; however, these patients are difficult to identify. ECG results may help identify these patients, but the accuracy of this diagnostic test is under debate, and requires further investigation. Methods: Arrest and hospital management information was collated retrospectively for OHCA patients who presented to a single clinical site between 2009 and 2013. Angiography results were then collected and checked for significance with survival to discharge. The presence of a severe lesion (>70%) was then compared to categorised ECG findings, and the accuracy of the test was calculated. Results: 104 patients were included in this study, 44 survived to discharge, 52 died and 8 were transferred to other clinical sites. Angiography appears to significantly correlate with survival to discharge. ECG showed 54.8% sensitivity for detecting the presence of a severe lesion within the group that received angiography. A combined criterion including any ECG pathology showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, however, a low specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusion: In the cohort investigated, ST elevation on ECG is not a sensitive enough screening test to be used to determine whether OHCA patients have coronary stenosis as the likely cause of their arrest, and more investigation into whether screening with a combined ECG criterion, or whether all patients should receive angiography routinely following OHCA is needed.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Resuscitation, out of hospital cardiac arrest, coronary angiography

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6 Reducing System Delay to Definitive Care For STEMI Patients, a Simulation of Two Different Strategies in the Brugge Area, Belgium

Authors: E. Steen, B. Dewulf, N. Müller, C. Vandycke, Y. Vandekerckhove

Abstract:

Introduction: The care for a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient is time-critical. Reperfusion therapy within 90 minutes of initial medical contact is mandatory in the improvement of the outcome. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without previous fibrinolytic treatment, is the preferred reperfusion strategy in patients with STEMI, provided it can be performed within guideline-mandated times. Aim of the study: During a one year period (January 2013 to December 2013) the files of all consecutive STEMI patients with urgent referral from non-PCI facilities for primary PCI were reviewed. Special attention was given to a subgroup of patients with prior out-of-hospital medical contact generated by the 112-system. In an effort to reduce out-of-hospital system delay to definitive care a change in pre-hospital 112 dispatch strategies is proposed for these time-critical patients. Actual time recordings were compared with travel time simulations for two suggested scenarios. A first scenario (SC1) involves the decision by the on scene ground EMS (GEMS) team to transport the out-of-hospital diagnosed STEMI patient straight forward to a PCI centre bypassing the nearest non-PCI hospital. Another strategy (SC2) explored the potential role of helicopter EMS (HEMS) where the on scene GEMS team requests a PCI-centre based HEMS team for immediate medical transfer to the PCI centre. Methods and Results: 49 (29,1% of all) STEMI patients were referred to our hospital for emergency PCI by a non-PCI facility. 1 file was excluded because of insufficient data collection. Within this analysed group of 48 secondary referrals 21 patients had an out-of-hospital medical contact generated by the 112-system. The other 27 patients presented at the referring emergency department without prior contact with the 112-system. The table below shows the actual time data from first medical contact to definitive care as well as the simulated possible gain of time for both suggested strategies. The PCI-team was always alarmed upon departure from the referring centre excluding further in-hospital delay. Time simulation tools were similar to those used by the 112-dispatch centre. Conclusion: Our data analysis confirms prolonged reperfusion times in case of secondary emergency referrals for STEMI patients even with the use of HEMS. In our setting there was no statistical difference in gain of time between the two suggested strategies, both reducing the secondary referral generated delay with about one hour and by this offering all patients PCI within the guidelines mandated time. However, immediate HEMS activation by the on scene ground EMS team for transport purposes is preferred. This ensures a faster availability of the local GEMS-team for its community. In case these options are not available and the guideline-mandated times for primary PCI are expected to be exceeded, primary fibrinolysis should be considered in a non-PCI centre.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, STEMI, system delay, HEMS

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5 The Efficacy of Pre-Hospital Packed Red Blood Cells in the Treatment of Severe Trauma: A Retrospective, Matched, Cohort Study

Authors: Ryan Adams

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Introduction: Major trauma is the leading cause of death in 15-45 year olds and a significant human, social and economic costs. Resuscitation is a stalwart of trauma management, especially in the pre-hospital environment and packed red blood cells (pRBC) are being increasingly used with the advent of permissive hypotension. The evidence in this area is lacking and further research is required to determine its efficacy. Aim: The aim of this retrospective, matched cohort study was to determine if major trauma patients, who received pre-hospital pRBC, have a difference in their initial emergency department cardiovascular status; when compared with injury-profile matched controls. Methods: The trauma databases of the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Royal Children's Hospital (Herston) and Queensland Ambulance Service were accessed and major trauma patient (ISS>12) data, who received pre-hospital pRBC, from January 2011 to August 2014 was collected. Patients were then matched against control patients that had not received pRBC, by their injury profile. The primary outcomes was cardiovascular status; defined as shock index and Revised Trauma Score. Results: Data for 25 patients who received pre-hospital pRBC was accessed and the injury profiles matched against suitable controls. On admittance to the emergency department, a statistically significant difference was seen in the blood group (Blood = 1.42 and Control = 0.97, p-value = 0.0449). However, the same was not seen with the RTS (Blood = 4.15 and Control 5.56, p-value = 0.291). Discussion: A worsening shock index and revised trauma score was associated with pre-hospital administration of pRBC. However, due to the small sample size, limited matching protocol and associated confounding factors it is difficult to draw any solid conclusions. Further studies, with larger patient numbers, are required to enable adequate conclusions to be drawn on the efficacy of pre-hospital packed red blood cell transfusion.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Pre-hospital, packed red blood cells, severe trauma

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4 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Medicine, Electrolyte, Maintenance, Fluid, Emergency Department, Major trauma, intravenous, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluid therapy

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3 Case Report of Left Atrial Myxoma Diagnosed by Bedside Echocardiography

Authors: Anthony S. Machi, Joseph Minardi

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We present a case report of left atrial myxoma diagnosed by bedside transesophageal (TEE) ultrasound. Left atrial myxoma is the most common benign cardiac tumor and can obstruct blood flow and cause valvular insufficiency. Common symptoms consist of dyspnea, pulmonary edema and other features of left heart failure in addition to thrombus release in the form of tumor fragments. The availability of bedside ultrasound equipment is essential for the quick diagnosis and treatment of various emergency conditions including cardiac neoplasms. A 48-year-old Caucasian female with a four-year history of an untreated renal mass and anemia presented to the ED with two months of sharp, intermittent, bilateral flank pain radiating into the abdomen. She also reported intermittent vomiting and constipation along with generalized body aches, night sweats, and 100-pound weight loss over last year. She had a CT in 2013 showing a 3 cm left renal mass and a second CT in April 2016 showing a 3.8 cm left renal mass along with a past medical history of diverticulosis, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea on exertion, uncontrolled hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Her maternal family history is positive for breast cancer, hypertension, and Type II Diabetes. Her paternal family history is positive for stroke. She was a current everyday smoker with an 11 pack/year history. Alcohol and drug use were denied. Physical exam was notable for a Grade II/IV systolic murmur at the right upper sternal border, dyspnea on exertion without angina, and a tender left lower quadrant. Her vitals and labs were notable for a blood pressure of 144/96, heart rate of 96 beats per minute, pulse oximetry of 96%, hemoglobin of 7.6 g/dL, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and multiple other abnormalities. Physicians ordered a CT to evaluate her flank pain which revealed a 7.2 x 8.9 x 10.5 cm mixed cystic/solid mass in the lower pole of the left kidney and a filling defect in the left atrium. Bedside TEE was ordered to follow up on the filling defect. TEE reported an ejection fraction of 60-65% and visualized a mobile 6 x 3 cm mass in the left atrium attached to the interatrial septum extending into the mitral valve. Cardiothoracic Surgery and Urology were consulted and confirmed a diagnosis of left atrial myxoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The patient returned a week later due to worsening nausea and vomiting and underwent emergent nephrectomy, lymph node dissection, and colostomy due to a necrotic colon. Her condition declined over the next four months due to lung and brain metastases, infections, and other complications until she passed away.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Echocardiography, bedside ultrasound, left atrial myxoma

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2 Epidemiology of Private Prehospital Calls over the Last Decade in South Africa

Authors: Rhodine Hickman, Craig Wylie, Michael G. McCaul

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Introduction: The World Health Organisation has called on governments around the world to recognise emergency conditions as a global public health problem and respond with appropriate steps for effective preventative strategies. However, to understand the magnitude of the problem, good quality epidemiological data is required. This is especially challenging in low and middle-income countries, where routine data is scarce, specifically within the prehospital setting. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of a national prehospital private sector EMS database. The database being the property of ER24 (private Emergency Medical Services (EMS) company in South Africa) contains claims submitted by the majority of ambulance services in South Africa during the period between 1 January 2008 to 28 March 2017. We used descriptive statistics and control charts to describe the data using STATA 14. Results: 299,257 calls were included in the analysis. The top clinical conditions requiring ambulance transport were transport accidents (10% of total call volume) and ischaemic heart disease (4.4%). The number of transport accidents consistently increased between 2009 and 2014 and reached beyond the limit for normal variation in 2015. Victims of transport accidents required basic life support services 60% of the time with 80% of injuries being minor to moderate. The frequency of ischaemic heart disease had a steady incline from 2011 to 2016. Advanced life support services were required about 50% of the time, with 60% of patients needing urgent care. Conclusion: Transport accidents, followed by ischaemic heart disease, are the most prevalent conditions in South African private EMS. There is a potential to address these conditions by developing the capacity of low and mid-level providers in trauma and advanced EMS providers in ischaemic heart disease.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, emergency care, South Africa, prehospital providers

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1 Improving Healthcare Readiness to Respond to Human Trafficking: A Case Study

Authors: Traci A. Hefner

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Limited research exists on the readiness of emergency departments to respond to human trafficking (HT). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to improve the readiness of a Department of Emergency Medicine (ED), located in the southeast region of the United States, in identifying, assessing, and responding to trafficked individuals. The research objectives were to 1) provide an organizing framework to understand the ED’s readiness to respond to HT, using the Transtheoretical Model’s stages of change construct, 2) explain the readiness of the ED through a three-pronged contextual approach that included policies and procedures, patient data collection processes, and clinical practice methods, and 3) develop recommendations to respond to HT. Content analysis was used for document reviews and on-site observations, while thematic analysis identified themes of staff perceptions of the ED’s readiness in interviews of over 30 clinical and non-clinical healthcare professionals. Results demonstrated low levels of readiness to identify HT through the ED’s policies and procedures, data collection processes, and clinical practice methods. Clinical practice-related factors consisted of limited awareness of HT warning signs and low-levels of knowledge about community resources for possible HT referrals. Policy and practice recommendations to increase the ED’s readiness to respond to HT included: developing staff trainings across the ED system to enhance awareness of HT warning signs, incorporating HT into current policies and procedures for vulnerable patient populations as well as creating a HT protocol that addresses policies and procedures, screening tools, and community referrals.

Keywords: Emergency Medicine, Human trafficking, stages of change, organizational assessment

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