Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Emergency Department Related Abstracts

31 Randomized Controlled Study of the Antipyretic Efficacy of Oral Paracetamol, Intravenous Paracetamol, and Intramuscular Diclofenac

Authors: Firjeeth C. Paramba, Vamanjore A. Naushad, Nishan K. Purayil, Osama H. Mohammed, Prem Chandra

Abstract:

Background: Fever is a common problem in adults visiting the emergency department. Extensive studies have been done in children comparing the efficacy of various antipyretics. However, studies on the efficacy of antipyretic drugs in adults are very scarce. To the best of our knowledge, no controlled trial has been carried out comparing the antipyretic efficacy of paracetamol (oral and intravenous) and intramuscular diclofenac in adults. Methods: In this parallel-group, open-label trial, participants aged 14–75 years presenting with fever who had a temperature of more than 38.5°C were enrolled and treated. Participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with 1,000 mg oral paracetamol (n=145), 1,000 mg intravenous paracetamol (n=139), or 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac (n=150). The primary outcome was degree of reduction in mean oral temperature at 90 minutes. The efficacy of diclofenac versus oral and intravenous paracetamol was assessed by superiority comparison. Analysis was done using intention to treat principles. Results: After 90 minutes, all three groups showed a significant reduction in mean temperature, with intramuscular diclofenac showing the greatest reduction (−1.44 ± 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.4 to −2.5) and oral paracetamol the least (−1.08 ± 0.51, 95% CI −0.99 to −2.2). After 120 minutes, there was a significant difference observed in the mean change from baseline temperature between the three treatment groups (P, 0.0001). Significant changes in temperature were observed in favor of intramuscular diclofenac over oral and intravenous paracetamol at each time point from 60 minutes through 120 minutes inclusive. Conclusion: Both intramuscular diclofenac and intravenous paracetamol showed superior antipyretic activity than oral paracetamol. However, in view of its ease of administration, intramuscular diclofenac can be used as a first-choice antipyretic in febrile adults in the emergency department.

Keywords: Emergency Department, antipyretic, intramuscular, intravenous, paracetamol, diclofenac

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30 Analysis of Strategies to Reduce Patients’ Disposition Holding Time from Emergency Department to Ward

Authors: Kamonwat Suksumek, Seeronk Prichanont

Abstract:

Access block refers to the situation where Emergency Department (ED) patients requiring hospital admission spend an unreasonable holding time in an ED because their access to a ward is blocked by the full utilization of the ward’s beds. Not only it delays the proper treatments required by the patients, but access block is also the cause of ED’s overcrowding. Clearly, access block is an inter-departmental problem that needs to be brought to management’s attention. This paper focuses on the analysis of strategies to address the access block problem, both in the operational and intermediate levels. These strategies were analyzed through a simulation model with a real data set from a university hospital in Thailand. The paper suggests suitable variable levels for each strategy so that the management will make the final decisions.

Keywords: Simulation, Emergency Department, access block, health system analysis

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29 Waiting Time Reduction in a Government Hospital Emergency Department: A Case Study on AlAdan Hospital, Kuwait

Authors: Bashayer AlRobayaan, Munira Saad, Alaa AlBawab, Fatma AlHamad, Sara AlAwadhi, Sherif Fahmy

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of long waiting times in government hospitals emergency departments (ED). It aims at finding feasible and simple ways of reducing waiting times that do not require a lot of resources and/or expenses. AlAdan Hospital in Kuwait was chosen to be understudy to further understand and capture the problem.

Keywords: Healthcare, hospital, Emergency Department, Kuwait, waiting times

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28 Investigation of Chronic Drug Use Due to Chronic Diseases in Patients Admitted to Emergency Department

Authors: Behcet Al, Mehmet Murat Oktay, Suat Zengin, Cuma Yildirim, Şener Cindoruk, Mehmet Mustafa Sunar, Hatice Eroglu

Abstract:

Objective: In present study we aimed to investigate the chronic drug use due to chronic diseases in patients admitted to emergency department. Materials-Methods: 144 patients who applied to emergency department (ED) of medicine school of Gaziantep University between June 2013 and September 2013 with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs were included. Information about drugs used by patients were recorded. Results: Of patients, half were male, half were female, and the mean age was 58 years. The first three common diseases were diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery diseases. Of patients, %79.2 knew their illness. Fifty patients began to use drug within three months, 36 patient began to use within the last one year. While 42 patients brought all of their drugs with themselves, 17 patients brought along a portion of drugs. While three patients stopped their medication completely, 125 patients received medication on a regular basis. Fifty-two patient described the drugs with names, 13 patients described with their colors, 3 patients described by grammes, 45 patients described with the size of the tablet and 13 patients could not describe the drugs. Ninety-two patients explained which kind of drugs were used for each diseases, 17 patient explained partly, and 35 patients had no idea. Hundred patients received medication by themselves, 44 patients medications were giving by their relatives and med carers. Of medications, 140 were written by doctors directly, three medication were given by pharmacist; and one patient bought the drug by himself. For 11 patients the drugs were not harmonious to their diseases. Fifty-one patients admitted to the ED two times within last week, and 73 admitted two times within last month. Conclusion: The majority of patients with chronic diseases and use chronic drugs know their diseases and use the drugs in order, but do not have enough information about their medication.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Chronic Disease, medication, drug use

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27 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee

Abstract:

Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: Pain, Emergency Department, numerical rating score, opioid

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26 Thiopental-Fentanyl versus Midazolam-Fentanyl for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Patients with Shoulder Dislocation and Distal Radial Fracture-Dislocation: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: D. Farsi, S. Abbasi, S. Shafiee Ardestani, E. Payani, G. Dokhtvasi

Abstract:

Background and aim:It has not been well studied whether fentanyl-thiopental (FT) is effective and safe for PSA in orthopedic procedures in Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous FTversusfentanyl-midazolam (FM)in patients who suffered from shoulder dislocation or distal radial fracture-dislocation. Methods:In this randomized double-blinded study, Seventy-six eligible patients were entered the study and randomly received intravenous FT or FM. The success rate, onset of action and recovery time, pain score, physicians’ satisfaction and adverse events were assessed and recorded by treating emergency physicians. The statistical analysis was intention to treat. Results: The success rate after administrating loading dose in FT group was significantly higher than FM group (71.7% vs. 48.9%, p=0.04); however, the ultimate unsuccess rate after 3 doses of drugs in the FT group was higher than the FM group (3 to 1) but it did not reach to significant level (p=0.61). Despite near equal onset of action time in two study group (P=0.464), the recovery period in patients receiving FT was markedly shorter than FM group (P<0.001). The occurrence of adverse effects was low in both groups (p=0.31). Conclusion: PSA using FT is effective and appears to be safe for orthopedic procedures in the ED. Therefore, regarding the prompt onset of action, short recovery period of thiopental, it seems that this combination can be considered more for performing PSA in orthopedic procedures in ED.

Keywords: Pain, Emergency Department, procedural sedation and analgesia, thiopental, fentanyl, midazolam, orthopedic procedure

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25 Oral Betahistine Versus Intravenous Diazepam in Acute Peripheral Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani, Saeed Abbasi, Neda Valizadeh, Davood Farsi

Abstract:

Objectives: Peripheral vertigo is a common complaint of patients who are visited in emergency departments. In our study, we wanted to evaluate the effect of betahistine as an oral drug vs. intravenous diazepam for the treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. We also wanted to see the possibility of substitution of parenteral drug with an oral one with fewer side effects. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, 101 patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided in two groups in a double-blind randomized manner. Group A took oral placebo and 10 mg of intravenous diazepam. Group B received 8mg of oral betahistine and intravenous placebo. Patients’ symptoms and signs (Vertigo severity, Nausea, Vomiting, Nistagmus and Gate) were evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6 hours by emergency physicians and data were collected by a questionnaire. Results: In both groups, there was significant improvement in vertigo (betahistine group P=0.02 and Diazepam group P=0.03). Analysis showed more improvement in vertigo severity after 4 hours of treatment in betahistine group comparing to diazepam group (P=0.02). Nausea and vomiting were significantly lower in patients receiving diazepam after 2 and 6 hours (P=0.02 & P=0.03).No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in nistagmus, equilibrium & vertigo duration. Conclusion: The results of this randomized trial showed that both drugs had acceptable therapeutic effects in peripheral vertigo, although betahistine was significantly more efficacious after 4 hours of drug intake. As for higher nausea and vomiting in betahistine group, physician should consider these side effects before drug prescription.

Keywords: Emergency Department, diazepam, acute peripheral vertigo, betahistine

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24 A Survey of Chronic Pain Patients’ Experiences in the Emergency Department

Authors: G. Fitzpatrick, S. O. Chonghaile, D. Harmon

Abstract:

Objective: Chronic pain patients represent a unique challenge in the Emergency Department. Very little literature has been published regarding this group of patients. Our aim was to determine the attitude of patients with chronic pain to the Emergency Department in order to improve and streamline their future visits. Methods: A two-year survey was carried out on Chronic Pain Patients regarding their Emergency Department Attendances. Patients attending the Pain Clinic in Croom Hospital, Co. Limerick were asked to complete a 20-part questionnaire regarding their experiences of visiting the Emergency Department in the preceding year. 46 questionnaires were completed. Results: Unbearable breakthrough pain was the main reason for visiting the Emergency Department. More than half (54%) of those surveyed were not satisfied with the treatment received. Problems indicated included under-treatment of pain (59%), a sense of being under undue suspicion of drug-seeking behaviour (33%) and a perception that the patient themselves understood their condition better than the treating doctor (76%). Paracetamol, NSAIDs, or time off work comprised 72% of the treatments offered – all of which could have been provided by their General Practitioner. Only 4% were offered a nerve block. 67% felt that the creation of personalised Patient Plans, consisting of an agreed plan between the patient, their pain specialist, and the Emergency Department, would expedite their trip through the Emergency Department. Conclusions: Chronic pain patients generally have a negative experience in the ED. Possible future solutions include increasing our empathy and levels of knowledge, provision of nerve blocks in the ED, and use of personalised “Patient Plans” to streamline the treatment pathway for this group of patients.

Keywords: Emergency Department, patients, Survey, Chronic Pain

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23 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

Abstract:

Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: Asthma, Emergency Department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

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22 Air Conditioner Refrigerant and Burn: A Case Report

Authors: Okan Cakir, Ibrahim Arziman, Derya Can, Mete Erkencigil, Murat Durusu, S. Mehmet Yasar

Abstract:

Introduction: Burn injuries from different types and ways commonly seen in emergency departments, approach and treatment varies from outpatient treatment to critical care unit. We wanted to mention a rare burn injury cause of air conditioner refrigerant. Case report: A 22-year-old case admitted to emergency department with a complaint of left hand burn injury and pain. In his history, he said that an accident was occurred before 30 minutes from admission while he had been trying to repair the air conditioner. Air conditioner refrigerant suddenly had erupted from its tank and burned his hand. In physical examination of extremities, second-degree burn bullae on the left hand on second and third proximal phalanx, between first and second phalanx palmar side and on hypothenar region and on third and fourth proximal phalanx and also hyperemia from hand to wrist were seen. There was no motor and sensorial deficiency. As a treatment, local silver sulfadiazine applied to the burn area and analgesic prescribed. The case called for the clinical follow-up to the plastic surgery department. Conclusion: The clinician should take a comprehensive and careful anamnesis for suitable and right management and treatment as in this case in which as well as rare and occurs different way.

Keywords: rare, Emergency Department, burn, air conditioner refrigerant

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21 Amsan Syndrome in Emergency Department

Authors: Okan Cakir, Okan Tatli

Abstract:

Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) syndrome usually occurs following a postviral infection in two to four weeks and is a polyneuropathy characterized by axonal and sensorial degeneration as a rare variant of Gullian-Barre syndrome. In our case, we wanted to mention that a rare case of AMSAN Syndrome due to prior surgery. A 61-year-old male case admitted to emergency department with complaints of weakness in feet, numbness and incapability to walk. In his history, it was learned that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) had applied for abdominal aort aneurysm two weeks ago before admission, his complaints had been for a couple of days increasingly and bilaterally, and there had been no infection disease history for four weeks. In physical examination, general status was good, vital signs were stable, and there was a mild paresis in dorsal flexion of feet in bilaterally lower extremities. No nuchal rigidity was determined. Other system examinations were normal. Urea:52 mg/dL (normal range: 15-44 mg/dL), creatinine: 1,05 mg/dL (normal range: 0,81-1,4 mg/dL), potassium: 3,68 mmol/L (normal range: 3,5-5,5 mmol/L), glycaemia: 142 mg/dL, calcium: 9,71 mg/dL (normal range: 8,5-10,5 mg/dL), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR): 74 mm/h (normal range: 0-15 mm/h) were determined in biochemical tests. The case was consulted to neurology department and hospitalized. In performing electromyography, it was reported as a bilateral significant axonal degeneration with sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Normal ranges of glycaemia and protein levels were detected in lumbal punction. Viral markers and bucella, toxoplasma, and rubella markers were in normal range. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was applied as a treatment, physical treatment programme was planned and the case discharged from neurology department. In our case, we mentioned that it should be considered polyneuropathy as an alternative diagnosis in cases admitting symptoms like weakness and numbness had a history of prior surgery.

Keywords: Emergency Department, weakness, AMSAN Syndrome, prior surgery

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20 Blunt Abdominal Trauma Management in Adult Patients: An Investigation on Safety of Discharging Patients with Normal Initial Findings

Authors: Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa, Mansouri Pejman, Chardoli Mojtaba, Rezvani Samina

Abstract:

Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, but diagnosis of serious intra-abdominal pathology is difficult and most of the damages are obscure in the initial investigation. There is still controversy about which patients should undergo abdomen/pelvis CT, which patients needs more observation and which patients can be discharged safely The aim of this study was to determine that is it safe to discharge patients with blunt abdominal trauma with normal initial findings. Methods: This non-randomized cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2014 at two levels I trauma centers, Sina hospital and Rasoul-e-Akram hospital (Tehran, Iran). Our inclusion criteria were all patients were admitted for suspicious BAT and our exclusion criteria were patients that have serious head and neck, chest, spine and limb injuries which need surgical intervention, those who have unstable vital signs, pregnant women with a gestational age over 3 months and homeless or without exact home address. 390 patients with blunt trauma abdomen examined and the necessary data, including demographic data, the abdominal examination, FAST result, patients’ lab test results (hematocrit, base deficit, urine analysis) on admission and at 6 and 12 hours after admission were recorded. Patients with normal physical examination, laboratory tests and FAST were discharged from the ED during 12 hours with the explanation of the alarm signs and were followed up after 24 hours and 1 week by a telephone call. Patients with abnormal findings in physical examination, laboratory tests, and FAST underwent abdomino-pelvic CT scan. Results: The study included 390 patients with blunt abdominal trauma between 12 and 80 years of age (mean age, 37.0 ± 13.7 years) and the mean duration of hospitalization in patients was 7.4 ± 4.1 hours. 88.6% of the patients were discharged from hospital before 12 hours. Odds ratio (OR) for having any symptoms for discharge after 6 hours was 0.160 and after 12 hours was 0.117 hours, which is statistically significant. Among the variables age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, hematocrit and base deficit at admission, 6 hours and 12 hours after admission showed no significant statistical relationship with discharge time. From our 390 patients, 190 patients have normal initial physical examination, lab data and FAST findings that didn’t show any signs or symptoms in their next assessment and in their follow up by the phone call. Conclusion: It is recommended that patients with no symptoms at admission (completely normal physical examination, ultrasound, normal hematocrit and normal base deficit and lack of microscopic hematuria) and good family and social status can be safely discharged from the emergency department.

Keywords: Emergency Department, blunt abdominal trauma, patient discharge, FAST

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19 The Use of Venous Glucose, Serum Lactate and Base Deficit as Biochemical Predictors of Mortality in Polytraumatized Patients: Acomparative with Trauma and Injury Severity Score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evalution IV

Authors: Osama Moustafa Zayed

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Aim of the work: To evaluate the effectiveness of venous glucose, levels of serum lactate and base deficit in polytraumatized patients as simple parameters to predict the mortality in these patients. Compared to the predictive value of Trauma and injury severity (TRISS) and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV). Introduction: Trauma is a serious global health problem, accounting for approximately one in 10 deaths worldwide. Trauma accounts for 5 million deaths per year. Prediction of mortality in trauma patients is an important part of trauma care. Several trauma scores have been devised to predict injury severity and risk of mortality. The trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) was most common used. Regardless of the accuracy of trauma scores, is based on an anatomical description of every injury and cannot be assigned to the patients until a full diagnostic procedure has been performed. So we hypothesized that alterations in admission glucose, lactate levels and base deficit would be an early and easy rapid predictor of mortality. Patient and Method: a comparative cross-sectional study. 282 Polytraumatized patients attended to the Emergency Department(ED) of the Suez Canal university Hospital constituted. The period from 1/1/2012 to 1/4/2013 was included. Results: We found that the best cut off value of TRISS probability of survival score for prediction of mortality among poly-traumatized patients is = 90, with 77% sensitivity and 89% specificity using area under the ROC curve (0.89) at (95%CI). APACHE IV demonstrated 67% sensitivity and 95% specificity at 95% CI at cut off point 99. The best cutoff value of Random Blood Sugar (RBS) for prediction of mortality was>140 mg/dl, with 89%, sensitivity, 49% specificity. The best cut off value of base deficit for prediction of mortality was less than -5.6 with 64% sensitivity, 93% specificity. The best cutoff point of lactate for prediction of mortality was > 2.6 mmol/L with 92%, sensitivity, 42% specificity. Conclusion: According to our results from all evaluated predictors of mortality (laboratory and scores) and mortality based on the estimated cutoff values using ROC curves analysis, the highest risk of mortality was found using a cutoff value of 90 in TRISS score while with laboratory parameters the highest risk of mortality was with serum lactate > 2.6 . Although that all of the three parameter are accurate in predicting mortality in poly-traumatized patients and near with each other, as in serum lactate the area under the curve 0.82, in BD 0.79 and 0.77 in RBS.

Keywords: Emergency Department, APACHE IV, polytraumatized patients, serum lactate

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18 Emergency Department Utilisation of Older People Presenting to Four Emergency Departments

Authors: M. Fry, L. Fitzpatrick, Julie Considine, R. Z. Shaban, Kate Curtis

Abstract:

Introduction: The vast majority of older Australians lives independently and are self-managing at home, despite a growing number living with a chronic illness that requires health intervention. Evidence shows that between 50% and 80% of people presenting to the emergency department (ED) are in pain. Australian EDs manage 7.2 million attendances every year and 1.4 million of these are people aged 65 years or more. Research shows that 28% of ED patients aged 65 years or more have Cognitive impairment (CI) associated with dementia, delirium and neurological conditions. Background: Traditional ED service delivery may not be suitable for older people who present with multiple, complex and ongoing illnesses. Likewise, ED clinical staff often perceive that their role should be focused more on immediate and potential lifethreatening illness and conditions which are episodic in nature. Therefore, the needs of older people and their family/carers may not be adequately addressed in the context of an ED presentation. Aim: We aimed to explore the utilisation and characteristics of older people presenting to four metropolitan EDs. Method: The findings being presented are part of a program of research exploring pain management practices for older persons with long bone fractures. The study was conducted across four metropolitan emergency departments of older patients (65years and over) and involved a 12-month randomised medical record audit (n=255). Results: ED presentations across four ED sites in 2012 numbered 168021, with 44778 (26.6%) patients aged 65 and over. Of the 44778 patients, the average age was 79.1 years (SD 8.54). There were more females 23932 (53.5%). The majority (26925: 85.0%) of older persons self-referred to the ED and lived independently. The majority arrived by ambulance (n=18553: 41.4%) and were allocated triage category was 3 (n=19,507:43.65%) or Triage category 4 at (n=15,389: 34.43%). The top five triage symptom presentations involved pain (n=8088; 18.25%), dyspnoea (n=4735; 10.7%), falls (n=4032; 9.1%), other (n=3984; 9.0%), cardiac (n=2987; 6.7%). The top five system based diagnostic presentations involved musculoskeletal (n=8902; 20.1%), cardiac (n=6704:15.0%), respiratory (n=4933; 11.0%), neurological (n=4909; 11.0%), gastroenterology (n=4321; 9.7%). On review of one tertiary hospital database the vital signs on average at time triage: Systolic Blood Pressure 143.6mmHg. Heart Rate 83.4 beats/minute; Respiratory Rate 18.5 breaths/ minute; Oxygen saturation 97.0% and Tympanic temperature 36.7 and Blood Glucose Level 7.4mmols/litre. The majority presented with a Glasgow Coma Score of 14 or higher. On average the older person stayed in the ED 4:56 (SD 3:28minutes).The average time to be seen was 39 minutes (SD 48 minutes). The majority of older persons were admitted (n=27562: 61.5%), did not wait for treatment (n= 8879: 0.02%) discharged home (n=16256: 36.0%). Conclusion: The vast majority of older persons are living independently, although many require admission on arrival to the ED. Many arrived in pain and with musculoskeletal injuries and or conditions. New models of care need to be considered, which may better support self-management and independent living of the older person and the National Emergency Access Targets.

Keywords: aged care, Emergency Department, older person, chronic

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17 Risk Factors Associated with Increased Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions Among Child and Adolescent Patients

Authors: Lalanthica Yogendran, Manassa Hany, Saira Pasha, Benjamin Chaucer, Simarpreet Kaur, Christopher Janusz

Abstract:

Children and adolescent patients visit the Psychiatric Emergency Department (ED) for multiple reasons. Visiting the Psychiatric ED itself can be a traumatic experience that can affect an adolescents mental well-being, regardless of a history of mental illness. Despite this, limited research exists in this domain. Prospective studies have correlated adverse psychosocial determinants among adolescents to risk factors for poor well-being and unfavorable behavior outcomes. Studies have also shown that physiological stress is a contributor in the development of health problems and an increase in substance abuse in adolescents. This study aimed to retrospectively determine which psychosocial factors are associated with an increase in psychiatric ED visits. 600 charts of patients who had a psychiatric ED and inpatient admission visit from January 2014 through December 2014 were reviewed. Sociodemographics, diagnoses, ED visits and inpatient admissions were collected. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and independent t-test analyses were utilized to examine differences in the sample to determine which factors affected ED visits and admissions. The sample was 50% female, 35.2% self-identified black, and had a mean age of 13 years. The majority, 85%, went to public school and 17% were in special education. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was the most common admitting diagnosis, found in 132(23%) responders. Most patients came from single parent household 305 (53%). The mean ages of patients that were sexually active, with legal issues, and reporting marijuana substance abuse were 15, 14.35, and 15 years respectively. Patients from two biological parent households had significantly fewer ED visits (1.2 vs. 1.7, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.09 vs. 0.26, p < 0.01). Among social factors, those who reported sexual, physical or emotional abuse had a significantly greater number of ED visits (2.1 vs. 1.5, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.61 vs. 0.14, p < 0.01) than those who did not. Patients that were sexually active or had legal issues or substance abuse with marijuana had a significantly greater number of admissions (0.43 vs. 0.17, p < 0.01), (0.54 vs. .18, p < 0.01) and (0.46 vs. 0.18, p < 0.01) respectively. This data supports the theory of the stability of a two parent home. Dual parenting plays a role in creating a safe space where a child can develop; this is shown by subsequent decreases in psychiatric ED visits and admissions. This may highlight the psychological protective role of a two parent household. Abuse can exacerbate existing psychiatric illness or initiate the onset of new disease. Substance abuse and legal issues result in early induction to the criminal system. Results show that this causes an increase in frequency of visits and severity of symptoms. Only marijuana, but not other illicit substances, correlated with higher incidence of psychiatric ED visits. This may speak to the psychotropic nature of tetrahydrocannabinols and their role in mental illness. This study demonstrates the array of psychosocial factors that lead to increased ED visits and admissions in children and adolescents.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Adolescent, Child Psychiatry, Emergency Department

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16 Introduction of Digital Radiology to Improve the Timeliness in Availability of Radiological Diagnostic Images for Trauma Care

Authors: Anuruddha Jagoda, Samiddhi Samarakoon, Anil Jasinghe

Abstract:

In an emergency department ‘where every second count for patient’s management’ timely availability of X- rays play a vital role in early diagnosis and management of patients. Trauma care centers rely heavily on timely radiologic imaging for patient care and radiology plays a crucial role in the emergency department (ED) operations. A research study was carried out to assess timeliness of availability of X-rays and total turnaround time at the Accident Service of National Hospital of Sri Lanka which is the premier trauma center in the country. Digital Radiology system was implemented as an intervention to improve the timeliness of availability of X-rays. Post-implementation assessment was carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Reduction in all three aspects of waiting times namely waiting for initial examination by doctors, waiting until X –ray is performed and waiting for image availability was observed after implementation of the intervention. However, the most significant improvement was seen in waiting time for image availability and reduction in time for image availability had indirect impact on reducing waiting time for initial examination by doctors and waiting until X –ray is performed. The most significant reduction in time for image availability was observed when performing 4-5 X rays with DR system. The least improvement in timeliness was seen in patients who are categorized as critical.

Keywords: Trauma Care, Emergency Department, digital radilogy, timeliness

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15 Introduction of Electronic Health Records to Improve Data Quality in Emergency Department Operations

Authors: Anuruddha Jagoda, Samiddhi Samarakoon, Anil Jasinghe

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In its simplest form, data quality can be defined as 'fitness for use' and it is a concept with multi-dimensions. Emergency Departments(ED) require information to treat patients and on the other hand it is the primary source of information regarding accidents, injuries, emergencies etc. Also, it is the starting point of various patient registries, databases and surveillance systems. This interventional study was carried out to improve data quality at the ED of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) by introducing an e health solution to improve data quality. The NHSL is the premier trauma care centre in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of three components. A research study was conducted to assess the quality of data in relation to selected five dimensions of data quality namely accuracy, completeness, timeliness, legibility and reliability. The intervention was to develop and deploy an electronic emergency department information system (eEDIS). Post assessment of the intervention confirmed that all five dimensions of data quality had improved. The most significant improvements are noticed in accuracy and timeliness dimensions.

Keywords: electronic health records, Emergency Department, Data Quality, electronic emergency department information system

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14 Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Emergency Departments: Multicenter Study in Korea

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min

Abstract:

Background: Acute poisoning is the common cause of morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of acute poisoning differ between countries. While other countries operate the database system for poisoning, Korea has not collected the database for acute poisoning. Distribution of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials have also not studied in Korea. Our aims are to evaluate the etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases and to obtain up-to-date information on acute poisonings. Method: We retrospectively recorded cases of acute poisoning from eight emergency departments of second level or university hospitals from different cities in Gyeonggi province in Korea from April 2006 and March 2015. The distributions of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials are mapped by geographic information system. Result: A total of 3,449 poisoned cases were analyzed. Mean estimated age of patients was 39.56 ± 22.40 years. Mean male to female ratio of patients was 1:1.4. Mean proportion of intentional poisoning was 57.9%. Common materials are benzodiazepine (16.6%), carbon monoxide (10.5%), pesticide (8.1%) and zolpidem (7.1%) Common route of exposure is ingestion (79.5%) and followed by inhalation (16.5%). Common treatment methods are gastric lavage (20%) and activated charcoal (30%). Most cases had uneventful recovery; 61.4% were treated as outpatients and 0.1% of the poisoning resulted in death in ER. Conclusion: Even though the cases enrolled in our study is not the overall cases of acute poisoning in Korea, our study could be the basis of countermeasures for analysis and prevention of acute poisoning in Korea.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Emergency Department, Korea, acute poisoning

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13 Injury Patterns and Outcomes in Alcohol Intoxicated Trauma Patients Admitted at Level I Apex Trauma Centre of a Developing Nation

Authors: S. Kumar, A. Gupta, G. Kaushik, S. Lalwani, K. D. Soni, S. Sagar

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Objective: Alcohol is a leading risk factor associated with the disability and death due to RTI. Present study aims to demonstrate the demographic profile, injury pattern, physiological parameters of victims of trauma following alcohol consumption arriving in the emergency department (ED) and mortality in alcohol intoxicated trauma patients admitted to Apex Trauma Center in Delhi. Design and Methods: Present study was performed in randomly selected 182 alcohol breath analyzer tested RTI patients from the emergency department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi for over a period of 3 months started from September 2013 to November 2013. Results: A total 182 RTI patients with blunt injury were selected between 30-40 years of age and equally distributed to male and female group. Of these, 93 (51%) were alcohol negative and 89 (49%) were alcohol positive. In 89 alcohol positive patients, 47 (53%) had Artificial Airway as compared to 17 (18%), (p < 0.001) in the other group. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was lower (p < 0.001) and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) was observed in alcohol positive group as compared to other group (p < 0.03). Increased number of patients (58%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), in alcohol positive group (p < 0.001) and they were in ICU for longer time compare to other group (p < 0.001). The alcohol positive patients were on ventilator support for longer duration as compared to non-alcoholic group (p < 0.001). Mortality rate was higher in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic RTI patients, however, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study revealed that GCS, mean ISS, ICU stay, ventilation time etc. might have considerable impact on mortality in alcohol intoxicated patients as compared to non-alcoholic group.

Keywords: Trauma, Alcohol, Emergency Department, Road Traffic Injuries

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12 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Medicine, Electrolyte, Maintenance, Fluid, Emergency Department, Major trauma, intravenous, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluid therapy

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11 A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Choosing Wisely Canada Campaign on Emergency Department Imaging Utilization for Head Injuries

Authors: Sameer Masood, Lucas Chartier

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Head injuries are a commonly encountered presentation in emergency departments (ED) and the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign was released in June 2015 in an attempt to decrease imaging utilization for patients with minor head injuries. The impact of the CWC campaign on imaging utilization for head injuries has not been explored in the ED setting. In our study, we describe the characteristics of patients with head injuries presenting to a tertiary care academic ED and the impact of the CWC campaign on CT head utilization. This retrospective cohort study used linked databases from the province of Ontario, Canada to assess emergency department visits with a primary diagnosis of head injury made between June 1, 2014 and Aug 31, 2016 at the University Health Network in Toronto, Canada. We examined the number of visits during the study period, the proportion of patients that had a CT head performed before and after the release of the CWC campaign, as well as mode of arrival, and disposition. There were 4,322 qualifying visits at our site during the study period. The median presenting age was 44.12 years (IQR 27.83,67.45), the median GCS was 15 (IQR 15,15) and the majority of patients presenting had intermediate acuity (CTAS 3). Overall, 43.17% of patients arrived via ambulance, 49.24 % of patients received a CT head and 10.46% of patients were admitted. Compared to patients presenting before the CWC campaign release, there was no significant difference in the rate of CT heads after the CWC (50.41% vs 47.68%, P = 0.07). There were also no significant differences between the two groups in mode of arrival (ambulance vs ambulatory) (42.94% vs 43.48%, P = 0.72) or admission rates (9.85% vs 11.26%, P = 0.15). However, more patients belonged to the high acuity groups (CTAS 1 or 2) in the post CWC campaign release group (12.98% vs 8.11% P <0.001). Visits for head injuries make up a significant proportion of total ED visits and approximately half of these patients receive CT imaging in the ED. The CWC campaign did not seem to impact imaging utilization for head injuries in the 14 months following its launch. Further efforts, including local quality improvement initiatives, are likely needed to increase adherence to its recommendation and reduce imaging utilization for head injuries.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Head injury, Quality improvement, choosing wisely

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10 Forensic Nursing in the Emergency Department: The Overlooked Roles

Authors: E. Tuğba Topçu

Abstract:

The emergency services are usually the first places to encounter forensic cases. Hence, it is important to consider forensics from the perspective of the emergency services staff and the physiological and psychological consequences that may arise as a result of behaviour by itself or another person. Accurate and detailed documentation of the situation in which the patient first arrives at the emergency service and preservation of the forensic findings is pivotal for the subsequent forensic investigation. The first step in determining whether or not a forensic case exists is to perform a medical examination of the patient. For each individual suspected to be part of a forensic case, police officers should be informed at the same time as the medical examination is being conducted. Violent events are increasing every year and with an increase in the number of forensic cases, emergency service workers have increasing responsibility and consequently play a key role in protecting, collecting and arranging the forensic evidence. In addition, because the emergency service workers involved in forensic events typically have information about the accused and/or victim, as well as evidence related to the events and the cause of injuries, police officers often require their testimony. However, both nurses and other health care personnel do not typically have adequate expertise in forensic medicine. Emergency nurses should take an active role for determining that whether any patient admitted to the emergency services is a clinical forensic patient the emergency service with injury and requiring possible punishment and knowing of their roles and responsibilities in this area provides legal protection as well as the protection of the judicial affair. Particularly, in emergency services, where rapid patient turnover and high workload exists, patient registration and case reporting may not exist. In such instances, the witnesses, typically the nurses, are often consulted for information. Knowledge of forensic medical matters plays a vital role in achieving justice. According to the Criminal Procedure Law, Article 75, Paragraph 3, ‘an internal body examination or the taking of blood or other biological samples from the body can be performed only by a doctor or other health professional member’. In favour of this item, the clinic nurse and doctor are mainly responsible for evaluating forensic cases in emergency departments, performing the examination, collecting evidence, and storing and reporting data. The courts place considerable importance on determining whether a suspect is the victim or accused and, thus, in terms of illuminating events, it is crucial that any evidence is gathered carefully and appropriately. All the evidence related to the forensic case including the forensic report should be handed over to the police officers. In instances where forensic evidence cannot be collected and the only way to obtain the evidence is the hospital environment, health care personnel in emergency services need to have knowledge about the diagnosis of forensic evidence, the collection of evidence, hiding evidence and provision of the evidence delivery chain.

Keywords: Emergency Nursing, Emergency Department, forensic nursing, forensic cases

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9 Development of a Nurse Led Tranexamic Acid Administration Protocol for Trauma Patients in Rural South Africa

Authors: Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith

Abstract:

Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within 3 hours of injury. Due to geographical distance and lack of emergency medical services patients often present late, following trauma, to our emergency department. Additionally, we found patients that may have benefited from TXA did not receive it, often due to lack of staff awareness, staff shortages out of hours and lack of equipment for delivering infusions. Our objective was to develop a protocol for nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency department. We developed a protocol using physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We will monitor the use of the protocol to ensure appropriate compliance and for any adverse events reported.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Nursing, Rural healthcare, Emergency Department, triage, tranexamic acid

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8 Predicting Factors for Occurrence of Cardiac Arrest in Critical, Emergency and Urgency Patients in an Emergency Department

Authors: Angkrit Phitchayangkoon, Ar-Aishah Dadeh

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Background: A key aim of triage is to identify the patients with high risk of cardiac arrest because they require intensive monitoring, resuscitation facilities, and early intervention. We aimed to identify the predicting factors such as initial vital signs, serum pH, serum lactate level, initial capillary blood glucose, and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) which affect the occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED). Methods: We conducted a retrospective data review of ED patients in an emergency department (ED) from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016. Significant variables in univariate analysis were used to create a multivariate analysis. Differentiation of predicting factors between cardiac arrest patient and non-cardiac arrest patients for occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED) was the primary outcome. Results: The data of 527 non-trauma patients with Emergency Severity Index (ESI) 1-3 were collected. The factors found to have a significant association (P < 0.05) in the non-cardiac arrest group versus the cardiac arrest group at the ED were systolic BP (mean [IQR] 135 [114,158] vs 120 [90,140] mmHg), oxygen saturation (mean [IQR] 97 [89,98] vs 82.5 [78,95]%), GCS (mean [IQR] 15 [15,15] vs 11.5 [8.815]), normal sinus rhythm (mean 59.8 vs 30%), sinus tachycardia (mean 46.7 vs 21.7%), pH (mean [IQR] 7.4 [7.3,7.4] vs 7.2 [7,7.3]), serum lactate (mean [IQR] 2 [1.1,4.2] vs 7 [5,10.8]), and MEWS score (mean [IQR] 3 [2,5] vs 5 [3,6]). A multivariate analysis was then performed. After adjusting for multiple factors, ESI level 2 patients were more likely to have cardiac arrest in the ER compared with ESI 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; P < 0.001). Furthermore, ESI 2 patients were more likely than ESI 1 patients to have cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.89; P = 0.01), heart rate < 55 (OR, 6.83; P = 0.18), SBP < 90 (OR, 3.41; P = 0.006), SpO2 < 94 (OR, 4.76; P = 0.012), sinus tachycardia (OR, 4.32; P = 0.002), lactate > 4 (OR, 10.66; P = < 0.001), and MEWS > 4 (OR, 4.86; P = 0.028). These factors remained predictive of cardiac arrest at the ED. Conclusion: The factors related to cardiac arrest in the ED are ESI 1 patients, ESI 2 patients, patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, SpO2 < 94, lactate > 4, and a MEWS > 4. These factors can be used as markers in the event of simultaneous arrival of many patients and can help as a pre-state for patients who have a tendency to develop cardiac arrest. The hemodynamic status and vital signs of these patients should be closely monitored. Early detection of potentially critical conditions to prevent critical medical intervention is mandatory.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Cardiac Arrest, predicting factor, emergency patient

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7 Examining the Predictors of Non-Urgent Emergency Department Visits: A Population Based Study

Authors: Maher El-Masri, Jamie Crawley, Judy Bornais, Abeer Omar

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Background: Misuse of Emergency Department (ED) for non-urgent healthcare results in unnecessary crowdedness that can result in long ED waits and delays in treatment, diversion of ambulances to other hospitals, poor health outcomes for patients, and increased risk of death Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to explore the independent predictors of non-urgent ED visits in Erie St. Clair LHIN. Secondary purposes of the study include comparison of the rates of non-urgent ED visits between urban and rural hospitals Design: A secondary analysis of archived population-based data on 597,373 ED visits in southwestern Ontario Results The results suggest that older (OR = .992; 95% CI .992 – .993) and female patients (OR = .940; 95% CI .929 - .950) were less likely to visit ED for non-urgent causes. Non-urgent ED visits during the winter, spring, and fall were 13%, 5.8%, and 7.5%, respectively, lesser than they were during the summer time. The data further suggest that non-urgent visits were 19.6% and 21.3% less likely to occur in evening and overnight shifts compared to the day shift. Non-urgent visits were 2.76 times more likely to present to small community hospitals than large community hospitals. Health care providers were 1.92 times more likely to refer patients with non-urgent health problem to the ED than the decision taken by patients, family member or caretakers. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study highlights a number of important factors that are associated with inappropriate use of ED visits for non-urgent health problems. Knowledge of these factors could be used to address the issue of unnecessary ED crowdedness.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Logistic Regression, predictors, non-urgent visits

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6 Comparison of the Chest X-Ray and Computerized Tomography Scans Requested from the Emergency Department

Authors: Sahabettin Mete, Abdullah C. Hocagil, Hilal Hocagil, Volkan Ulker, Hasan C. Taskin

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Objectives and Goals: An emergency department is a place where people can come for a multitude of reasons 24 hours a day. As it is an easy, accessible place, thanks to self-sacrificing people who work in emergency departments. But the workload and overcrowding of emergency departments are increasing day by day. Under these circumstances, it is important to choose a quick, easily accessible and effective test for diagnosis. This results in laboratory and imaging tests being more than 40% of all emergency department costs. Despite all of the technological advances in imaging methods and available computerized tomography (CT), chest X-ray, the older imaging method, has not lost its appeal and effectiveness for nearly all emergency physicians. Progress in imaging methods are very convenient, but physicians should consider the radiation dose, cost, and effectiveness, as well as imaging methods to be carefully selected and used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of chest X-ray in immediate diagnosis against the advancing technology by comparing chest X-ray and chest CT scan results of the patients in the emergency department. Methods: Patients who applied to Bulent Ecevit University Faculty of Medicine’s emergency department were investigated retrospectively in between 1 September 2014 and 28 February 2015. Data were obtained via MIAMED (Clear Canvas Image Server v6.2, Toronto, Canada), information management system which patients’ files are saved electronically in the clinic, and were retrospectively scanned. The study included 199 patients who were 18 or older, had both chest X-ray and chest CT imaging. Chest X-ray images were evaluated by the emergency medicine senior assistant in the emergency department, and the findings were saved to the study form. CT findings were obtained from already reported data by radiology department in the clinic. Chest X-ray was evaluated with seven questions in terms of technique and dose adequacy. Patients’ age, gender, application complaints, comorbid diseases, vital signs, physical examination findings, diagnosis, chest X-ray findings and chest CT findings were evaluated. Data saved and statistical analyses have made via using SPSS 19.0 for Windows. And the value of p < 0.05 were accepted statistically significant. Results: 199 patients were included in the study. In 38,2% (n=76) of all patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and it was the most common diagnosis. The chest X-ray imaging technique was appropriate in patients with the rate of 31% (n=62) of all patients. There was not any statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between both imaging methods (chest X-ray and chest CT) in terms of determining the rates of displacement of the trachea, pneumothorax, parenchymal consolidation, increased cardiothoracic ratio, lymphadenopathy, diaphragmatic hernia, free air levels in the abdomen (in sections including the image), pleural thickening, parenchymal cyst, parenchymal mass, parenchymal cavity, parenchymal atelectasis and bone fractures. Conclusions: When imaging findings, showing cases that needed to be quickly diagnosed, were investigated, chest X-ray and chest CT findings were matched at a high rate in patients with an appropriate imaging technique. However, chest X-rays, evaluated in the emergency department, were frequently taken with an inappropriate technique.

Keywords: Chest imaging, Emergency Department, chest x-ray, chest computerized tomography

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5 Infection Control Drill: To Assess the Readiness and Preparedness of Staffs in Managing Suspected Ebola Patients in Tan Tock Seng Hospital Emergency Department

Authors: Le Jiang, Chua Jinxing

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Introduction: The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the west Africa has drawn global concern. With a high fatality rate and direct human-to-human transmission, it has spread between countries and caused great damages for patients and family who are affected. Being the designated hospital to manage epidemic outbreak in Singapore, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) is facing great challenges in preparation and managing of potential outbreak of emerging infectious disease such as Ebola virus disease. Aim: We conducted an infection control drill in TTSH emergency department to assess the readiness of healthcare and allied health workers in managing suspected Ebola patients. It also helps to review current Ebola clinical protocol and work instruction to ensure more smooth and safe practice in managing Ebola patients in TTSH emergency department. Result: General preparedness level of staffs involved in managing Ebola virus disease in TTSH emergency department is not adequate. Knowledge deficits of staffs on Ebola personal protective equipment gowning and degowning process increase the risk of potential cross contamination in patient care. Loopholes are also found in current clinical protocol, such as unclear instructions and inaccurate information, which need to be revised to promote better staff performance in patient management. Logistic issues such as equipment dysfunction and inadequate supplies can lead to ineffective communication among teams and causing harm to patients in emergency situation. Conclusion: The infection control drill identified the need for more well-structured and clear clinical protocols to be in place to promote participants performance. In addition to quality protocols and guidelines, systemic training and annual refresher for all staffs in the emergency department are essential to prepare staffs for the outbreak of Ebola virus disease. Collaboration and communication with allied health staffs are also crucial for smooth delivery of patient care and minimising the potential human suffering, properties loss or injuries caused by disease. Therefore, more clinical drills with collaboration among various departments involved are recommended to be conducted in the future to monitor and assess readiness of TTSH emergency department in managing Ebola virus disease.

Keywords: Emergency Department, Ebola, infection control drill, Tan Tock Seng Hospital

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4 Trauma inside and Out: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study of Family, Community and Psychological Wellbeing amongst Pediatric Victims of Interpersonal Violence

Authors: Margie Batek, Joseph Moen, David Schnadower, Mary Bernardin

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Background: Exposure to violence not only has negative psychological impact on children but is a risk factor for children becoming recurrent victims of violence. However, little is known regarding the degree to which child victims of violence are exposed to trauma at home and in their community, or its association with specific psychological diagnoses. Objective: The aims of this study were to perform in-depth characterizations of family, community and psychological wellness amongst pediatric victims of interpersonal violence. Methods: As standard of care at the Saint Louis Children’s Hospital pediatric emergency department (ED), social workers perform in-depth interviews with all children presenting due to violent interpersonal encounters. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we collected data from social work interviews on family structure, exposure to violence in the community and the home, as well as history of psychological diagnoses amongst children ages 8-19 years who presented to the ED for injuries related to interpersonal violence from 2014-2017. Results: A total of 407 patients presenting to the ED for an interpersonal violent encounter were analyzed. The average age of studied youths was 14.7 years (SD 2.5). Youths were 97.5% African American ethnicity and 66.6% male. 67.8% described their home having a nonnuclear family structure, 50% of which reported living with a single mother. Of the 21% who reported having incarcerated family members, 56.3% reported their father being incarcerated, 15% reported their mother being incarcerated, and 12.5% reported multiple family members being incarcerated. 11.3% reported witnessing domestic violence in their home. 12.8% of youths reported some form of child abuse. The type of child abuse was not specified in 29.3% of cases, but physical abuse (32.8%) followed by sexual abuse (22.4%) were the most commonly reported. 14.5% had history of placement in foster care and/or adoption. 64% reported having witnessed violence in their community. 30.2% reported having lost friends or family due to violence, and of those, 26.4% reported the loss of a cousin, 18.9% the loss of a friend, 16% the loss of their father, and 12.3% the loss of their brother due to violence. Of the 22.4% youths with psychiatric diagnose(s), 48.4% had multiple diagnoses, the most common of which were ADD/ADHD (62.6%), followed by depression (31.9%), bipolar disorder (27.5%) and anxiety (15.4%). Conclusions: A remarkable proportion of children presenting to EDs due to interpersonal violence have a history of exposure to instability and violence in their homes and communities. Additionally, psychological diagnoses are frequent among pediatric victims of violence. More research is needed to better understand the association between trauma exposure, psychological health and violent victimization amongst children.

Keywords: Emergency Department, pediatric interpersonal violence, community violence, pediatric trauma, psychological effects of trauma

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3 Radio Frequency Identification Device Based Emergency Department Critical Care Billing: A Framework for Actionable Intelligence

Authors: Shivaram P. Arunachalam, Mustafa Y. Sir, Andy Boggust, David M. Nestler, Thomas R. Hellmich, Kalyan S. Pasupathy

Abstract:

Emergency departments (EDs) provide urgent care to patients throughout the day in a complex and chaotic environment. Real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasingly being utilized in healthcare settings, and have shown to improve safety, reduce cost, and increase patient satisfaction. Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) data in an ED has been shown to compute variables such as patient-provider contact time, which is associated with patient outcomes such as 30-day hospitalization. These variables can provide avenues for improving ED operational efficiency. A major challenge with ED financial operations is under-coding of critical care services due to physicians’ difficulty reporting accurate times for critical care provided under Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 99291 and 99292. In this work, the authors propose a framework to optimize ED critical care billing using RFID data. RFID estimated physician-patient contact times could accurately quantify direct critical care services which will help model a data-driven approach for ED critical care billing. This paper will describe the framework and provide insights into opportunities to prevent under coding as well as over coding to avoid insurance audits. Future work will focus on data analytics to demonstrate the feasibility of the framework described.

Keywords: RFID, Emergency Department, critical care billing, CPT codes

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2 An Audit of the Diagnosis of Asthma in Children in Primary Care and the Emergency Department

Authors: Abhishek Oswal

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Background: Inconsistencies between the guidelines for childhood asthma can pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. NICE guidelines are the most commonly followed guidelines in primary care in the UK; they state that to be diagnosed with asthma, a child must be more than 5 years old and must have objective evidence of the disease. When diagnoses are coded in general practice (GP), these guidelines may be superseded by communications from secondary care. Hence it is imperative that diagnoses are correct, as per up to date guidelines and evidence, as this affects follow up and management both in primary and secondary care. Methods: A snapshot audit at a general practice surgery was undertaken of children (less than 16 years old) with a coded diagnosis of 'asthma', to review the age at diagnosis and whether any objective evidence of asthma was documented at diagnosis. 50 cases of asthma in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) were then audited to review the age at presentation, whether there was evidence of previous asthma diagnosis and whether the patient was discharged from ED. A repeat audit is planned in ED this winter. Results: In a GP surgery, there were 83 coded cases of asthma in children. 51 children (61%) were diagnosed under 5, with 9 children (11%) who had objective evidence of asthma documented at diagnosis. In ED, 50 cases were collected, of which 4 were excluded as they were referred to the other services, or for incorrect coding. Of the 46 remaining, 27 diagnoses confirmed to NICE guidelines (59%). 33 children (72%) were discharged from ED. Discussion: The most likely reason for the apparent low rate of a correct diagnosis is the significant challenge of obtaining objective evidence of asthma in children. There were a number of patients who were diagnosed from secondary care services and then coded as 'asthma' in GP, without having objective documented evidence. The electronic patient record (EPR) system used in our emergency department (ED) did not allow coding of 'suspected diagnosis' or of 'viral induced wheeze'. This may have led to incorrect diagnoses coded in primary care, of children who had no confirmed diagnosis of asthma. We look forward to the re-audit, as the EPR system has been updated to allow suspected diagnoses. In contrast to the NICE guidelines used here, British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines allow for a trial of treatment and subsequent confirmation of diagnosis without objective evidence. It is possible that some of the cases which have been classified as incorrect in this audit may still meet other guidelines. Conclusion: The diagnosis of asthma in children is challenging. Incorrect diagnoses may be related to clinical pressures and the provision of services to allow compliance with NICE guidelines. Consensus statements between the various groups would also aid the decision-making process and diagnostic dilemmas that clinicians face, to allow more consistent care of the patient.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Asthma, Primary Care, Audit, Emergency Department, guidelines

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