Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

ELISA Related Abstracts

26 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis

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The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

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25 Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Iranian and Indian Spices by ELISA Method

Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad

Abstract:

This study was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in 36 samples of spices from Iran and India that was included of chilli powder (n=12), black pepper powder (n=12) and whole black pepper (n=12). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used for analysing the samples. Aflatoxin B1 was found in all the spices samples, the concentration of AFB1 in Iranian samples was ranged from 63.16 to 626.81 ng/kg and in Indian samples was ranged from 31.15 to 245.94 ng/kg. The mean of AFB1 concentration in the chilli powder was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the whole and powdered black pepper. However, none of the samples exceeded the maximum prescribed limit i.e. 5 µg/kg of European Union regulations for aflatoxin B1. The occurrence of AFB1 in spices samples could be a potential hazard for public health.

Keywords: India, ELISA, Iran, Aflatoxin B1, chilli, black pepper

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24 The Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a Major Reservoir of Q Fever in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mansour F. Hussein, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Riyadh S. Al-Jumaah, A. GarelNabi, I. Al-Khalifa, Osama B. Mohammed

Abstract:

Serum samples from 489 male and female camels were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to C. burnetii were recorded in sera of 252 (51.64%) camels. Significant differences in prevalence were found between male and female camels, juvenile and adult camels, different ecotypes and different sampling locations. 307 camels were simultaneously tested for C. burnetii antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Close agreement was found between the results of the two tests. A high prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was also recorded in milk samples tested by ELISA. Clinical samples from serologically positive camels were subjected to PCR analysis using primers which amplify the repetitive transposon-like and transposase gene regions of C. burnetii. Positive DNA amplification was obtained from both regions, with highest shedding of C. burnetii in faecal samples (27.59%) followed, in descending order, by urine (23.81%), blood (15.85%) and milk (6.5%). The present results indicate that camels are a major reservoir of C. burnetii in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of infection in camels, the poor sanitary standards under which the animals are kept and the consumption of raw camel milk indicate that camels could also be a major source of transmission of Q fever to humans in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Camelus dromedarius, ELISA, Arabian camel, Coxiella brunetii, immunofluoresence, PCR

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23 Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Nariman Sepehrvand, Khalkhali-Zahra Shirmohamadi

Abstract:

Background: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy-associated deaths in southern Asia. Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro). Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years). Only five cases (3.6%) among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), income level (P=0.19) of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.

Keywords: Women, pregnancy, Hepatitis E, ELISA

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22 The Cytomegalovirus Infection among Iranian Kidney Graft Recipients

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh, Nariman Sepehrvand-Zahra Shirmohamadi

Abstract:

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common infectious problems following kidney transplantation. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the CMV infection in the setting of renal transplant recipients in Urmia-Iran, using both ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Ninety-six renal transplant recipients were selected randomly and enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Blood sampling was done via venipuncture, and all sera were investigated for anti-CMV IgM, and the seropositive cases in association with 14 randomly selected seronegative cases were investigated with PCR assay. Results: Thirty-three patients (34.3%) were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM, 3 patients (3.1%) were in borderline range, and 60 patients (62.5%) were seronegative. By considering the patients with borderline anti-CMV IgM levels as seropositive, 37.5% were seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. Among 36 seropositive cases, the CMV infection was confirmed in 19 (52.7%) of them using PCR. Age (P = 0.40), educational status (P = 0.77), history of pre-transplantation dialysis (0.52), history of blood transfusion (P = 0.52), and immunosuppressive regimen were not statistically different among recipients with positive versus negative CMV PCR study results. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CMV infection was demonstrated to be high in renal transplant recipients of Urmia-Iran. The rate was higher compared to several previous reports in the literature. ELISA method has an appropriate sensitivity to screen the recipients for CMV infection but considering its relatively low specificity, the seropositive cases are better to be confirmed by further PCR study.

Keywords: Renal Transplantation, ELISA, PCR, cytomegalovirus, IgM

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21 Nano-Immunoassay for Diagnosis of Active Schistosomal Infection

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A.Demerdash, Engy M. Abd El-Moneem, Mohamed A. Hendawy, Ibrahim R. Bayoumi

Abstract:

There is a constant need to improve the performance of current diagnostic assays of schistosomiasis as well as develop innovative testing strategies to meet new testing challenges. This study aims at increasing the diagnostic efficiency of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based antigen detection assays through gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific anti-Schistosoma mansoni monoclonal antibodies. In this study, several hybidoma cell lines secreting MAbs against adult worm tegumental Schistosoma antigen (AWTA) were produced at Immunology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute and preserved in liquid nitrogen. One MAb (6D/6F) was chosen for this study due to its high reactivity to schistosome antigens with highest optical density (OD) values. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were functionalized and conjugated with MAb (6D/6F). The study was conducted on serum samples of 116 subjects: 71 patients with S. mansoni eggs in their stool samples group (gp 1), 25 with other parasites (gp2) and 20 negative healthy controls (gp3). Patients in gp1 were further subdivided according to egg count in their stool samples into Light infection {≤ 50 egg per gram(epg) (n= 17)}, moderate {51-100 epg (n= 33)} and severe infection {>100 epg(n= 21)}. Sandwich ELISA was performed using (AuNPs -MAb) for detection of circulating schistosomal antigen (CSA) levels in serum samples of all groups and the results were compared with that after using MAb/ sandwich ELISA system. Results Gold- MAb/ ELISA system reached a lower detection limit of 10 ng/ml compared to 85 ng/ml on using MAb/ ELISA and the optimal concentrations of AuNPs -MAb were found to be 12 folds less than that of MAb/ ELISA system for detection of CSA. The sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA levels using AuNPs -MAb were 100% & 97.8 % respectively compared to 87.3% &93.38% respectively on using MAb/ ELISA system. It was found that CSA was detected in 9 out of 71 S.mansoni infected patients on using AuNPs - MAb/ ELISA system and was not detected by MAb/ ELISA system. All those patients (9) was found to have an egg count below 50 epg feces (patients with light infections). ROC curve analyses revealed that sandwich ELISA using gold-MAb was an excellent diagnostic investigator that could differentiate Schistosoma patients from healthy controls, on the other hand it revealed that sandwich ELISA using MAb was not accurate enough as it could not recognize nine out of 71 patients with light infections. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that: Loading gold nanoparticles with MAb (6D/6F) increases the sensitivity and specificity of sandwich ELISA for detection of CSA, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected. Moreover this binding will decrease the amount of MAb consumed in the assay and lower the coast. The significant positive correlation that was detected between ova count (intensity of infection) and OD reading in sandwich ELISA using gold- MAb enables its use to detect the severity of infections and follow up patients after treatment for monitoring of cure.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Monoclonal Antibodies, Schistosomiasis, Gold, ELISA

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20 Detection of Transgenes in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by using Biotechnology/Molecular Biological Techniques

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, M Shakil Shaukat

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of economy of Pakistan and Cotton is the major agricultural export and supreme source of raw fiber for our textile industry. To combat against the developing resistance in the target insects and combating these challenges wholesomely, a novel combination of pyramided/stacked genes was conceptualized and later realized, through the means of biotechnology i.e., transformation of three genes namely, Cry1Ac, Cry2A, and EPSP synthase (glyphosate tolerant) genes in the locally cultivated cotton variety. The progenies of the transformed plants were successfully raised and screened under the tunnel conditions for two generations and the present study focused on the screening of plants which were confirmed for containing all of these three genes and their expressions. Initially, the screening was done through glyphosate spray assay and the plants which were healthy and showed no damage on leaves were selected after 07 days of spray. In the laboratory, the DNA of these plants were isolated and subjected to amplification of the three genes. Thus, seventeen out of twenty were confirmed positive for Cry1Ac gene and ten out of twenty were positive for Cry2A gene and all twenty were positive for presence of EPSP synthase gene. Then, the ten plant samples which were confirmed with presence of all three genes were subjected to expression analysis of these proteins through ELISA. The results showed that eight out of ten plants were actively expressing the three transgenes. Real-time PCR was also done to quantify the expression levels of the EPSP synthase gene. Finally, eight plants were confirmed for the presence and active expression of all three genes in T3 generation of the triple gene transformed cotton. These plants may be subjected to T4 generation to develop a new stable variety in due course of time.

Keywords: Agriculture, Transformation, Cotton, ELISA, PCR, cry genes

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19 Introduction of PMMA-Tag to VHH for Improving Recovery and Immobilization Rate of VHHS

Authors: Yuji Ito, Bongmun Kang, Kagnari Yamakawa, Yoshihisa Hagihara, Michimasa Kishimoto, Yoichi Kumada

Abstract:

The PMMA-tag was genetically fused with the C-terminal region of VHH molecules. This antibody, VHH, is known as a single-chain domain, which is devoid of light chains. The PMMA-tag, which could affect the isoelectric point (pI) changeable with a charge of amino acid in VHHs were closely related to the solubility of VHH molecules during refolding. The genetic fusion of PMMA-tag to C-terminal region of VHHs significantly affects the recovery of their soluble protein during refolding by 50 mM TAPS at pH 8.5. It could be refolded with a recovery of more than 95% by dialysis at pH 8.5. A marked difference in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state was significantly high in VHH-PM compared to the wild type of VHH. There are approximately 8-fold differences in the antigen-binding activities in the adsorption state between VHH-PM and VHH.

Keywords: solubility, ELISA, immobilization, VHH, PMMA-tag, isoelectric point, refolding

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18 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: ELISA, cryptosporidium sp, bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve

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17 Production of Camel Nanobodies against of Anti-Morphine-3-Glucuronide for the Development of a Biosensor for Detecting Illicit Drug

Authors: Hadi Shirzad, Shirin Jalili, Sadegh Hasannia, Afshin Khara

Abstract:

Morphine is one of the most medicinally important analgesics and narcotics. Structurally, it is classified as an alkaloid because of the presence of nitrogen. Its structure is similar to that of codeine, thebaine, and heroin. An immunoassay to accurately discriminate between these analogous alkaloids would be highly beneficial. A key factor for such an assay is specificity with high sensitivity, which is totally dependent on the antibody employed. However, most antibodies against haptens are polyclonal serum antibodies that exhibit significant cross-reactivities with closely related compounds. The camel-derived single-chain antibody fragments (VHH) are the smallest molecules with antigen-binding capacity, possessing unique properties compared to other conventional antibodies. In this study, a library containing the VHH genes of a camel immunized with with morphine conjugated BSA following phage display technology was generated. By screening the camel-derived variable region of the heavy chain cDNA phage display library with the ability to bind the desired hapten, we obtained some nanobodies that recognize this hapten. Phage display expression of the Nbs from this library and pannings against this hapten resulted in a clear enrichment of four distinct Nb-displaying phages with specificity for morphine that could be a potential target site for the development of new strategies for the development of a biosensor for detecting illicit drug.

Keywords: Biosensor, Phage Display, ELISA, nanobody, Morphine-3, glucuronide

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16 Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Waseem

Abstract:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is ubiquitously distributed viral agent responsible for different clinical manifestations that may vary according to the immunologic status of the patient. CMV can cause morbidity and mortality among fetuses and patients with compromised immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Islamabad to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with CMV infection among pregnant women. Blood samples of 172 pregnant women visiting Mother and Child Healthcare, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad were taken. In present study, serum samples of the women were checked for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical, obstetrical and socio-demographical characteristics of the women were collected by using structured questionnaires. Out of 172 pregnant women included in the study, 171 (99.4%) were CMV specific IgG positive and 30 (17.4%) were found positive for CMV-IgM antibodies. The CMV has taken an endemic form in Pakistan so, routine screening of CMV among pregnant women is recommended.

Keywords: ELISA, cytomegalovirus, blood transfusion, seroprevalence

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15 ADCOR © Muscle Damage Rapid Detection Test Based on Skeletal Troponin I Immunochromatography Reaction

Authors: Muhammad Solikhudin Nafi, Wahyu Afif Mufida, Mita Erna Wati, Fitri Setyani Rokim, M. Al-Rizqi Dharma Fauzi

Abstract:

High dose activity without any pre-exercise will impact Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). DOMS known as delayed pain post-exercise and induce skeletal injury which will decrease athletes’ performances. From now on, post-exercise muscle damage can be detected by measuring skeletal troponin I (sTnI) concentration in serum using ELISA but this method needs more time and cost. To prevent decreased athletes performances, screening need to be done rapidly. We want to introduce our new prototype to detect DOMS acutely. Rapid detection tests are based on immunological reaction between skeletal troponin I antibodies and sTnI in human serum or whole blood. Chemical methods that are used in the manufacture of diagnostic test is lateral flow immunoassay. The material used is rat monoclonal antibody sTnI, colloidal gold, anti-mouse IgG, nitrocellulose membrane, conjugate pad, sample pad, wick and backing card. The procedure are made conjugate (colloidal gold and mAb sTnI) and insert into the conjugate pad, gives spray sTnI mAb and anti-mouse IgG into nitrocellulose membrane, and assemble RDT. RDT had been evaluated by measuring the sensitivity of positive human serum (n = 30) and negative human serum (n = 30). Overall sensitivity value was 93% and specificity value was 90%. ADCOR as the first rapid detection test qualitatively showed antigen-antibody reaction and showed good overall performances for screening of muscle damage. Furthermore, these finding still need more improvements to get best results.

Keywords: ELISA, DOMS, sTnI, rapid detection test

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14 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Aman Ullah Khan, Sanan Raza, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Amar Nasir

Abstract:

Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: Blood, Malaria, ELISA, serum, dengue fever

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13 Clara Cell Secretory Protein 16 Serum Level Decreases in Patients with Non-Smoking-Related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)

Authors: Lian Wu, Mervyn Merrilees

Abstract:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide problem, characterized by irreversible and progressive airflow obstruction. In New Zealand, it is currently the 4th commonest cause of death and exacerbations of COPD are a frequent cause of admission to hospital. Serum levels of Clara cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) are believed to represent Clara cell toxicity. More recently, CC-16 has been found to be associated with smoker COPD. It is produced almost exclusively by non-ciliated Clara cells in the airways, and its primary function is to protect the lungs against oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke, serum levels of CC-16 become elevated. CC16 is a potent natural immune-suppressor and anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro, CC16 inhibits both monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis and phagocytosis. CC16 also inhibits fibroblast chemotaxis. However, the role of CC-16 in non-smoking related COPD is still not clear. In this study, we investigated serum CC-16 levels in non-smoking related COPD. Methods: We compared non-smoker patients with COPD (FEV1<60% of predicted, FEV1/FVC <0.7, n=100) and individuals with normal lung function FEV1≥ 80% of predicted and FEV1/FVC≥ 0.7, n=80). All subjects had no smoking history. CC-16 was measured by ELISA. Results and conclusion: Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with non-smoking related COPD, and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in non-smoking related COPD group compared to non-smoker controls.

Keywords: COPD, ELISA, CC-16, non-smoking-related COPD

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12 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Yuji Ito, Hiroshi Nakayama

Abstract:

Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: Sensor, Monoclonal Antibody, ELISA, synthetic cannabinoid

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11 SIRT1 Gene Polymorphisms and Its Protein Level in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Olfat Shaker, Miriam Wadie, Reham Ali, Ayman Yosry

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity and accounts for over 9% of cancer incidence worldwide. Silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) gene is located in the nucleus and exert its effects via modulation of histone and non-histone targets. They function in the cell via histone deacetylase (HDAC) and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) enzymatic activity. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between SIRT1 polymorphism and its protein level in colorectal cancer patients in comparison to control cases. This study includes 2 groups: thirty healthy subjects (control group) & one hundred CRC patients. All subjects were subjected to: SIRT-1 serum level was measured by ELISA and gene polymorphisms of rs12778366, rs375891 and rs3740051 were detected by real time PCR. For CRC patients clinical data were collected (size, site of tumor as well as its grading, obesity) CRC patients showed high significant increase in the mean level of serum SIRT-1 compared to control group (P<0.001). Mean serum level of SIRT-1 showed high significant increase in patients with tumor size ≥5 compared to the size < 5 cm (P<0.05). In CRC patients, percentage of T allele of rs12778366 was significantly lower than controls, CC genotype and C allele C of rs 375891 were significantly higher than control group. In CRC patients, the CC genotype of rs12778366, was 75% in rectosigmoid and 25% in cecum & ascending colon. According to tumor size, the percentage of CC genotype was 87.5% in tumor size ≥5 cm. Conclusion: serum level of SIRT-1 and T allele, C allele of rs12778366 and rs 375891 respectively can be used as diagnostic markers for CRC patients.

Keywords: Polymorphisms, ELISA, Sirt1, CRC

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10 Management of Pressure Ulcer with a Locally Constructed Negative Pressure Device (NPD) in Traumatic Paraplegia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Mukesh K. Dwivedi, Rajeshwar N. Srivastava, Amit K. Bhagat, Saloni Raj

Abstract:

Introduction: Management of Pressure Ulcer (PU) is an ongoing clinical challenge particularly in traumatic paraplegia patients in developing countries where socio economic conditions often dictate treatment modalities. When negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was introduced, there were a series of devices (V.A.C., KCI, San Antonio, TX) manufactured. These devices for NPWT are costly and hard to afford by patients in developing countries like India. Considering this limitation, this study was planned to design an RCT to compare NPWT by an indigenized locally constructed NPD and conventional gauze dressing for the treatment of PU. Material and Methods: This RCT (CTRI/2014/09/0050) was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at King George’s Medical University (KGMU), India. Thirty-four (34) subjects of traumatic paraplegia having PU of stage 3 or 4, were enrolled and randomized in two treatment groups (NPWT Group & Conventional dressing group). The outcome measures of this study were surface area and depth of PU, exudates, microorganisms and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) during 0 to 9 weeks follow-ups. Levels of MMP-8 were analyzed in the tissues of PU at week 0, 3, 6 and week 9 by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Significantly reduced length of PU in NPWT group was observed at week 6 (p=0.04) which further reduced at week 9 (p=0.001) as compared to conventionally treated group. Similarly significant reduction of width and depth of PU was observed in NPWT at week 9 (p<0.05). The exudate became significantly (p=0.001) lower in NPWT group as compared with conventionally treated group from 6th to 9th week. Clearance and conversion of slough into red granulation tissue was significantly higher in NPWT group (p=0.001). At week 9, the wound culture was negative in all the subjects of NPWT group, while it was positive in 10 (41⋅6%) subjects of conventional group. Significantly lower level of MMP-8 was observed in subjects of NPWT group at week 6 (0.006**), and continually more reduction was observed at week 9 (<0.0001**) as compared to the conventional group. Conclusion: NPWT by locally constructed NPD is better wound care procedure for management of PU. Our device gave similar results as commercially available devices. Reduction of level of MMP-8 and increased rate of healing was achieved by negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as compared to conventional dressing.

Keywords: ELISA, NPD, NPWT, MMP8

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9 The Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Aflatoxin M1 Detoxification in Phosphate Buffer Saline

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. Probiotics can be biological agent to remove AFM1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of probiotic bacteria on AFM1 detoxification in phosphate buffer saline. The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA. The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p < 0.05). Consequently, results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.

Keywords: Probiotics, Storage, ELISA, aflatoxin M1

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8 Horse Exposition to Coxiella burnetii in France: Antibody Dynamics in Serum, Environmental Risk Assessment and Potential Links with Symptomatology

Authors: Agnès Leblond, Joulié Aurélien, Isabelle Desjardins, Elsa Jourdain, Sophie Pradier, Dufour Philippe, Elodie Rousset

Abstract:

Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It may infect a broad range of host species, including horses. Although the role of horses in C. burnetii infections remains unknown, their use as sentinel species may be interesting to better assess the human risk exposure. Thus, we aimed to assess the C. burnetii horse exposition in a French endemic area by describing the antibody dynamics detected in serum; investigating the pathogen circulation in the horse environment, and exploring potential links with unexplained syndromes. Blood samples were collected in 2015 and 2016 on 338 and 294 horses, respectively and analyzed by ELISA. Ticks collected on horses were identified, and C. burnetii DNA detection was performed by qPCR targeting the IS1111 gene. Blood sample analyses revealed a significant increase of the seroprevalence in horses between both years, from 11% [7.67; 14.43] to 25% [20.06; 29.94]. On 36 seropositive horses in 2015 and 73 in 2016, 5 and four respectively showed clinical signs compatible with a C. burnetii infection (i.e., chronic fever or respiratory disorders, unfitness and unexplained weight loss). DNA was detected in almost 40% of ticks (n=59/148 in 2015 and n=103/305 in 2016) and exceptionally in dust samples (n=2/46 in 2015 and n=1/14 in 2016) every year. The C. burnetti detection in both the serum and the environment of horses confirm their exposure to the bacterium. Therefore, consideration should be given to target a relevant sentinel species to better assess the Q fever surveillance depending on the epidemiological context.

Keywords: ELISA, qPCR, Q fever, syndromic surveillance

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7 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Newcastle disease, seroprevalence, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale

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6 Detection of Helicobacter Pylori by PCR and ELISA Methods in Patients with Hyperlipidemia

Authors: Hossein Rassi, Simin Khodabakhshi

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Hyperlipidemia refers to any of several acquired or genetic disorders that result in a high level of lipids circulating in the blood. Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of hyperlipidemia with serum lipid changes. The aim of this study was to detect of Helicobacter pylori by PCR and serological methods in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this case-control study, 174 patients with hyperlipidemia and 174 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical and biochemical parameters were performed in all samples. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H pylori cagA specific primers. The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 79% of the hyperlipidemia and in 56% of the control group by ELISA test and 49% of the hyperlipidemia and in 24% of the control group by PCR test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in hyperlipidemia as compared to controls. In addition, patients with hyperlipidemia had significantly higher values for triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, waist to hip ratio, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and lower levels of HDL-C than control participants (all p < 0.0001). Our result detected the ELISA was a rapid and cost-effective detection and considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of H. pylori cagA and clinical parameters are important in early detection of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with H. pylori infection by PCR and ELISA tests.

Keywords: ELISA, Helicobacter pylori, PCR, hyperlipidemia

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5 Biospiral-Detect to Distinguish PrP Multimers from Monomers

Authors: Gulyas Erzsebet

Abstract:

The multimerisation of proteins is a common feature of many cellular processes; however, it could also impair protein functions and/or be associated with the occurrence of diseases. Thus, development of a research tool monitoring the appearance/presence of multimeric protein forms has great importance for a variety of research fields. Such a tool is potentially applicable in the ante-mortem diagnosis of certain conformational diseases, such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and Alzheimer’s disease. These conditions are accompanied by the appearance of aggregated protein multimers, present in low concentrations in various tissues. This detection is particularly relevant for TSE where the handling of tissues derived from affected individuals and of meat products of infected animals have become an enormous health concern. Here we demonstrate the potential of such a multimer detection approach in TSE by developing a facile approach. The Biospiral-Detect system resembles a traditional sandwich ELISA, except that the capturing antibody that is attached to a solid surface and the detecting antibody is directed against the same or overlapping epitopes. As a consequence, the capturing antibody shields the epitope on the captured monomer from reacting with the detecting antibody, therefore monomers are not detected. Thus, MDS is capable of detecting only protein multimers with high specificity. We developed an alternative system as well, where RNA aptamers were employed instead of monoclonal antibodies. In order to minimize degradation, the 3' and 5' ends of the aptamer contained deoxyribonucleotides and phosphorothioate linkages. When compared the monoclonal antibodies-based system with the aptamers-based one, the former proved to be superior. Thus all subsequent experiments were conducted by employing the Biospiral -Detect modified sandwich ELISA kit. Our approach showed an order of magnitude higher sensitivity toward mulimers than monomers suggesting that this approach may become a valuable diagnostic tool for conformational diseases that are accompanied by multimerization.

Keywords: Diagnosis, ELISA, Prion, TSE

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4 Biochemical Effects of Low Dose Dimethyl Sulfoxide on HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Esra Sengul, R. G. Aktas, M. E. Sitar, H. Isan

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hepatocellular tumor commonly found on the surface of the chronic liver. HepG2 is the most commonly used cell type in HCC studies. The main proteins remaining in the blood serum after separation of plasma fibrinogen are albumin and globulin. The fact that the albumin showed hepatocellular damage and reflect the synthesis capacity of the liver was the main reason for our use. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an albumin-like structural embryonic globulin found in the embryonic cortex, cord blood, and fetal liver. It has been used as a marker in the follow-up of tumor growth in various malign tumors and in the efficacy of surgical-medical treatments, so it is a good protein to look at with albumins. We have seen the morphological changes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on HepG2 and decided to investigate its biochemical effects. We examined the effects of DMSO, which is used in cell cultures, on albumin, AFP and total protein at low doses. Material Method: Cell Culture: Medium was prepared in cell culture using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM), Fetal Bovine Serum Dulbecco's (FBS), Phosphate Buffered Saline and trypsin maintained at -20 ° C. Fixation of Cells: HepG2 cells, which have been appropriately developed at the end of the first week, were fixed with acetone. We stored our cells in PBS at + 4 ° C until the fixation was completed. Area Calculation: The areas of the cells are calculated in the ImageJ (IJ). Microscope examination: The examination was performed with a Zeiss Inverted Microscope. Daytime photographs were taken at 40x, 100x 200x and 400x. Biochemical Tests: Protein (Total): Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Albumin: Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Alpha-fetoprotein: Serum sample was analyzed by ECLIA method. Results: When liver cancer cells were cultured in medium with 1% DMSO for 4 weeks, a significant difference was observed when compared with the control group. As a result, we have seen that DMSO can be used as an important agent in the treatment of liver cancer. Cell areas were reduced in the DMSO group compared to the control group and the confluency ratio increased. The ability to form spheroids was also significantly higher in the DMSO group. Alpha-fetoprotein was lower than the values of an ordinary liver cancer patient and the total protein amount increased to the reference range of the normal individual. Because the albumin sample was below the specimen value, the numerical results could not be obtained on biochemical examinations. We interpret all these results as making DMSO a caretaking aid. Since each one was not enough alone we used 3 parameters and the results were positive when we refer to the values of a normal healthy individual in parallel. We hope to extend the study further by adding new parameters and genetic analyzes, by increasing the number of samples, and by using DMSO as an adjunct agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, ELISA, hepG2, dimethyl sulfoxide

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3 The Study of Biodiversity of Thirty Two Families of Useful Plants Existed in Georgia

Authors: Kacharava Tamar, Korakhashvili Avtandil, Epitashvili Tinatin

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The article deals with the database, which was created by the authors, related to biodiversity of some families of useful plants (medicinal, aromatic, spices, dye and poisonous) existing in Georgia considering important taxonomy. Our country is also rich with endemic genera. The results of monitoring of the phytogenetic resources to reveal perspective species and situation of endemic species and resources are also discussed in this paper. To get some new medicinal and preventive treatments using plant raw material in the phytomedicine, phytocosmetics and phytoculinary, the unique phytogenetic resources should be protected because the application of useful plants is becoming irreversible. This can be observed along with intensification and sustainable use of ethnobotanical traditions and promotion of phytoproduction based on the international requirements on biodiversity (Convention on Biological Diversity - CBD). Though Georgian phytopharmacy has the centuries-old traditions, today it is becoming the main concern.

Keywords: Medicinal, GIS, ELISA, endemic, aromatic, poisonous, spicy, dye plants, endemic biodiversity

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2 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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1 Evaluation of the Hepatitis C Virus and Classical and Modern Immunoassays Used Nowadays to Diagnose It in Tirana

Authors: Klementina Puto, Stela Papa, Migena Pllaha

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HCV is a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route, which causes progressive disease such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nowadays is a global healthcare problem. A variety of immunoassays including old and new technologies are being applied to detect HCV in our country. These methods include Immunochromatography assays (ICA), Fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), Enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect HCV antibodies in blood serum, which lately is being slowly replaced by more sensitive methods such as rapid automated analyzer chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). The aim of this study is to estimate HCV infection in carriers and chronic acute patients and to evaluate the use of new diagnostic methods. This study was realized from September 2016 to May 2018. During this study period, 2913 patients were analyzed for the presence of HCV by taking samples from their blood serum. The immunoassays performed were ICA, FIA, ELFA, ELISA, and CLIA assays. Concluding, 82% of patients taken in this study, resulted infected with HCV. Diagnostic methods in clinical laboratories are crucial in the early stages of infection, in the management of chronic hepatitis and in the treatment of patients during their disease.

Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus, Immunoassay, ELISA, CLIA

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