Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

elements Related Abstracts

4 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul, O. Dere Ozdemir, T. Yalcin, S. Kipcak


Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: tea, ICP-OES, elements, sodium bicarbonate

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3 Problems and Solutions in the Application of ICP-MS for Analysis of Trace Elements in Various Samples

Authors: Bela Kovacs, Eva Bodi, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Várallyay, Dávid Andrási, Áron Soós, Xénia Vágó


In agriculture for analysis of elements in different food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples generally flame atomic absorption spectrometers (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) are routinely applied. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is capable for analysis of 70-80 elements in multielemental mode, from 1-5 cm3 volume of a sample, moreover the detection limits of elements are in µg/kg-ng/kg (ppb-ppt) concentration range. All the analytical instruments have different physical and chemical interfering effects analysing the above types of samples. The smaller the concentration of an analyte and the larger the concentration of the matrix the larger the interfering effects. Nowadays there is very important to analyse growingly smaller concentrations of elements. From the above analytical instruments generally the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. The applied ICP-MS instrument has Collision Cell Technology (CCT) also. Using CCT mode certain elements have better (smaller) detection limits with 1-3 magnitudes comparing to a normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT mode has better detection limits mainly for analysis of selenium, arsenic, germanium, vanadium and chromium. To elaborate an analytical method for trace elements with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer the most important interfering effects (problems) were evaluated: 1) Physical interferences; 2) Spectral interferences (elemental and molecular isobaric); 3) Effect of easily ionisable elements; 4) Memory interferences. Analysing food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples an other (new) interfering effect emerged in ICP-MS, namely the effect of various matrixes having different evaporation and nebulization effectiveness, moreover having different quantity of carbon content of food and food raw materials, moreover environmental samples. In our research work the effect of different water-soluble compounds furthermore the effect of various quantity of carbon content (as sample matrix) were examined on changes of intensity of the applied elements. So finally we could find “opportunities” to decrease or eliminate the error of the analyses of applied elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Hg, Pb, Bi). To analyse these elements in the above samples, the most appropriate inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is a quadrupole instrument applying a collision cell technique (CCT). The extent of interfering effect of carbon content depends on the type of compounds. The carbon content significantly affects the measured concentration (intensities) of the above elements, which can be corrected using different internal standards.

Keywords: Interference Effects, elements, ICP-MS, environmental and food samples

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2 Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Cyperus rotundus Medicinal Plant by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and ICP-MS Techniques

Authors: J. Chandrasekhar Rao, B. G. Naidu, G. J. Naga Raju, P. Sarita


Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques have been employed in this work to determine the elements present in the root of Cyperus rotundus medicinal plant used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Sr were commonly identified and quantified by both PIXE and ICP-MS whereas the elements Li, Be, Al, As, Se, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb and U were determined by ICP-MS and Cl, K, Ca, Ti and Br were determined by PIXE. The regional variation of elemental content has also been studied by analyzing the same plant collected from different geographical locations. Information on the elemental content of the medicinal plant would be helpful in correlating its ability in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and also in deciding the dosage of this herbal medicine from the metal toxicity point of view. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were also applied to the data matrix to understand the correlation among the elements.

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis, elements, cyperus rotundus, PIXE, CP-MS

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1 Preliminary Analysis on the Distribution of Elements in Cannabis

Authors: E. Zafeiraki, P. Nisianakis, K. Machera


Cannabis plant contains 113 cannabinoids and it is commonly known for its psychoactive substance tetrahydrocannabinol or as a source of narcotic substances. The recent years’ cannabis cultivation also increases due to its wide use both for medical and industrial purposes as well as for uses as para-pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food commodities. Depending on the final product, different parts of the plant are utilized, with the leaves and bud (seeds) being the most frequently used. Cannabis can accumulate various contaminants, including heavy metals, both from the soil and the water in which the plant grows. More specifically, metals may occur naturally in the soil and water, or they can enter into the environment through fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides that are commonly applied to crops. The high probability of metals accumulation in cannabis, combined with the latter growing use, raise concerns about the potential health effects in humans and consequently lead to the need for the implementation of safety measures for cannabis products, such as guidelines for regulating contaminants, including metals, and especially the ones characterized by high toxicity in cannabis. Acknowledging the above, the aim of the current study was first to investigate metals contamination in cannabis samples collected from Greece, and secondly to examine potential differences in metals accumulation among the different parts of the plant. To our best knowledge, this is the first study presenting information on elements in cannabis cultivated in Greece, and also on the distribution pattern of the former in the plant body. To this end, the leaves and the seeds of all the samples were initially separated and dried and then digested with Nitric acid (HNO₃) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl). For the analysis of these samples, an Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) method was developed, able to quantify 28 elements. Internal standards were added at a constant rate and concentration to all calibration standards and unknown samples, while two certified reference materials were analyzed in every batch to ensure the accuracy of the measurements. The repeatability of the method and the background contamination were controlled by the analysis of quality control (QC) standards and blank samples in every sequence, respectively. According to the results, essential metals, such as Ca, Zn and Mg, were detected at high levels. On the contrary, the concentration of high toxicity metals, like As (average: 0.10ppm), Pb (average: 0.36ppm), Cd (average: 0.04ppm), and Hg (average: 0.012ppm) were very low in all the samples, indicating that no harmful effects on human health can be caused by the analyzed samples. Moreover, it appears that the pattern of contamination of metals is very similar in all the analyzed samples, which could be attributed to the same origin of the analyzed cannabis, i.e., the common soil composition, use of fertilizers, pesticides, etc. Finally, as far as the distribution pattern between the different parts of the plant is concerned, it was revealed that leaves present a higher concentration in comparison to seeds for all metals examined.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Cannabis, elements, ICP-MS, leaves and seeds

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